Megalostomis Chevrolat, 1836

Agrain, Federico A., 2013, A taxonomic review of the genus Megalostomis Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Cryptocephalinae, Chrysomelidae), Zootaxa 3748 (1), pp. 1-109: 12-100

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3748.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:87872540-7C39-4A34-AA51-C8F64A07D94E

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scientific name

Megalostomis Chevrolat, 1836
status

 

Megalostomis Chevrolat, 1836  

Megalostomis Chevrolat 1836: 416   ; Lacordaire 1848: 519; Blanchard in Gay 1851: 534; Chapuis 1874: 135; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3294; Jacoby 1876: 809, 1880: 29; Horn 1892: 10; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 58; Clavareau 1913: 74; Bruch 1914: 348; Guérin 1943b: 9; Monrós 1953a: 61, 1953b: 46; Moldenke 1970: 14, 1981: 99.

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) Chevrolat 1836: 416   ; Lacordaire 1848: 534; Chapuis 1874: 137; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 59; Guérin 1943b: 15; Monrós 1953a: 71; Moldenke 1970: 19, 1981: 100.

Megalostomis (Minturnia) Lacordaire 1848: 520   ; Chapuis 1874: 136; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 60; Guérin 1943b: 11; Monrós 1953a: 62; Moldenke 1970: 19, 1981: 100; Agrain and Roig-Juñent 2011 (SYN).

Megalostomis (Heterostomis) Lacordaire 1848: 554   ; Chapuis 1874: 138; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 60; Guérin 1943b: 27; Monrós 1953a: 78; Agrain and Roig-Juñent 2011 (SYN).

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) Lacordaire 1848: 547   ; Chapuis 1874: 137; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 60; Clavareau 1913: 75; Achard 1926: 148; Guérin 1943b: 24; Monrós 1953a: 88; Seeno and Wilcox 1982: 33; Agrain et al. 2007: 340; Agrain and Roig-Juñent 2011 (SYN).

Megalostomis (Pygidiocarina) Moldenke 1970: 26   , 1981: 83; Agrain and Roig-Juñent 2011 (SYN).

Megalostomis (Coleobyersa) Moldenke 1981: 101   ; Agrain and Roig-Juñent 2011 (SYN).

Megalostomis (Snellingia) Moldenke 1981: 101   ; Agrain and Roig-Juñent 2011 (SYN).

Type species. Clythra boopis ( Germar 1824)   [= Megalostomis grossa ( Forsberg 1821)   ], by subsequent designation ( Monrós 1953b: 46).

Notes: Although Monrós (1953a,b) correctly assigned the authorship of the genus to Chevrolat (Chevrolat in Dejean 1836), based on "conclusion 13" of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (Bull. Zool. Nomen. 4: 78–80), Guérin and Moldenke continued to attribute Megalostomis   to Lacordaire, perhaps because they thought that new generic names in Dejean’s catalogs were nomina nuda, due to the fact that they did not include a description. However, according to the ICZN (Article 12.2.5), these generic names are valid when accompanied with one or more available species names as Chevrolat did in Dejean’s catalog (1836). So, althouth Dejean`s species names are nomina nuda, the presence of some valid species names in his catalogues (eg. previously described by Germar 1824) clearly indicates that authorship of the genus name belongs to Chevrolat in Dejean 1836.

This genus is moderately speciose in the Neotropical and Nearctic regions, from northern USA to central Argentina. Its diversity is highest in the xeric regions of the Neotropics. The distribution of Megalostomis   includes North (to southernmost USA), Central and South America, especially in xeric temperate or subtropical zones. This revision is the first to include all species and based on cladistic principles ( Agrain and Roig-Juñent 2011). Among the species of Megalostomis   , the head and thorax are highly variable. Characters especially worthy of study are: presence of a carina in the inter-ocular area, development of apical teeth, clypeus sculpture, structure of head appendages, and the degree of retraction of the head inside the prothorax. The thorax may be strongly constricted, which is present in those species showing hypertrophy of the head and mouthparts. The elytra are variable, the most distinctive characters are the coloration pattern and the arrangement of the elytral punctation. The abdomen and legs are not especially useful for the recognition of species groups. The pygidium may present distinct sculpturation patterns. All species re-descriptions and illustrations are ordered as they appear in the cladistic analysis by Agrain and Roig-Juñent (2011).

Diagnosis. Body length: 6–18 mm, width 4–10 mm. This genus is supported by two synapomorphies ( Agrain and Roig-Juñent 2011): eyes strongly emarginate, and dorsal plate of aedeagus with straight margin.

Male

Coloration pattern: head black, some specimens with dark reddish frontal stripe; palpi black; antennae black, or with antennomeres 1–3 brown, the rest black; tibiae reddish (black at base), some species completely black or reddish; elytral coloration highly variable: uniform black or metallic, or exhibiting several distinct patterns, including brown, fulvous, and yellow, and metallic reflections as patches or bands; thorax black to dark red, some species with distinct coloration pattern. Head: moderate to large, partially or strongly recessed into pronotum; mouthparts vary from short and not easily visible, to large and asymmetric; male head can exhibit conspicuous auricular projections; mentum excavated in anterior region, longer than wide, narrowed at middle of anterior region, carinated on median line, with lateral margins more or less angular in the middle; clypeus with different sculpturation patterns, strongly excavated, concave, straight or toothed; lacinia bilobed, slightly sclerotized; maxilla long; palpi slender; eyes strongly angularly emarginate, with posterolateral eye stalks from inconspicuous to hypertrophied. Antennae: robust; length not surpassing the middle of prothorax; serrated; each with 11 antennomeres; antennomere modifications starting from the fourth antennomere; fourth antennomere usually serrate; last antennomere may present lateral excavations. Legs: usually short and stout; with equal pubescence in all segments, except the mesal surfaces of the femora which are glabrous; lateral tibial margins carinate to variable degrees; M. femorata   hind femora with single tooth not present in any other species; claws simple. Thorax: pronotum usually slightly wider than head, narrower than elytral basal area, with rounded margins; pronotal punctation variable, usually thin and diffuse; pronotum sometimes with lateral marks or impressions where punctuation becomes interrupted; pronotal margin simple, hind angles distinct or rounded; procoxae globose; prosternum wide; mesosternum narrow; pubescence generally sparse or limited to lateral margins; lateral margin of prothorax without antennal groove; pronotum transverse, convex; scutellum not inclined, level with plane of elytra; tarsal claws simple. Elytra: sub-rectangular; rigid, usually with weakly developed postbasal lobe; usually with thin and coarse punctuation in most species, sometimes seriate; humeral carina varying in shape; pubescence from glabrous to dense, sometimes concealing coloration pattern of cuticle; epipleural fold round, weakly produced. Abdomen: sternites 6 and 7 fused, with different degrees of pubescence. Pygidium: generally posses a transverse subapical carina, a medial longitudinal carina in some species, and sometimes none, its pubescence is also variable. Male genitalia: dorsal plate of aedeagus with straight margin. Tegmen sclerotized, thin and Y-shaped; lateral arms of median lobe may possess a variable number of setae, set in different positions. In ventral view, median lobe subquadrangular at apex, truncate, with small setae in its interior. Internal sac bearing several distinct sclerites, between apex of aedeagus proper and sperm transfer structure; sperm transfer structure generally bell-shaped.

Female

Except for those (male exclusive) dimorphic characters previously mentioned, the following anatomical differences for female specimens apply to all species.

Head: Head, relatively smaller than male (except in species with reduced sexual dimorphism); female eyes occasionally larger than conspecific male; mandibles compact and short, lacking teeth or horns; labrum short; mentum short, smooth; auricular projections absent. Antennae: same as males, usually slightly shorter, with smaller antennomeres. Thorax: pronotum often with sides slightly more curved than male. Abdomen: sternites same as male, with fifth sternite excavate as part of the egg dimple. Pygidium: with apical excavation, associated apical transverse depressed area on the pygidium relatively marked. Spermathecal capsule: pale yellowishbrown, distal region (cornu) more than 2x the size of proximal region (nodulus), usually well sclerotized and smooth, short and globosus. Rectal sclerites: two ventral sclerites always present, with rounded borders at internal margin, external margins axe-shaped, central lobe can bear apodemes; dorsal apodemes present; central dorsal sclerite variable among species; lateral and apical sclerites present in some species. Ovipositor: with no particularities, variations scarce within species limited to degree of sclerotization. Tergite 8, with variable degree of sclerotization.

Key to the species of Megalostomis  

(Figure number refers to the plate in Appendix 2, the number between brackets refers to species redescription)

1 Dorsum coloration not metallic, or with partial metallic reflections only.......................................... 2

- Dorsum coloration entirely metallic...................................................................... 40

2 Clypeus distinctly v-emarginate; pygidium with apical glabrous areas; male mandibles long and asymmetric, without apical teeth................................................................................................ 3

- Clypeus straight or concave, never v-emarginate; pygidium without apical glabrous areas; male mandibles variously developed, when hypertrophied they generally have apical teeth..................................................... 4

3 Pronotum black with an apical reddish band which can be entire or interrupted in the middle, glabrous; legs black.................................................................................... M. lacordairei   | [3], (Ap.2. Fig.1 View FIGURE 1 )

- Pronotum almost completely reddish delimited by a narrow black anterior and posterior margin; lateral margins of pronotum pubescent; legs reddish........................................................... M. analis   | [2], (Ap.2. Fig.2 View FIGURE 2 )

4 Pygidium without tooth or longitudinal carina; relative distance between eyes variable (usually wider than eye height), usually with longitudinal carina in inter-ocular area................................................................. 5

- Pygidium with tooth or longitudinal carina; relative distance between the eyes as wide as eye height; always without longitudinal carina in the inter-ocular area........................................................................ 33

5 Mandibles with apical teeth; clypeus with central tooth; pronotum may have a strong transverse constriction where punctation is interrupted (species with strong sexual dimorphism manifested in male head appendages)........................... 6

- Mandibles without apical teeth; clypeus without central tooth; pronotum without transverse constriction, punctation uniform (species with slight sexual dimorphism)................................................................... 11

6 Pronotum with deep transverse constriction on each side, or at least without punctation in the paramedial region.......... 7

- Pronotum without transverse constrictions, convex; punctation uniform on entirety of surface......................... 9

7 Elytra with black basal patch; elytral apex reddish; male right mandible with simple sheet turned up from its base..................................................................................... M. religiosa   | [29], (Ap.2. Fig.3 View FIGURE 3 )

- Elytral apex black; male mandible with strong tooth turned up and inside......................................... 8

8 Male auricular projections, with large coarse punctation in the external margin; inferior right tooth salient upon mandibular occlusion.................................................................... M. kollari   | [28], (Ap.2. Fig.4 View FIGURE 4 )

- Male auricular projections smaller; perfect mandibular occlusion....................... M. tricincta   | [30], (Ap.2. Fig.5 View FIGURE 5 )

9 Pronotum reddish; elytral apex reddish, rarely black; male auricular appendix short, almost as long as width of its base; male mandibles with long, sharp tooth, the right mandible larger than the left mandible; right and left mandible horn-like, crossed upon mandibular occlusion...................................................... M. gazella   | [26], (Ap.2. Fig.6 View FIGURE 6 )

- Pronotum black; elytral apex black; male auricular appendix long, much longer than the width of its base............... 10

10 Pronotum and auricular appendix with thin pubescence; male clypeus divided by a medial longitudinal carina; male mandibles with an asymmetric and rounded tooth, the left mandible larger and up-curved; right tooth of the male mandibles smaller (transverse or down-turned).................................................... M. cornuta   | [27], (Ap.2. Fig.7 View FIGURE 7 )

- Pubescence of pronotum limited to the margins and the base; auricular appendix glabrous and with marked punctuation; male clypeus without medial longitudinal carina; male mandibles with short and symmetrical teeth.................................................................................................... M. consimilis   | [31], (Ap.2. Fig.8 View FIGURE 8 )

11 Elytra with distinctly defined black and reddish or yellow bands............................................... 12

- Elytra without distinct bands, mostly unicolored............................................................ 19

12 Pronotum not uniformly colored......................................................................... 13

- Pronotum uniformly colored............................................................................ 14

13 Pronotum sub-rectangular, with two apical reddish patches, that may be fused; elytra with two sub-apical and two sub-basal reddish round patches, separated by the black background; large species (usually larger than 10 mm)................................................................................................. M. grossa   | [16], (Ap.2. Fig.9 View FIGURE 9 )

- Pronotum sub-triangular, with one central black patch, the rest reddish; elytra with two subapical and two sub-basal reddish patches, the black stripes are 45º inclined toward internal margin forming a black “v” from the apex to the apical third of the elytra; small species (less than 7.5 mm)......................................... M. robustipes   | [1], (Ap.2. Fig.10 View FIGURE 10 )

14 Large male mandibles; elytral puncturation disordered, not aligned; anterior margin of male clypeus straight; presence of a simple infra-ocular projection (species with distinct sexual dimorphism)......................................... 15

- Mandibles similar in both sexes; elytral puncturation arranged in several subparallel lines; anterior margin of male clypeus distinctly concave; without infra-ocular projection (species with only slight sexual dimorphism)........................ 16

15 Pronotum black; body length more than 15 mm; frons with submedial depressions; eye stalk normal.................................................................................................. M. gigas   | [24], (Ap.2. Fig.11 View FIGURE 11 )

- Pronotum reddish; body length less than 15 mm; frons without submedial depressions; eye stalk hypertrophied........................................................................................ M. obesa   | [12], (Ap.2. Fig.12 View FIGURE 12 )

16 With longitudinal carina in the inter-ocular area; frons glabrous; pronotum subconical; left tooth larger................. 17

- Without longitudinal carina in the inter-ocular area; frons with diffuse pilosity; pronotum subquadrate; opposing teeth similar in length.................................................................... M. querula   | [4], (Ap.2. Fig.13 View FIGURE 13 )

17 Fourth antennomere serrate; frons with submedial depressions................................................. 18

- Fourth antennomere not serrate; frons without medial depressions.................... M. flavocincta   | [7], (Ap.2. Fig.14 View FIGURE 14 ) 18 Elytra black with two straight transverse reddish bands; pronotum transverse and pilose.. M. anachoreta   | [18], (Ap.2. Fig.15 View FIGURE 15 )

- Elytra orange, with one medial black band thicker in the median region of each elytron; pronotum wider at base and glabrous............................................................................ M. univittata   [5], (Ap.2. Fig.16 View FIGURE 16 )

19 Elytra mostly black................................................................................... 20

- Elytra mostly brown or fulvous.......................................................................... 21

20 Clypeus distinctly transverse, with frontal furrow beside the eyes; last antennomere with two excavations.......................................................................................... M. luctuosa   | [11], (Ap.2. Fig.17 View FIGURE 17 )

- Clypeus not distinctly transverse, without frontal furrow beside the eyes; last antennomere with one excavation..................................................................................... M. platyceros   | [13], (Ap.2. Fig.18 View FIGURE 18 )

21 Margin of clypeus concave (sexual dimorphism reduced)..................................................... 22

- Margin of clypeus straight (strong sexual dimorphism)....................................................... 26

22 Eye stalk absent; scutellum pilosity complete............................................................... 23

- Eye stalk present; scutellum pilosity sparse usually limited to the margins........................................ 24

23 Fourth antennomere serrate; without frontal furrow beside the eyes; elytra entirely light brown (yellowish)........................................................................................ M. flavipennis   | [19], (Ap.2. Fig.19 View FIGURE 19 )

- Fourth antennomere not serrate, frontal furrow beside the eyes present; elytra brown with its margins surrounded by a thin black line, thicker at the base................................................... M. basilaris   | [9], (Ap.2. Fig.20 View FIGURE 20 )

24 Lateral margins of pronotum visible from above; clypeus not distinctly transverse; elytra light brown with two distinct black dots, one on the humeral callus and another in the median region of each elytron.... M. chalybeosoma   | [20], (Ap.2. Fig.21 View FIGURE 21 )

- Lateral margins of pronotum not visible from above; clypeus distinctly transverse; elytra brown with other coloration pattern. ................................................................................................... 25

25 Frons glabrous; frontal furrow beside the eyes delimited by a slight carina; pronotal pubescence limited to the lateral margins; elytral base black, this color may be extended through the sutural margin of the elytra, forming a central patch................................................................................. M. sergius   sp. nov. | [17], (Ap.2. Fig.22 View FIGURE 22 )

- Frons pilose; frontal furrow beside the eyes delimited by a strongly marked carina; pronotal pubescence absent; elytral mainly brown, with some isolated black small patches, not forming any particular pattern......... M. pardalis   | [6], (Ap.2. Fig.23 View FIGURE 23 )

26 Frons and pronotum glabrous........................................................................... 27

- Frons with diffuse pilosity; pronotum pubescence limited to the lateral margins................................... 29

27 Pronotum black; without infra-ocular projection; elytra mostly unicolored or with isolated patches; last antennomere with two excavations; both teeth the same length................................................................... 28

- Pronotum reddish; with simple infra-ocular projection; elytra with two distinct transverse black bands, one at the base and another in the median region; last antennomere regular; left tooth larger........ M. interruptofasciata   | [15], (Ap.2. Fig.24 View FIGURE 24 )

28 Elytra uniformly brown, with thin black margins; without pubescence; fourth antennomere not serrate; eye stalk absent.......................................................................... M. eiderae   sp. nov. | [14], (Ap.2. Fig.25 View FIGURE 25 )

- Elytra with black dot in the median region and dispersed pilosity; fourth antennomere serrate; eye stalk hypertrophied.................................................................................. M. grandis   | [21], (Ap.2. Fig.26 View FIGURE 26 )

29 Antennae not uniformly colored (first antennomeres brown); pronotum not uniformly colored........................ 30

- Antennae uniformly black; pronotum uniformly colored...................................................... 31

30 Pronotum fulvous with central black triangle-shaped patch; elytra mostly fulvous with black humeral spot.. M. monrosi   | [41]

- Pronotum fulvous with basal and apical margins black; elytral base and sutural margin black, with black patch in the median region................................................................................. M. subnitida   | [42]

31 Strong frontal carina beside the eyes; clypeus centrally protruded; scutellum pilose; elytra uniformly colored orange-brown........................................................................... M. dynamica   | [25], (Ap.2. Fig.27 View FIGURE 27 )

- Slight frontal carina beside the eyes; clypeus not centrally protruded; scutellum glabrous; elytra not uniformly orange-brown. ................................................................................................... 32

32 Elytra with black band in the median region; pronotum black; eye stalk normal; left tooth larger................................................................................................. M. unicincta   | [22], (Ap.2. Fig.28 View FIGURE 28 )

- Elytra uniformly colored; pronotum reddish; eye stalk hypertrophied; both teeth the same size M. placida   | [23], (Ap.2. Fig.29 View FIGURE 29 )

33 Head slightly concealed inside pronotum (never beyond eye margin)............................................ 34

- Head strongly concealed inside pronotum (beyond eye margin)................................................ 38

34 Elytra glabrous, lustrous and with metallic green reflections.......................... M. pyropiga   | [32], (Ap.2. Fig.33 View FIGURE 33 )

- Elytra opaque, pubescent and without metallic green reflections................................................ 35

35 Frons pilosity diffuse; fourth antennomere serrate; distance between the eyes wider than eye height; eyes rounded; pronotal disc completely pilose.......................................................... M. vianai   | [35], (Ap.2. Fig.34 View FIGURE 34 )

- Frons pilosity mostly around the eyes; fourth antennomere not serrate; distance between the eyes narrower than eye maximum height; eyes distinctly ovoid (4x longer than wide), occupying the majority of the head; pronotal disc glabrous................................................................................... M. microcephala   | [33], (Ap.2. Fig.35 View FIGURE 35 )

36 Hind femora with very large subapical tooth..................................... M. femorata   | [38], (Ap.2. Fig.36 View FIGURE 36 )

- Hind femora without tooth-like projection................................................................. 37

37 Pygidium with robust tooth distinctly projecting posteriorly; sexes extremely dimorphic, males with huge jaws and a pronotum which is as wide apically as the elytra are basally.................................. M. notabilis   | [40], (Ap.2. Fig.37 View FIGURE 37 )

- Pygidium midline thin (weakly developed), never distinctly projecting posteriorly................................. 42

40 Dorsum uniformly colored............................................................................. 41

- Dorsum with distinct transverse bands; base of elytra iridescent purple or bronze........ M. splendida   | [34], (Ap.2. Fig.30 View FIGURE 30 )

41 Elytra metallic blue; all antennomeres black; eyes stalk absent; anterior margin of male clypeus almost straight............

.......................................................................... M. coerulea   | [10], (Ap.2. Fig.31 View FIGURE 31 ) - Elytra metallic green; first four antennomeres brown, the rest black; eyes stalk present; anterior margin of male clypeus distinctly concave............................................................... M. viridana   | [8], (Ap.2. Fig.32 View FIGURE 32 ) 42 Pygidium with large central diamond-shaped glabrous area........................... M. fulvipes   | [39], (Ap.2. Fig.38 View FIGURE 38 ) - Pygidium with narrow glabrous midline (not raised distinctly)................................................. 43 43 Eyes rounded; shape of head in males as long as wide; body robust................... M. dimidiata   | [37], (Ap.2. Fig.39 View FIGURE 39 ) - Eyes ovoid; shape of head in males longer than wide; body more cylindrical........... M. subfasciata   | [36], (Ap.2. Fig.40 View FIGURE 40 )

Redescriptions

1 | Megalostomis robustipes Monrós 1953a   | ( Fig. 5A–C View FIGURE 5 )

Megalostomis (Minturnia) robustipes Monrós 1953a: 67   .

Type locality. Argentina: Misiones : Concepción, Santa María, Dpto. San Javier   .

Type material examined. Holotype (♂): (Mandibles dissected). [W-H]: ARGENT./ Misiones/ Sta. Maria/ Viana. // [R-P]: Type Nº/ 65237/ U.S. N.M. // [ RB-H]: Holotipo. // [Pk-H]: Megalostomis   / ( Minturnia   )/ robustipes/ mihi/ det. Monrós 1950. | USNM. Allotype (♀): ARGENTINA. Misiones: Concepción, Santa Maria, Dpto San Javier, Col. (Viana), Det. Monrós | USNM. Paratype (♀): ARGENTINA. Misiones: Posadas, Col. (Viana), Det. Monrós | USNM.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by: pronotum reddish, with anterior margin black, some specimens might have a black patch at median region; elytra with two subapical and two sub-basal reddish patches, the black stripes are 45º inclined toward internal margin forming a black “v” from the apex to the apical third of the elytra; small size (less than 7.5 mm); elytra subquadrate (approximately as long as wide); head strongly concealed inside pronotom; last antennomere with two excavations; male mandibles poorly developed, male mandibular teeth, of equal length; shape of head in males as long as wide; pronotal lateral margins visible from above; elytral pilosity diffuse, not concealing coloration pattern of cuticle; scutellum longer than wide.

Body length: 6.6–7.3 mm, width: 3.5–4.4 mm. Coloration pattern: head black; pronotum reddish, with anterior margin black, some specimens might have a black patch at median region; tibiae black, except at base (reddish); antennomeres 1–4 light brown, rest of antennae black; elytra with two subapical and two sub-basal reddish patches, the black stripes are 45º inclined toward internal margin forming a black “v” from the apex to the apical third of the elytra. Head: anterior surface smooth with longitudinal carina, dense pubescence distributed throughout anterior face formed by short reclined white setae; posterior side of eye without ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, symmetrical, both short, tips hidden behind labrum, externally densely pubescent; clypeal margin concave, sculpture formed by small diffuse punctation. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with one marginal excavation. Thorax: without constrictions; pronotum never wider than head (sub-triangular), anterior margin slightly curved convexly, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; punctation fine, scattered and weaker than on elytra; dense, reclined short white pubescence only at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, with white dense pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide; elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: no specimens were available for dissection. Male genitalia: apex of dorsal plate of median lobe narrower than its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, without setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in a relaxed position.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (2), Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna (1).

2 | Megalostomis analis ( Forsberg 1821)   | ( Fig. 6A–I View FIGURE 6 )

Clythra analis Forsberg 1821: 269   , 289.

Clythra bicincta Germar 1824: 549   , 746.

Megalostomis bicincta Germar   in Dejean 1836: 416; Lacordaire 1848: 556; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3294; Clavareau 1913: 76; Guérin 1943b: 27; Blackwelder 1944: 636.

Megalostomis (Heterostomis) analis: Lacordaire 1848: 556   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3294; Clavareau 1913: 75; Achard 1926: 153; Guérin 1943b: 28; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Monrós 1947: 172; Monrós 1953a: 80.

Megalostomis (Heterostomis) analis var seminigra Achard 1926: 153   ; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 80 (SYN).

Megalostomis (Heterostomis) analis var lateralis Achard 1926: 153   ; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Monrós 1953a: 80 (SYN).

Type locality. Forsberg (1821) did not indicate any locality, later Lacordaire (1848: 558) indicated Brazil: Minas Gerais and Bolivia.

Type material. The type series was not available for this study; species determination relies on keys, redescriptions, and drawings by Guérin (1943b), and Monrós (1953a), as well as previously determined material, including specimens from the type locality.

Remarks. This species was originally described by Forsberg within Clytra, Lacordaire (1848)   moved it to Megalostomis   , and synonymized M. bicincta   with M. analis   . As mentioned by Monrós 1953a, this species is easily separated from M. lacordairei   by the distinct morphology of the male mandibles; seminigra and lateralis were considered by Monrós (1953a) as intra-specific varieties, and therefore he synonymized them with M. analis   .

Diagnosis. This species can be easily distinguished from M. lacordairei   by the pronotum almost completely reddish delimited by a narrow black anterior and posterior margin, lateral margins of pronotum pubescent; scutellum shape longer than wide; legs reddish; in this species male mandibles are typical of the genus unlike the hypertrophied male mandibles of M. lacordairei   . Females: apex of spermathecal capsule, round and short (capsule J-shaped).

Body length: 7–10 mm, width: 4–5.5 mm. Coloration pattern: head black; pronotum almost completely reddish delimited by a narrow black anterior and posterior margin; tibiae (except at base) reddish; elytra with two bands, varying in color from dark reddish to yellow; basal reddish band reaches lateral margins, apical band can be extended to edge of elytral apex. Head: anterior surface smooth, with longitudinal carina, on each side of this carina there is a slightly depressed and pubescent area; sparse pubescence distributed throughout anterior face formed by short reclined white setae, distributed along internal margin of the eye; posterior side of eye with salient ocular protuberance; mandibles much longer than wide, very asymmetric; left mandible well-developed, with strong rectangular base and an apical (90º in-curved) sharp tooth; right mandible curved, much shorter, and hidden inside the left mandible concavity upon mandibular occlusion; external side of mandibles densely pubescent; clypeal margin concave, sculpture formed by thin punctation, same size as those of pronotum. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with one marginal excavation. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation weaker than elytral punctation, uniformely distributed; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, with white dense pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 6D View FIGURE 6 ) J-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule short, with round tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 6E–F View FIGURE 6 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate rectangular; ventral rectal sclerites with very short apodemes; with lateral sclerites. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 6G–I View FIGURE 6 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe narrower than its base, with anterior margin convex; lateral arms of median lobe short, without setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (4), Araucaria moist forests (2), Bahia interior forests (1), Bolivian montane dry forests (1), Bolivian Yungas (2), Caatinga (1), Central Andean wet Puna (needs confirmation) (1), Cerrado (2), Chiquitano dry forests (2), Dry Chaco (2), Humid Chaco (4), Paraná flooded savanna (1), Serra do Mar coastal forests (6), Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna (1), Southwest Amazon moist forests (2).

Material examined. ARGENTINA. Córdoba: Bialet Maasé , Col. (Willink) | IADIZA   ; Corrientes: Isla Apipe , (11/1/1945), Col. (Martinez) | USNM   ; Formosa: Laguna Oca , Col. (Denier) | IADIZA   , Misión Laishi, Col. (Willink, Monrós) | IADIZA   ; Misiones: San José , (10/1/1952), Col. (Waiz) | USNM   ; Santiago del Estero: Rio Salado | KBIN, (2)   | KBIN   . BOLIVIA. Cochabamba: Chapare | USNM   ; La Paz: Coroico , (12/27/1948), Col. (Martinez) | USNM   | ZMHB   ; Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista , (3/12/1951), Col. (Martinez) | USNM   , Los Arroyos | USNM   , Nueva Mocha , (3/15/1951), Col. (Martinez) | USNM   ; Other: Sara , Col. (Steinbach) | ZMHB   . BRAZIL.

Bahia: Sello   , (4) | ZMHB; Goias: | USNM   , Goias?: 20 Km. N Sao Joao de Alianca , (4/14/1956), Col. (Truxal), [MACRIS BRAZILIAN EXPEDITION 1956 LACM], (2) | LACM   ; Mato Grosso: 200 engl Meilen v. Guyaba, Col. (Heller), (4) | ZMHB   , Chapada | USNM   ; Minas Gerais: Pocinhos do Rio Verde , (10/8/1955) | USNM, (12/19/ 1926)   | USNM; P arana: Curitiva | USNM   ; Santa Catarina: Cauna , Col. (Cath) | AMNH   ; São Paulo: Brg. Tobias , (11/13/1960) | USNM   , Camphinas , Col. (Bratz) | ZMHB   , Campinas | USNM   , Cantareira | USNM   , Cumbica | USNM, (5)   | ZMHB   ; Other: Judiahy , (25/3/1898), Col. (Schrotthy), Det. Monrós | HNHM   , Sao Joao del Rey , Col. (Van Voixem) | KBIN   , Villa Rica | AMNH, (2)   | KBIN, (2)   | ZMHB, [23374] | ZMHB, Col. (Chapuis), (7) | KBIN   , Col. (Duvivier), (3) | KBIN   | USNM, (9)   | ZMHB, Col. (Chapuis) | KBIN   , Col. (Chapuis), (3) | KBIN   . PARAGUAY. Paraguari: Sapucay , (2/1/1950 - 3/1/1950) | USNM   ; Other: San Estanislao , Col. (Willink) | USNM   , Santa Trinidad , (10/1/1914) | USNM   . PERÚ. Cusco: (1975), Col. (Boerge), [Collection Nihevis] | ZMHB   .

3 | Megalostomis lacordairei Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 7A–I View FIGURE 7 )

Megalostomis lacordairei Dejean 1836: 416   (nomen nudum).

Megalostomis (Heterostomis) lacordairei Lacordaire 1848: 555   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Burmeister 1877: 61; Clavareau 1913: 76; Bruch 1914: 349; Achard 1926: 152; Guérin 1943b: 28; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 83; Agrain and Marvaldi 2009: 62 View Cited Treatment (eggs and larvae descriptions).

Megalostomis (Heterostomis) histrionica Harold 1875: 95   ; Burmeister 1977: 61 (SYN); Bruch 1914: 349; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Furth et al. 1994: 26 [Lectotype designation].

Megalostomis (Heterostomis) lacordairei var. seminigra Achard 1926: 153   ; Guérin 1943b: 28 (SYN)

Megalostomis lacordairei var basalis Achard 1926: 153   ; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 83 (SYN).

Megalostomis lacordairei var collaris Achard 1926: 153   ; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 83 (SYN).

Megalostomis lacordairei var conjuncta Achard 1926: 152   ; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 83 (SYN).

Megalostomis lacordairei var consimilis Achard 1926: 153   ; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 83 (SYN).

Megalostomis lacordairei var histrionica Achard 1926: 153   ; Monrós 1953a: 83 (SYN).

Megalostomis lacordairei var interrrupta Achard 1926: 152   ; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 83 (SYN).

Megalostomis lacordairei var reducta Achard 1926: 152   ; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 83 (SYN).

Type locality. Lacordaire (1848:555) indicated: Argentina: Tucumán   .

Type material examined. Megalostomis lacordairei   type series was not available for this study; species determination relies on keys, redescriptions, and drawings by Guérin 1943b, and Monrós (1953a), as well as previously determined material. I was not able to study specimens from the type locality (Tucumán). Monrós (1953a) included several specimens collected by Prosen, and Bruch in Choromoro, Vipos, and Chuscha localities in Tucumán, and from other provinces of northern Argentina (Formosa, Santa Fé, and Chaco). Moldenke 1970 added Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia to the distribution of this widespread species. Megalostomis histrionica   : Lectotype: [W-P]: Argent./ Cord. Davis. // [R-P]: MCZ / Lectotype / 33636. // [W-H]: Megalostomis   / histrionica/ 88 Harold/ n. sp. | MCZ, url: http://insects.oeb.harvard.edu; Paralectotype: [W-P]: 860. // [G-H]: Cordova/ Dohrn. // [W-P]: Zool. Mus./ Berlin. // [W-H]: Megalostomis   / histrionica/ Har. Type. // [R-H]: Paralectotype / designated 1994/ Furth, Askevold,+/ Duckett. Psyche 101. | ZMHB.

Remarks. This species was mentioned by Dejean in his 1836 “ Catalogue des Coléoptères ”, but, since the name was not accompanied by a description, the authorship belongs to Lacordaire (1848), who described it for the first time. As many as eight varieties were described by Achard for this species, Guérin 1943b synonymized seminigra, and then Monrós (1953a) synonymized the remaining varieties with their senior species, by considering these forms only as small intra-specific color variations. Furthermore Monrós (1953a), and later myself in the field, observed that different color forms inhabit the same regions and copulate. As mentioned by Monrós (1953a), Burmeister (1877) included M. histrionica   as a synonym of M. lacordairei   , but Bruch (1914), and Blackwelder (1944) kept the name as valid, probably unaware of Burmeister’s work.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished form M. analis   by the pronotum black with an apical reddish band, which can be entire or interrupted in the middle; legs black. Females: apodemes of ventral sclerites of the kotpresse absent (ventral sclerites with round margins).

Body length: 7.7–12 mm, width: 4.5–7.2 mm. Coloration pattern: head black; pronotum black with an apical reddish band which can be entire or interrupted in the middle; tibiae black; elytra with two (apical and basal) lateral patches varying in color from dark reddish to yellow, basal and apical patches can be connected by a marginal line, and both can be divided in two in some specimens. Head: anterior surface smooth; with slightly depressed area in inter-ocular region; short reclined white setae distributed mainly around the eyes; posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles much longer than wide and very asymmetric; left mandible concave, with two apical teeth, receiving the right mandible upon mandibular occlusion; right mandible larger with one apical tooth; external side of mandibles densely pubescent; clypeal margin concave. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fifth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with one marginal excavation. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation weaker than elytral punctuation; sparse, short, and reclined white pubescence denser at margins; scutellum with white dense pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 7D View FIGURE 7 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 7E–F View FIGURE 7 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate rectangular; ventral rectal sclerites without apodemes; with lateral sclerites. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 7G–I View FIGURE 7 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe narrower than its base, with anterior margin convex; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in retracted position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (3), Central Andean Puna (needs confirmation) (1), Cerrado (2), Dry Chaco (14), Espinal (5), High Monte (5), Humid Chaco (6), Low Monte (1), Madeira-Tapajós moist forests (1), Southern Andean Yungas (2). Note: As noted by Moldenke (1970), M. histrionica Harold (1875)   was listed incorrectly by both Jacoby and Blackwelder from Cordova, Veracruz; the corrected locality is Córdoba province in Argentina.

Host plants: Fabaceae   : Monrós 1953a: Cercidium praecox (Ruiz et Pavon) (Brea)   , Prosopis sp.   , Geoffroea decorticans (Hook. et Arn.) (Chañar)   . Viana and Williner (1974): Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol. Viana and Williner (1974)   : Senna aphylla (Cav.)   , Agrain and Marvaldi (2009): Prosopis sp.   Verbenaceae   : Cordo and Loach (1995): Aloysia gratissima (Gil et Hook)   . Zygophyllaceae   : Bulnesia retama Gill ex Griseb   (Common name in Argentina: Retamo, in Peru: Calato), it is interesting to remark that Bulnesia retama   has been said to represent a convergence with Cercidium   . This ecological similarity has not been evaluated in a phylogenetic context.

Additional material examined. ARGENTINA. Catamarca: Andalgala, Col. (Sergio Roig) | IADIZA   , Ciudad , (1/1/1942), Col. (Shaeffter) | USNM   , El Rodeo, 1.500 mts, Col. (Golbach) | IMLA   , Mutquin , Col. (Roig) | IADIZA   , Villa Vil , (2/13/1972) | USNM   , Col. (Bruxh) | MLPA   ; Córdoba: Capilla del Monte , (01/1888-02/1888), Col. (Frenzel), (7) | ZMHB   , Monte Cristo , (12/1/1944), Col. (Monrós) | USNM   , Soto , (1/1/1946), Col. (Monrós) | USNM   , Tulumba | MLPA   | USNM, (3)   | ZMHB, Col. (Davis) | ZMHB   , Col. (Frenzel) | ZMHB   ; La Rioja: Los Molinos, Anillaco subandean desert, (7/1/2001), Col. (Porter), (5) | FSCA   , Mascasin , (2/1964), Det. Medvedev, (3) | ZMHB   ; Mendoza: Pedregal | AMNH   | ZMHB   ; Misiones: Col. (Dallas) | USNM   ; Salta: Guemes   , (2/1/1944), Col. (Martinez) | USNM   , Col. (Haynes) | USNM   , Tartagal | USNM   | USNM   ; San Juan: Arroyo Las Tumanas | IADIZA   ; San Luis: San Geronimo , (11/1971), Col. (Viana), (20) | FSCA   | MLPA   ; Santa Fé: Villa Ana , (2/1/1946), Col. (Hayward, WillinkKolalei) | USNM   ; Santiago del Estero: Añatuya , (1/1/1944), Col. (Monrós) | USNM   , El Charco , (1964), Det. Erber, [as M. histrionica   ], (3) | ZMHB   , Rio Saladillo , Col. (Wagner) | USNM   , Sumampa , (2)   |

IADIZA | USNM, (2) | CZAA, (2) | ZMHB; Other ; (2)   | ZMHB. BRAZIL. Matto Grosso: | ZMHB; Rondônia: Fz Rancho Grande, 62 Km SW Ariquemes , (11/8/1994 - 8/20/1994), Col. (Eger)   | FSCA; Other: | USNM   . PARAGUAY. Cordillera: San Bernardino , Col. (Fiebrig)   | USNM; Other: Kanindeyu, Curuguaty , (3/17/1991), Col. (Drescher), Det. Erber   | ZMHB, Villa Rica   | ZMHB. NO DATA. Col. ( Chapuis )   | KBIN.

4 | Megalostomis querula Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 8A–C View FIGURE 8 )

Megalostomis (Minturnia) querula Lacordaire 1848: 530   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Guérin 1943b: 13; Blackwelder 1944: 637.

Megalostomis (Minturnia) propinqua Lacordaire 1848: 529   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Clavareau 1913: 76; Guérin 1943b: 13; Blackwelder 1944: 637. SYN. NOV.

Megalostomis (Minturnia) univittata pacifica Monrós 1953a: 66   . SYN. NOV.

Type locality. Lacordaire (1848: 530) did not provide a country name for the type locality, but since it was from Dupont collection then it was probably from Brazil. Actually, the holotype has a small label indicating “ Bresil ” in Lacordaire’s handwriting.

Type material examined. Megalostomis querula   : Holotype: [W-H]: Bresil. // [W-H]: Querula / Lac. Type. // [Pk-H]: Minturnia querula Lac. Lacordaire   det. // [ RB-H]: Holotipo. // [W-P]: Ex. Musaeo Miniszech. This is evidently a syntype acquired by Monrós from Miniszech collection (most likely from MNHN) and added it to his personal collection presently at USNM. Paratype: PARAGUAY. San Bernardino, [Sobre Caesaria silvestris   ] | USNM. Megalostomis (Minturnia) univittata pacifica   : Paratype: [W-H]: Paraguay / S. Benardino/ K. Fiebrig. // [Pk-H]: M. (M.) univittata   / ssp. pacifica   / mihi/ F. Monrós det. 1952. // [ RB-H]: Paratipo (♂). // [W-H]: s/ Caesaria   / silvestris   / leg. Fiebrig. // [W-H]: Minturnia   / querula/ Lac (anonymous determiner). | USNM.

Remarks. I have synonymized M. propinqua   based on one specimen of this species clearly identified as M. propinqua   by Guérin (borrowed from Frey’s collection) (NMBA), this specimen is from Brazil, the type locality of M. querula   (according to Lacordaire). Thus, this synonym is based on the later specimen and on the comparison of Lacordaire’s original description and Guérin (1943b) redescription, including the study of the holotype, and one paratype of M. querula   held in the Monrós collection at USNM. As a result of these comparisons, I could not find any differences between these taxa. Both authors mentioned the similarity with Babia cruentata Lacordaire   in their descriptions, and the presence of a triangular callus on the frons and subrectangular pronotal disc. Risk of such nomenclatural act is negligible because these are easily recognizable taxa. After compairing the type material of M. querula   and M. univittata pacifica   I did not find any morphological differences, and the paratype of M. univittata pacifica   in Monrós collection at USNM has an anonymous identification label indicating M. querula   .

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the frons with diffuse pilosity; subquadrate pronotum; both male teeth same length; fourth antennomere not serrated (round shape); shape of head in males as long as wide; pronotal disc shape in males subrectangular.

Body length: 8.9 mm, width: 3.9 mm. Coloration pattern: head and pronotum black; tibiae (except at base) reddish; elytra reddish from base, with an irregular black band (medially expanded) and a reddish patch at apical region, elytral apex black. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; sparse pubescence distributed throughout anterior face formed by short reclined white setae; posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, mostly symmetric; left mandible with an apical tooth; right mandible denticulate; external side of mandibles sparsely pubescent; clypeal margin concave, sculpture formed by small diffuse punctation. Antennae: scape robust; fourth antennomere not serrate; eleventh antennomere with one marginal excavation. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Genitalia: no specimens were available for dissection.

Ecoregions: Humid Chaco (1).

Host plants: Salicaceae   : Caesaria sylvestris   (Guacatonga or wild coffee) (from specimen label).

5 | Megalostomis univittata Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 9A–I View FIGURE 9 )

Megalostomis (Minturnia) univittata univittata Lacordaire 1848: 528   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Clavareau 1913: 76; Guérin 1943b: 12; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 63. ( Fig. 9A–C View FIGURE 9 )

Megalostomis (Minturnia) univittata oblita Monrós 1953a: 64   . SYN. NOV.

Type locality. Brazil   .

Type material examined. Megalostomis univittata univittata   : Lectotype (present designation): [W-H]: Megalostomis   / unifasciata-vittata Lac.*. // [W-P]: 23371. // [G-H]: unifasciata/ N/ Brasil Sello. // [R-P]: SYNTYPUS / Megalostomis univittata   / Lacordaire 1848 / Labelled by MNHUB. | ZMHB. Remaing specimens as paralectotypes (by present designation): [G-P]: Hist.-Coll. ( Coleoptera   )/ Nr. 23371/ Megalostomis   / univittata Lac   / Brasil, Sello/ Zool. Mus. Berlin. // [R-P]: SYNTYPUS / Megalostomis univittata   / Lacordaire 1848 / Labelled by MNHUB. | (3), ZMHB. Megalostomis univittata oblita   : Holotype: [W-H]: R. A. Misiones/ Santa Ana/ 1.952/ leg. Manter. // [R-P]: Type Nº/65236/ U.S. N.M. // [Pk-H]: M. (M.) univittata   / ssp. oblita   / mihi/ F. Monrós det. 1952. // [ RB-H]: Holotipo (♂)/ Ilustrado. | USNM.

Remarks. Three subspecies were recognized by Monrós (1953a), one of them ( M. univittata pacifica   ) is synonymized here with M. querula   . Monrós (1953a: 67), considered M. univittata pacifica   very different from its nominotypic species but he linked to it by the existence of M. univittata oblita   . Now that pacifica is synonimized with another species, M. univittata oblita   can be easily recognized as a intraspecific form, and that is why I have synonymized it.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by legs, unicolored black; elytra reddish, distinctly punctured, with sutural and median (transverse) black band; pronotal disc with flattened lateral margins, visible from above; tip of lateral arms of median lobe straight. Females: kotpresse ventral sclerites external margin fan-shaped.

Body length: 9–11.5 mm, width: 5–5.7 mm. Coloration pattern: head black; pronotum black, in some specimens it can be completely orange with an apical black margin; tibiae black; elytra orange with one black transverse band at the median region, this black band reaches the external margin in some specimens, also it can be extended to the apex along the internal margin. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; with lateral carina at internal eye margin; posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, asymmetric; left mandible slightly larger with two teeth; right mandible more compact, teeth smaller; external side of mandibles with sparse pubescence; clypeal margin concave; clypeus with marked transverse carina. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with one marginal excavation. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, usually weaker than elytral punctation; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite without a central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 9D View FIGURE 9 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 9E–F View FIGURE 9 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate rectangular; ventral rectal sclerites with very short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 9G–I View FIGURE 9 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (10), Araucaria moist forests (3), Caatinga (1), Central Andean dry Puna (needs confirmation) (2), Magdalena Valley dry forests (1), Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna (1), Uruguayan savanna (2).

Additional material examined. ARGENTINA. M. univittata univittata   : BRAZIL. Parana: Campinhina Deodoro , (3/1941), Col. (Hatzbach) | USNM   , Col. (Hatzbach) | USNM   ; Río Grande Do Sul: Porto Alegre, (2) | IADIZA, (2)   | USNM   , San Francisco da Paulo , (2/15/1944), Col. (Buck) | USNM   ; Santa Catarina: Lages , Col. (Fruestorpher), (2) | ZMHB   , Col. (Fruhsterfer) | MACN   ; Other: | ZMHB   , Col. (Deoclero), Det. Monrós | MLPA   . Rio Jari , Col. Fry, 1905-100, Det. Monrós, [11529] | BMNH   .

M. univittata oblita   : ARGENTINA. Misiones: Loreto, (9/1954), Col. (Walz), (5) | USNM, Col. (Watz) | USNM, Pastoreo Grande, (2/1954), Col. (Watz), Det. Monrós | NMBA, Posadas, Det. Monrós, (2) | MACN, Santa Ana, (1/1952), Col. (Montes), (5) | USNM, Col. (Montes), (2) | USNM; Salta: Pocitos   , (9/1957), Col. (Martinez) | USNM, Col. (Martinez) | USNM. PARAGUAY. Honenau, (3/1953), Col. (Walz), (18) | USNM, Col. (Watz) | USNM. Sapucay, Col. W. Foster, 1903-138, Det. Monrós | BMNH. NO DATA. Campim? | ZMHB.

6 | Megalostomis pardalis Guérin 1949   | ( Fig. 10A–I View FIGURE 10 )

Megalostomis (Minturnia) pardalis Guérin 1949: 229   .

Type locality. Bolivia: Chapare Guérin 1949: 229   .

Type material examined. Guérin (1949: 229) indicated that the Holotype was in his personal collection (currently at MZSP), with the following data: N. 16834 Chaparé, Bolivia, R. Zischka leg.).  

Remarks. Species determination relies in this case on one specimen from the type locality, determined by Guérin (most likely a syntype): BOLIVIA. Chapare, Zischka leg., Det. Guérin | MZSP. According to Guérin this species resembles M. flavipennis   .

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the elytra being mainly brown, ocassionaly having some isolated small black patches, not forming any particular pattern; distribution of frons pilosity diffuse; distance between the eyes as wide as eye maximum height; clypeus centrally protruded with frontoclypeal suture visible.

Body length: 13.7 mm, width: 6.8 mm. Coloration pattern: head and pronotum, black; tibiae dark brown; elytra almost unicolored dark brown, with some isolated small black patches at basal third, humeral fold, lateral margins and apex. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with marked longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; sparse pubescence distributed throughout anterior face formed by short reclined white setae; mandibles much longer than wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger, with long sharp tooth; right mandible smaller denticulate; external side of mandibles glabrous; clypeal margin concave, sculpture formed by small punctation, clypeus with central protuberance; eyes normally stalked; auricular appendix with simple lamina. Antennae: scape robust; fourth antennomere serrate. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation weaker than elytral punctuation; sparse, short, and reclined white pubescence denser at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded; elytral punctation diffuse, but forming some ordered striae. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 10D View FIGURE 10 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 10E– F View FIGURE 10 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate, apically excavated; ventral rectal sclerites with short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 10G–I View FIGURE 10 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Southwest Amazon moist forests (1).

7 | Megalostomis flavocincta Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 11A–I View FIGURE 11 )

Megalostomis (Minturnia) flavocincta Lacordaire 1848: 531   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Guérin 1943b: 14; Blackwelder 1944: 636.

Megalostomis (Minturnia) flavomaculata Lacordaire 1848: 521   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Guérin 1943b: 14; Blackwelder 1944: 636. SYN. NOV.

Type locality. French Guiana (Cayenne)   .

Type material examined. Lectotype (present designation): [W-H]: Megalostomis   / Cayenne. // [W-H]: M. ( Minturnia   )/ flavocincta Lac.   // [G-P]: Cayenne. // [W-P]: Coll. Ogier de Baulny. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. A nother specimen as Paralectotype (present designation): [W-H]: Colec./ Dudivier. // [G-H]: Cayenne. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN.

Remarks. According to Horn et al. (1990), Lacordaire`s material went to Brussels (KBIN) via Baulny collection, I had the opportunity to study two specimens standing as M. flavicinta   from that collection, that I designate as Lectotype and paralectotype. I compared these with two other specimens identified as M. flavomaculata   both from Thompson’s 1856–1867 collection (ex Hamlet-Clark), loaned by BMNH, one of them is clearly identified by Lacordaire (the author of the species). When comparing these with M. flavocincta   , the only appreciable difference between them is that M. flavomaculata   has lighter color on the elytra. Regrettably, no data on distribution was indicated, but considering the morphological analysis, and in accordance with the species concept used in this contribution, M. flavomaculata   is here synonymized. On the other hand, Achard (1926) described Megalostomis (Minturnia) flavopicta var. lunulata   (misspelling of flavocincta), on the basis of a small variation in the elytral coloration pattern. Achard mentioned Brazil and two localities in French Guiana in his description, therefore both are sympatric (country level) with M. flavocincta   . It is likely that this subspecies is a junior synonym of the nominotypic species; subsequent study of Achard’s collection in Prague should clear up this situation.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the fourth antennomere not serrate, face without medial depressions; distance between the eyes as wide as eye maximum height; lateral arms of the median lobe large (reaching the mid-point of the dorsal plate); dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) upward-directed forming wing-shaped structure in dorsal view. Females: kotpresse dorsal apodemes longer than wide, curved; eigth sternite without central tooth.

Body length: 10.1–10.25 mm, width: 6.2–7 mm. Coloration pattern: head black; pronotum black, in some specimens dark brown red; tibiae dark brown; elytra black, with two yellowish bands, one near apex and another near base, these yellowish bands can be narrower in some specimens; elytral apex brown. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; posterior side of eye with small post-ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, asymmetric; left mandible slightly larger with single sharp apical tooth, right mandible smaller, hidden behind left mandible upon occlusion; external side of mandibles glabrous; clypeal margin concave, sculpture formed by diffuse punctuation; frons without puncturation.

Antennae: scape robust, serrated beyond fifth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with one marginal excavation.

Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; dense, reclined short white pubescence only at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence.

Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite without a central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 11D View FIGURE 11 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 11E–F View FIGURE 11 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (curved) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate; ventral rectal sclerites with very short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 11G–I View FIGURE 11 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe long, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) up-directed forming wing-shaped structure in dorsal view; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves (1), Guianan moist forests (1), Japurá Solimoes-Negro moist forests (2).

Additional material examined. M. flavocincta   : BRAZIL. Sao Gabriel, Amazonas, Rio Negro, (11/22/1927), Col. (Zischka), Det. Guérin | MZSP, (8/26/1929), Col. (Zischka), Det. Guérin | MZSP; Other: Det. Monrós | IADIZA. GUYANA. St. Laurent: Det. Guérin | NMBA. M. flavomaculata: NO DATA. Coll Thompson 1856   – 1867, Ex Hamlet - Clark], (2) | BMNH.

8 | Megalostomis viridana Lacordaire, 1848   | ( Fig. 12A–J View FIGURE 12 )

Megalostomis (Minturnia) viridana Lacordaire 1848: 522   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Guérin 1943b: 14; Blackwelder 1944: 637.

Megalostomis (Minturnia) metallica Jacoby 1888: 69   ; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 61; Clavareau 1913: 76; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Moldenke 1970: 25. SYN. NOV.

Type locality. French Guiana (Cayenne)   .

Type material examined. Megalostomis viridana   : Lectotype (present designation): [W-P]: E. Coll Thompson. // [W-P]: Ex Hamlet-Clark/ collecttion/ BM( NH). // [W-P]: Standing as/ Megalostomis (Minturnia) viridana Lac   / BM( NH). // [W-P]: 67–56 | BMNH. Megalostomis metallica   : Lectotype (present designation): [W- P]: V. de Chiriqui,/ 25–4000 ft. / Champion. // [W-P]: Sp. figured. // [W-P]: B.C.A., Col. VI, I./ Suppl./ Megalostomis   / metallica/ Jac. // [ RB-P]: Type/ H.T. // [Pu-H]: M. metallica   / Jac. | BMNH. Remaining specimens as Paralectotypes (by present designation): [W-P]: V. de Chiriqui,/ 25–4000 ft. / Champion. // [W-P]: B.C.A., Col. VI, I./ Suppl./ Megalostomis   / metallica/ Jac. // [Pu-H]: M. metallica   / Jac. | BMNH. [R-P]: Type/ 8627. // [W-H]: Megalostomis   / metallica/ Jac. // [W-P]: V. Chiriqui / 25–4000 ft. / Champion | MCZ, url: http:// insects.oeb.harvard.edu.

Remarks. The only known specimen of M. viridana   among the material used for this contribution, loaned from BMNH corresponding to Thompson’s 1856–1867 collection (Ex Hamlet-Clark), shows that the only noticeable difference between M. viridana   and M. metallica   specimens, is that M. viridana   is larger, also a brown thin mark along the lateral margin of pronotum is more easily visible, surely due to its larger size. Neither the description, nor the illustration in Jacoby (1888) presented any morphological differences when compared with Lacordaire’s description of M. viridana   . Regrettably, no data on distribution is given in the label. Although Lacordaire described M. viridana   from French Guiana, and M. metallica   was described from Panama, specimens identified as M. metallica   are known from Costa Rica, and northern Brazil, the latter in Para state (bordering French Guiana). Too few specimens are known to separate them confidently into realistic infra-specific entities. Identification of M. viridana   relies on Lacordaire (1848), and Guérin (1943b) descriptions.

Diagnosis. This species can be easily distinguished by the its uniform metallic green dorsal surface; antennal coloration with the four first antennomeres brown, the rest black; pronotal disc lateral margins visible from above; epipleural fold slightly rounded; long setae at tip of the lateral arms of median lobe absent. Females: kotpresse (apodemes of ventral sclerites) long.

Body length: 7.6–8.4 mm, width: 4.9–5.1 mm. Coloration pattern: all body metallic dark-green, with small brown patch at lateral margin of pronotum; antennae black, antennomeres 1–4 light brown; as for coloration and body shape this species resembles Themesia auricapilla (Germar)   . Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with longitudinal carina, on each side of this carina there is a slightly depressed glabrous area; posterior side of eye without ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger, with single sharp tooth; right mandible hidden behind left mandible upon mandibular occlusion; external side of mandibles glabrous; clypeal margin straight, with median protuberance, sculpture formed by small diffuse punctation. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fifth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: subrectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 12D View FIGURE 12 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 12E–F View FIGURE 12 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate; ventral rectal sclerites with long apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 12G–J View FIGURE 12 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, without setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Caatinga (1), Isthmian-Pacific moist forests (1), Talamancan montane forests (1).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Amazonas | USNM   , Santarem, Det. Moldenke | IADIZA. COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: Coto Brus, Zona Protectora Tablas de la Escuela Progreso 3 Km E., (1/24/1996 - 1/26/1996) | INBC   . PANAMA. Chiriqui: Volcan de Chiriqui , Col. (Champion) | USNM   .

9 | Megalostomis basilaris Jacoby 1876   | ( Fig. 13A–C View FIGURE 13 )

Megalostomis basilaris Jacoby 1876: 809   ; Blackwelder 1944: 636.

Megalostomis (Coleobyersa) basilaris: Moldenke 1981: 101   .

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) runa Monrós 1951a: 1158   (incorrectly cited as M. ( Minturnia   ); Monrós 1952: 351 (as M. ( Megalostomis   ) correction of 1951a) SYN. NOV.

Type locality. Perú   .

Type material examined. Megalostomis basilaris: Monotype   : [R-P]: Type / 8624. // [W-P]: 1 st Jacoby/ Coll. / / [W-P]: Peru. | MCZ, url: http://insects.oeb.harvard.edu. Jacoby (1876: 809) indicated he had a single specimen in his collection. Megalostomis runa: Monotype   : [W-H]: Equator / Quito. // [ RB-P]: Type. // [Pk-H]: Megalostomis   / ( Megalostomis   )/ runa mihi/ F. Monrós Det. 1951. // [ RB-H]: Holotipo/ (♀). // [W-H]: Ex Mus/ Murray. // [W-P]: Fry coll./ 1900. 100. // [W-H]: 49801 | BMNH.

Remarks. Monrós (1951a) mentioned the similarity of M. runa   with M. basilaris   . Furthermore, all the characters that he used for the diagnosis of M. runa   pertain only to coloration and pubescence variation. He included in the diagnosis the black color of the head, pronotum, and ventral surface; and brick-red elytra with sparse dorsal pilosity, however, all these characters are to be found in M. basilaris   . After a comparison of the holotypes of M. runa   and M. basilaris   , I concluded that there are no significant morphological differences between them, but only infra-specific variation in polymorphic characters. Regarding their geographical distribution M. runa   was described from Ecuador (Quito), whereas specimens of M. basilaris   are known from northern Peru and Lower Amazonas. This species seems to be widely distributed in northwestern South America, but too few specimens are known to carry out an appropriate distribution analysis. Since both species were described on the basis of a single specimen each, I was not able to dissect them, thus this synonymization relies on description and external morphogy comparisons.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the fourth antennomere not serrate, frontal furrow beside the eyes present, elytra brown with its margins surrounded by a thin black line, thicker at the base; frontoclypeal suture visible; pronotal disc pubescence limited or denser at its margins.

Body length: 12 mm, width: 5.8 mm. Coloration pattern: head pronotum and tibiae black; elytra uniformly light brown to yellow, punctation black; humeral callus black. Head: anterior surface smooth with longitudinal carina, on each side of this carina there is a slightly depressed glabrous area; posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger; external side of mandibles glabrous; clypeal margin concave, sculpture formed by small diffuse punctation. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Genitalia: no specimens were available for dissection.

Ecoregions: Eastern Cordillera real montane forests (1), Northwestern Andean montane forests (1).

Additional material examined. PERÚ. Cajamarca: Muyaca, Col. (Fry)   | BMNH; Other: | ZMHB   .

10 | Megalostomis coerulea Baly 1877a   | ( Fig. 14A–C View FIGURE 14 )

Megalostomis coerulea Baly 1877a: 183   ; Clavareau 1913: 75.

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) coerulea Baly 1877a   : Guérin 1943b: 20; Blackwelder 1944: 636.

Type locality. Amazonas   .

Type material examined. Lectotype (present designation): [W-P]: SYNTYPE / Megalostomis   / coerulea Baly   / BM( NH). // [W-P]: Baly Coll. // [G-H]: Megalostomis   / coerulea/ Baly/ Amazonas. // [ RB-P]: Type/ H.T. // [G-H]: Type. // [G-H]: Ega. | BMNH. Remaining specimens as paralectotypes (by present designation): [W-P]: SYNTYPE / Megalostomis   / coerulea Baly   / BM( NH). // [W-P]: Baly Coll. // [G-H]: Type. // [G-H]: Ega. | BMNH, (3). [W-P]: SYNTYPE / Megalostomis   / coerulea Baly   / BM( NH). // [W-P]: Baly Coll. // [G-H]: Type. // [W-H]: 1854:25/ MEXICO / Cunning. // [W-H]: 54/ 25. | BMNH. [W-H]: Ega | BMNH, (4). [W-H]: Ega. // [W-H]: Amazon/ Bates | BMNH, (3).

Diagnosis. The most distinctive character of this species is the uniformely metallic blue dorsal surface (with shiny reflections); anterior margin of male clypeus almost straight. Females: pygidium anterior border with median ventral excavation (egg dimple).

Body length: 6.8 mm, width: 4.5 mm. Coloration pattern: entire body metallic blue, tibiae also metallic blue but darker. Head: anterior surface smooth with longitudinal carina, on each side of carina with slightly depressed area; head mostly glabrous; posterior side of eye with slight post-ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, slightly asymmetric; external side of mandibles glabrous; labrum subquadrate; clypeal margin straight; clypeus slightly punctured. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctuation; with sparse pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, glabrous. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Genitalia: no specimens were available for dissection.

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Amazonas, Det. Monrós | USNM.

11 | Megalostomis luctuosa Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 15A–I View FIGURE 15 )

Megalostomis luctuosa Dejean 1836: 441   (nomen nudum).

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) luctuosa Lacordaire 1848: 545   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Clavareau 1913: 75; Achard 1926:146; Guérin 1943b: 23 (Dejean as author); Blackwelder 1944: 637.

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) iracunda Lacordaire 1848: 546   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Guérin 1943b: 24; Blackwelder 1944: 637. SYN. NOV.

Type locality. French Guiana (Cayenne)   .

Megalostomis luctuosa   : Lectotype (present designation): [W-H]: Megalostomis   / luctuosa/ Cayenne/ Lac. // [W-H]: Megalostomis   / luctuosa Lac.   // [Pk-H]: Lectotype. // [W-P]: Coll. Chapuis. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. The following specimens as paralectotypes (by present designation): [W-H]: Cayenne. // [Pk-P]: Paratype. / / [W-P]: Coll. F. Chapuis. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. [W-H]: Megalostomis   / luctuosa LacCayenne.   // [G- H]: Bahia. // [W-P]: Colect. Dudivier. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. [W-H]: Megalostomis   / luctuosa LacCayenne.   // [G-H]: Cayenne. // [W-P]: Colect. Dudivier. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. [W-H]: Megalostomis   / (S. str.) luctuosa Lacord.   / Th. Lacordaire det. // [W-H]: CAYENNE/ Ex. Inst. Sci./ Belgique. // [RB- H]: Paratipo. // [Pk-P]: Para-/type. | USNM. Megalostomis iracunda: Monotype   : [W-H]: Iracunda/ Lac/ Type. // [ RB-H]: Holotipo. // [W-P]: Ex. Musaeo/ Miniszech. // [W-H], (probably added by Moldenke): Placed by/ Monrós under/ Megalostomis   / luctuosa/ Lac. | USNM. The latter is evidently the Holotype (by monotypy), acquired by Monrós from Miniszech collection (most likely from MNHN) and added it to his personal collection presently at USNM. It seems that Monrós also considered it a junior synonym of M. luctuosa   .

Remarks. M. iracunda   was described by Lacordaire (1848) on the basis of only one specimen that he indicated to be slightly affected by its conservation in alcohol. When comparing this specimen with M. luctuosa   , the author only remarked that M. iracunda   is slightly larger than M. luctuosa   , he also contemplated the idea that this specimen might be a “variety” of a species where the elytral design might be distinct. After examining the sole Lacordaire type of M. iracunda   (held in Monrós collection at USNM), which is now darkened due to its bad conservation, and comparing it with M. luctuosa   type material, I did not find any character leading to consider M. iracunda   as a separate species. As first reviser and following the ICZN (1999: Art. 24), I preferred the name “luctuosa” because it better describes the aspect of this species. Although the collector of M. iracunda   (M. Dupont) did not mention the locality for this specimen, Lacordaire (1848: 547) thought that it had been collected in French Guiana. Specimens of M. luctuosa   are known from French Guiana, Brazil, Guyana, and Venezuela. Achard (1926) described two varieties: spilota from French Guiana, and tetraspilota from Brazil. As mentioned before, in general these small color variations are not to be considered of taxonomic value, thus these infraspecific taxa might be junior synonyms of the nominotypic species, future study of Achard’s collection in Prague should clear up this situation.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from M. platyceros   by the frontal furrow beside the eyes delimited by strongly marked carina; last antennomere with two excavations; lateral arms of the median lobe straight and large (reaching the mid-point of the dorsal plate); elytra dark brown hiding the coloration pattern.

Body length: 9.9–11 mm, width: 5.2–6 mm. Coloration pattern: head pronotum and tibiae black; elytra dark brown hiding the coloration pattern, sometimes with two sub-basal fulvous patches. Head: anterior surface smooth, without longitudinal carina; anterior face glabrous; posterior side of eye with salient post-ocular protuberance, next to a marked furrow as is in Megalostomis grossa   ; mandibles longer than wide, asymmetric; left mandible shorter, bifurcated at apex; right mandible thicker without teeth; external side of mandibles glabrous; labrum subquadrate; clypeal margin straight, sculpture formed by small punctation, same as head. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctuation; with reclined short white pubescence concentrated at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 15D View FIGURE 15 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 15E–F View FIGURE 15 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (curved) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate quadrangular, apically excavated; ventral rectal sclerites with short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 15G–I View FIGURE 15 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe long, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves (2), Araucaria moist forests (1), Bahia coastal forests (3), Caatinga (1), Cerrado (1), Guianan moist forests (6), Guianan piedmont and lowland moist forests (1), Llanos (1), Madeira-Tapajós moist forests (1), Monte Alegre varzeá (1), Serra do Mar coastal forests (1), Tocantins /Pindare moist forests (2).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Bahia: Rio Vermelho , Det. Flowers | INBC, Sello | ZMHB | USNM, Col. (Duvivier) | KBIN; Minas Gerais: Det. Monrós | NMBA; Rio de Janeiro: (2) | IADIZA; Rondônia: Fz Rancho Grande, 62 Km SW Ariquemes, (10/20/1997 - 7/31/1997), Col. (Dozier), (2) | FSCA, Porto Velho, Col. (Mann, Baker), Det. Bowdicht | USNM; Other: Para, Belem, Mocamo Forrest, (7/2/1981), Col. (Fairchild) | FSCA, Para | ZMHB, Virmond, [23385], (3) | ZMHB. BRITISH   GUYANA. | ZMHB. FRENCH   GUYANA.

Cayenne: | USNM, (2) | ZMHB, Col. (Duvivier)   | KBIN, Det. Lacordaire | USNM, 33 Km s Roura on Kaw Rd, (6/ 2/2005), Col. (Eger)   | FSCA. VENEZUELA. Orinoco , Caura River   | IADIZA; Other : Suapure, Caura River, (2/8/ 1899), Col. (Kiages), Det. Monrós | NMBA. NO DATA. (3)   | ZMHB, [23384] | ZMHB.

12 | Megalostomis obesa Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 16A–I View FIGURE 16 )

Megalostomis obesa Dejean 1836: 416   (nomen nudum).

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) obesa Lacordaire 1848: 540   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Clavareau 1913: 75; Guérin 1943b: 18 Blackwelder 1944: 637.

Type locality. Brazil   .

Type material examined. Lectotype (present designation): [G-H]: Chlytra Megalostomis   / gigas mihi./ h. in Brasilia D. Falderman. // [G-H]: Brasilia / unreadable line. // [G-H]: ♀. | MIZT (De Breme Collection ).  

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from M. gigas   by its smaller size (less than 15 mm); reddish pronotum. Other diagnostic characters are: eyes stalk hypertrophied; infraocular projection with simple lamina; shape of head in males as long as wide; elytral pilosity diffuse, not concealing coloration pattern of cuticle; elytral puncturation diffuse; length of dorsal plate of aedeagus less than 2x the length of the lateral arms. Females: pygidium anterior border with median ventral excavation (egg dimple).

Body length: 9.8–13.8 mm, width: 5–7 mm. Coloration pattern: head and pronotum dark reddish (almost black in some regions), tibiae reddish, femora black; elytra with three reddish wavy sub-parallel bands, and three black bands, elytral base black, apex reddish. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; dense pubescence distributed throughout anterior face formed by short reclined white setae; posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles longer than wide, asymmetric; left mandible slightly larger; both mandibles very similar, right mandible shorter; external side of mandibles pubescent; labrum subquadrate; clypeal margin straight, sculpture formed by small punctation. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctuation; entire pronotal surface with white, short and reclined pubescence, denser at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, with white dense pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 16D View FIGURE 16 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 16E–F View FIGURE 16 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (curved) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate, apically excavated; ventral rectal sclerites with short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 16G–I View FIGURE 16 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Bahia interior forests (1), Cerrado (14), Cuban moist forests (1), Humid Chaco (2), Serra do Mar coastal forests (3).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Goias: Bananeiras, Det. Guérin, (2) | MZSP   , Bulhoes, Det. Guérin | MZSP   | USNM   , Det. Guérin | MZSP; Mato Grosso: Chapada | USNM, (11/1/1902)   , Col. (Robert), Det. Moldenke, (2) | BMNH, (3)   | IADIZA, (2)   | ZMHB; Minas Gerais: Uberaba, Le moult vendit, Det. Monrós, (3) | KBIN   , Uberaba | USNM   , Det. Monrós | NMBA; Rio de Janeiro: | IADIZA, | USNM   ; São Paulo: Brasilia | HNHM   , San Jose dos Campos, (10/19/1960 - 10/22/1960), Col. ( Tieman ) | LACM   | ZMHB   ; Other: Jatahy, (2) | ZMHB   | USNM   | ZMHB, Col. (Baly), (4) | BMNH   , Col. (Duvivier), Det. Monrós | KBIN   . CUBA. Trinidad, Col. (Fry) | BMNH (first and only record of a megalostomine in Cuba )   . PARAGUAY. Asunción, (11/1/1922 - 1/11/ 1923), Col. ( Kent ), (2) | BMNH   . NO DATA. | IADIZA, [23387], (2) | ZMHB   , Col. (Chapuis), Det. Lacordaire | KBIN   , Col. (Chapuis), Det. Monrós | KBIN   , Det. Monrós | KBIN   .

13 | Megalostomis platyceros Monrós 1951a   | ( Fig. 17A–I View FIGURE 17 )

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) platyceros Monrós 1951a: 1156   .

Megalostomis (Snellingia) platyceros   ; Moldenke 1981: 101.

Type locality. Lower Amazon   .

Type material examined. Paratype: [W-H]: BRASIL / Col. Baly. // [Pk-H]: Megalostomis   / ( Megalostomis   )/ platyceros/ mihi/ F. Monrós det. 1951. // [ RB-H]: Paratipo (♂) | USNM. Holotype, Allotype and 4 Paratypes at BMNH.

Remarks. The subgenus Megalostomis (Snellingia)   was created by Moldenke (1981) for two species that do not share any significant characters in common: Megalostomis platyceros   and Megalostomis tosta   (= microcephala   ), perhaps this was due to misidentification of specimens. From the study of seven syntypes of M. microcephala   ( Colombia) borrowed from ZMHB, and a paratype of M. platyceros   ( Brazil) borrowed from USNM, and other specimens of M. platyceros   from Brazil, Paraguay and Venezuela, M. platyceros   is not sufficiently different from the remaining species of Megalostomis   . As mentioned by Monrós (1952) in the original description, it is very similar to M. basilaris   and M. flavipennis   . However, in the cladistic analyses performed by Agrain and Roig-Juñent (2011) it appears closely related to other species of the M. grossa   group such as M. obesa   and M. luctuosa   , and clearly separated from M. microcephala   , which is in the M. dimidiata   species group.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the last antennomere with one excavation; basal hood structure not forming any particular structure; without frontal furrow beside the eyes. Females: apex of spermathecal capsule short (capsule J-shaped).

Body length: 10.3–11 mm, width: 5.1–5.9 mm. Coloration pattern: head dark brown; brown pronotum; tibiae light brown; elytra almost unicolored brown, with black dot at humeral callus. Head: anterior surface smooth with longitudinal carina at inter-ocular area; frons glabrous; posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, slightly asymmetric; left mandible larger with an apical sharp tooth; right mandible with its tip hidden behind left mandible upon mandibular occlusion; external side of mandibles glabrous; clypeus punctured as rest of head surface. Antennae: scape robust, serrated beyond fifth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with one marginal excavation. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; punctation small and uniform, much weaker than on the elytra; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins almost straight, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 17D View FIGURE 17 ) J-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule short, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 17E–F View FIGURE 17 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (curved) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate, apically excavated; ventral rectal sclerites with short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 17G–I View FIGURE 17 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide without ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Llanos (2), Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (1).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Rondônia: Fz Rancho Grande , 62 Km SW Ariquemes, (11/4/1997 - 11/16/1997), Col. (Eger) | FSCA   . PARAGUAY. Río Acaray , (1930), Col. (Horvat), Det. Monrós | HNHM   . VENEZUELA. Bolivar: Ciudad Bolivar , (7/3/1998), Col. (Kiages) | USNM   , Orinoco, Caura River , Col. (Kiages) | USNM   .

14 | Megalostomis eiderae   sp. nov. | ( Fig. 18A–J View FIGURE 18 )

Etymology: This species name is affectionately dedicated to the memory of Eider Ruiz Manzanos, a very dear friend and colleague.

Types designation. Holotype (♂): ECUADOR: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Station near Yasuni National Park , 22-Oct-1998. 00 37' 55"S, 076 08' 39"W. T.L. Erwin et al. CRPC # 116, LOT # 1961 | USNM GoogleMaps   *; Allotype (♀): ECUADOR: Orellana, Transect Ent. 1 km S. Onkone Gare Camp. Reserva Etnica Waorani. 216.3m. 23-Jun- 1996. 00° 39' 25.7"S, 076° 27' 10.8"W. T.L. Erwin et al. CRPC # 064, LOT # 1616 | USNM GoogleMaps   *; Paratypes (4♀ ♀): ECUADOR: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Station near Yasuni National Park . 220– 250m.   21-Oct-1998. 00 37' 55"S, 076 08' 39"W. T.L. Erwin et al. CRPC # 064, LOT # 1984 | USNM GoogleMaps   *, 22-Oct-1998. 00 37' 55"S, 076 08' 39"W. T.L. Erwin et al. CRPC # 116, LOT # 1960 | USNM GoogleMaps   *, 30-Jun-1998. 00 37' 55"S, 076 08' 39"W. T.L. Erwin et al. (2), CRPC # 064, LOT # 1822, LOT # 1837 | USNM GoogleMaps   *; Paratype (♀): ECUADOR: Onkone Gare Camp. CRPC # 064, LOT # 1717 | USNM   *; Paratype (♀): ECUADOR: Napo, Limoncocha. 16-Jun-1977. W. E. Steiner / IADIZA. (*) Held in trust for Ecuador at the USNM, Smithsonian Institution   .

Remarks. Although males of this species are quite easy to identify, the female specimens might be confused with M. basilaris   . When comparing the females of M. eiderae   with any specimen of M. basilaris   (male or female), there are subtle but numerous morphological differences and also secondary coloration differences. Diagnostic characters to differentiate these taxa are pointed out below in Table 2 to avoid any confusion. There is only one male specimen for this species, which is about half the size of female specimens, more male specimens are needed to confirm size to be a dimorphic characteristic

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the elytra uniformly brown, with thin black margins; without pubescence; fourth antennomere not serrated (round shape); male with both teeth the same length; frontoclypeal suture visible; scutellum shape longer than wide; without long setae at tip of the lateral arms of median lobe; pygidium sculpture with londitudinally marked carina; pygidial pubescence with apical glabrous areas. Females: spermathecal capsule basal region, with expansions.

Body length: 7–11 mm, width: 4–6 mm. Coloration pattern: head, pronotum and tibiae black; elytra almost unicolored light brown, lateral margins black, with black dot at humeral region, black punctation. Head: anterior surface smooth with longitudinal carina, on each side of this carina there is a slightly depressed glabrous area; posterior side of eye with salient ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, almost symmetric; both mandibles curved (forceps-like), left mandible with single sharp tooth, right mandible broader, with denticules; external side of mandibles glabrous; clypeal margin, almost straight, sculpture with smooth punctation. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fifth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with one marginal excavation. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, with white dense pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 18E View FIGURE 18 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 18F–G View FIGURE 18 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate, apically excavated; ventral rectal sclerites with very short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 18H–J View FIGURE 18 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe narrower than its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, without setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) up-directed forming wing-shaped structure in dorsal view; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Napo moist forests (8).

Potential Host plants: From field notes: Trees in fog column: Arecaceae   : Iriartea deltoidea   ; Fabaceae   : Browneopsis ucayalina   ; Lecythidaceae   : Gustavia longifolia   . Closest Trees: Arecaceae   : Iriartea deltoidea   ; Fabaceae   : Inga cordatoalata   ; Euphorbiaceae   : Senefeldera inclinata   cf. (3.2 mt.); Myrtaceae   : "sovran". Trees within 2 mt.: Arecaceae   : Iriartea deltoidea   ; Fabaceae   : Inga cordatoalata   ; Moraceae   : Pseudolmedia laevigata   cf. Trees within 3 mt.: Arecaceae   : Iriartea deltoidea   ; Euphorbiaceae   : Senefeldera inclinata   cf.; Fabaceae   : Macrolobium ischnocalyx   cf.; Moraceae   : "leggy", Maquira calophylla   ; Myrtaceae   : "sovran"; Lauraceae   : "serrate".

15 | Megalostomis interruptofasciata Baly 1877a   | ( Fig. 19A–C View FIGURE 19 )

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) interruptofasciata Baly 1877a: 182   ; Clavareau 1913: 75; Guérin 1943b: 21; Blackwelder 1944: 637.

Type locality. Amazonas: Ega   .

Material examined. Lectotype (by present designation): (♂): [W-H]: Amaz. // [ RB-P]: Type / H.T. // [G-H]: Megalostomis   / interruptofasciata / Baly / Ega. // [W-P]: Baly coll. | BMNH. Another specimen as paralectotype: [G-H]: Ega. // [G-H]: Type. // [W-P]: Baly coll. | BMNH.  

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the pronotum reddish; with simple infra-ocular projection; elytra with two distinct transverse black bands, one at the base and another in the median region; last antennomere regular in shape; pronotal disc lateral margins visible from above.

Body length: 9 mm, width: 5.1 mm. Coloration pattern: head dark brown; reddish pronotum; tibiae reddish; elytra reddish, with two thin horizontal black bands, one basal and another at median region. Head: anterior surface smooth with longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent glabrous slightly depressed areas; eyes widely separated, posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, symmetric; both mandibles very short; left mandible larger; external side of mandibles glabrous; clypeal margin straight, or only slightly excavated at middle, sculpture smooth. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; punctation small, almost absent, diffuse and weaker than on the elytra; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Genitalia: no specimens were available for dissection.

16 | Megalostomis grossa ( Forsberg 1821)   | ( Fig. 20A–I View FIGURE 20 )

Clythra grossa Forsberg 1821: 269   , 290.

Clythra boopis Germar 1824: 551   .

Megalostomis boopis: Dejean 1836: 416   ; Blackwelder 1944: 637.

Megalostomis interrupta Dejean 1836: 416   (nomen nudum).

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) grossa Lacordaire 1848: 543   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Burmeister 1877: 61; Clavareau 1913: 75; Bruch 1914: 348; Achard 1926: 146; Guérin 1943b: 19; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Guérin 1953: 161; Monrós 1953a: 72.

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) grossa brasiliana Achard 1926: 147   ; Guérin 1943b: 19 (SYN and status change); Blackwelder 1944: 636.

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) grossa cinctipennis Achard 1926: 146   ; Guérin 1943b: 19 (SYN); Blackwelder 1944: 636.

Megalostomis grossa var. boopis Achard 1926: 146   ; Monrós 1953a: 72 (SYN); also a junior homonym of Clythra boopis Germar.  

Megalostomis grossa var. quadrimaculata Achard 1926: 147   ; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 72 (SYN).

Type locality. Forsberg (1821) did not indicate any locality; later Lacordaire (1848: 544) indicated Brazil and Bolivia.

Type material. The type series was not available for this study; species determination relies on keys, redescriptions, and drawings by Guérin 1943b, 1953:161 (photo), and Monrós (1953a), as well as previously determined material, including specimens from the type locality.

Remarks. Monrós (1953a: 81, Fig. 78) described the coloration pattern variation in this species and synonymized Achard’s (1926) varieties boopis   and quadrimaculata by considering them of no taxonomic significance. Megalostomis brasiliana   was described by Achard (1926) as a new species within Megalostomis   . Guérin 1943b: 19 listed M. (str.) grossa   brasiliana Achard   in what I have interpreted as a synonymization and status change nomenclatural act. As mentioned by Monrós, Guérin did not give any explanation of why he synonymized M. grossa cinctipennis   and M. brasiliana   . Subsequent study of Achard’s collection in Prague is necessary to confirm Guérin`s decision.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the sub-rectangular pronotum, with two straight apical reddish patches that may be fused, elytra with two sub-apical and two sub-basal reddish patches, and large size (usually larger than 10 mm); both male teeth are the same length; shape of head in males wider than long.

Body length: 9–15 mm, width: 5–7.4 mm. Coloration pattern: head black; pronotum black, with two lateral reddish patches at base that can join together at median region, covering almost entire pronotum in some specimens; tibiae black; elytra black, with two reddish patches, one sub-basal and another sub-apical, both reaching lateral margins, on each elytron patches can reach basal and apical regions, their color can vary from dark reddish to yellow in some specimens. Head: anterior surface smooth, with central protuberance at upper region of clypeus; head surface mostly glabrous; posterior side of eye with salient post-ocular protuberance, next to a marked furrow; mandibles short, as long as wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger, with sharp tip that covers the right mandible during occlusion; external side of mandibles pubescent; labrum subquadrate, glabrous; clypeal margin straight, sculpture formed by small punctation similar to that of the pronotum. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation weaker than elytral punctation; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 20D View FIGURE 20 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 20E– F View FIGURE 20 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate; ventral rectal sclerites with very short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 20G–I View FIGURE 20 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe narrower than its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe long, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) up-directed forming wing-shaped structure in dorsal view; ejaculatory guide without ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (12), Bahia interior forests (2), Caatinga (1), Central Andean Puna (needs confirmation) (1), Cerrado (5), Chiquitano dry forests (5), Humid Chaco (6), Serra do Mar coastal forests (3).

Material examined: ARGENTINA. Corrientes: Isla Apipe, Col. (Martinez) | IADIZA   ; Misiones: San Ignacio | MLPA   , Col. (Baden) | IADIZA   , Col. (Baden) | USNM   , Col. (Montes) | MLPA   , Santa Ana , Col. (Monrós) | USNM   . BOLIVIA. Chuquisaca: Chuquisaca , (4/4/1924), Col. (Harrington) | IADIZA   ; Santa Cruz: Al Guacay | IADIZA   , Col. (Pinckert) | IADIZA   , Cuatro Ojos , Col. (Pinckert) | IADIZA   , Loma Alta , Col. (Pinckert) | IADIZA   . BRAZIL. Bahia: Sello   , (2) | ZMHB   ; Goias: Araçu , (10/1998-11/1998), Col. (Farias) | HNHM   , Bananeiras | IADIZA   , Jataby | IADIZA   , Jathay , (11/1972), Col. (Oliveira) | ZMHB, (10/1/1938)   | USNM; Minas Gerais: | USNM | ZMHB   ; São Paulo: Brotas, Rio Claro , [Baetge] | ZMHB   | IADIZA, (2)   | ZMHB; Other: Jatahy, (2) | ZMHB   , V. Olf, (2) | ZMHB, Villa Rica | AMNH, (3)   | ZMHB   , [23373 /as C. boopis   ] | ZMHB, Col. (Duvivier) | KBIN   , Col. (Reinhart), Det. Monrós | NMBA. FRENCH   GUYANA. Cayenne: | USNM   . PARAGUAY. Alto Parana: Puerto Bertoni | USNM   ; Caaguazú: Paso yobai, (1/15/1951), Col. (Föerster) | USNM, (11/26/1951)   , Det. Monrós | NMBA; Cordillera: San Bernardino | USNM   ; Paraguari: Sapucay | USNM   | ZMHB   ; Other: Asunción, Col. (Vezenyi), Det. Monrós, (2) | HNHM   , Santa Trinidad | MLPA, Villa Rica | ZMHB | ZMHB   . NO DATA. (5) | ZMHB, Col. (Chapuis), (2) | KBIN   .

17 | Megalostomis sergius   sp. nov. | ( Fig. 21A–I View FIGURE 21 )

Etymology: This specific name is treated as a noun in apposition ( ICZN, 1999, Art. 34.2.1), it pertains to Dr Sergio Roig-Juñent, a prominent entomologist who introduced me to the study of this wonderful group of beetles.

Types designation. Holotype: Orellana Transect. Reserva Etnica Waorani, 216m. 9-Feb-1996. 00º 39' 25.7''S, 076º 27' 10.8''W. / Legs sent to BTOL for DNA. T.L. Erwin et al. | USNM GoogleMaps   *; Allotype (♀): ECUADOR: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Station near Yasuni National Park , 08-Feb-1999. 00 37' 55"S, 076 08' 39"W. T.L. Erwin et al. CRPC # 134, LOT # 2027 | USNM GoogleMaps   *; Paratype: 05-Feb-1999. 00º 37' 55"S, 076 08' 39"W. T.L. Erwin et al. CRPC # 134, LOT # 2090 | USNM GoogleMaps   *; Paratype: ECUADOR: OrellanaTransect Ent. 1 km S. Onkone Gare Camp. Reserva Etnica Waorani. 216.3m. 04-Feb-1996. 00° 39' 25.7"S, 076° 27' 10.8"W. T.L. Erwin et al. CRPC # 064, LOT # 1417 | USNM GoogleMaps   *, Paratype (♂): ECUADOR: Orellana, Transect Ent. 1 km S. Onkone Gare Camp. Reserva Etnica Waorani. 216.3m. 05-Feb-1996, 00° 39' 25.7"S, 076° 27' 10.8"W. T.L. Erwin et al. CRPC # 064, LOT # 1427 | USNM GoogleMaps   *; Paratype: BOLIVIA: Cavinas, Río Beni. Feb-1922. Mudford Rio Expl. 1921-22. Mann. | IADIZA. (*) Held in trust for Ecuador at the USNM, Smithsonian Institution   .

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the glabrous frons; frontal furrow beside the eyes delimited by a slight carina; elytral base black, it may be extended through the inner margin of the elytra, forming a central patch; pygidial pubescence with apical glabrous areas. Females: kotpresse ventral sclerites external margin fanshaped.

Body length: 11–12 mm, width: 6–6.7 mm. Coloration pattern: head, pronotum and tibiae black; elytra brick red with base and external margins black, in some specimens black color is extended to margins invading the central region. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured, with longitudinal carina; internal margin of eyes with strongly marked carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger, with single sharp tooth; right mandible hidden behind left mandible upon mandibular occlusion; external side of mandibles glabrous; clypeal margin concave. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with one marginal excavation. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: subrectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 21D View FIGURE 21 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 21E–F View FIGURE 21 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate (apically excavated); ventral rectal sclerites with very short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 21G–I View FIGURE 21 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe narrower than its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) up-directed forming wing-shaped structure in dorsal view; ejaculatory guide without ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Napo moist forests (5).

Potential Host plants: From field notes: Trees in fog column: Bombacaceae   : Matisia malacocalyx   cf.; Lecythidaceae   : Eschweilera coriacea   cf.; Moraceae   : Batocarpus orinocensis   cf.; Rutaceae   : Zanthoxylum riedelianum ssp. kellermanii   cf. Closest Trees: Burseraceae   : Crepidospermum rhoifolium   ; Moraceae   : Sorocea steinbachii   cf. Trees within 3 mt.: Fabaceae   : Zygia coccinea   cf.; Moraceae   : Sorocea steinbachii   cf.; Sapotaceae   : Pouteria gracilis   cf.

18 | Megalostomis anachoreta Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 22A–I View FIGURE 22 )

Megalostomis (Minturnia) anachoreta Lacordaire 1848: 537   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3294; Jacoby 1888: 73; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 59; Clavareau 1913: 75; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Moldenke 1970: 20 (Dejean as author).

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) anachoreta: Monrós 1953c: 149   .

Megalostomis (Coleobyersa) anachoreta: Moldenke 1981: 101   (Dejean as author).

Megalostomis gratiosa Lacordaire 1848: 533   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Moldenke 1970: 22 SYN. NOV.

Megalostomis (Minturnia) amazona Jacoby 1876: 809   ; Jacoby 1888: 73; Clavareau 1913: 75; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Monrós 1953c: 149 (as M. ( Megalostomis   ); Guérin 1943b: 21; Moldenke 1970: 19; Moldenke 1981: 101 [as M. (Coleobyersa)]. SYN. NOV.

Megalostomis generosa Baly 1877a: 181   ; Clavareau 1913: 75; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Monrós 1953c: 149 (as junior synonym M. amazona   ); Moldenke 1981: 100 junior synonym of M. (Minturnia) amazona   ). SYN. NOV.

Megalostomis (Minturnia) chuncho Monrós 1951a: 1146   , 1151; 1953c: 148, 149 (places in synonymy with M. anachoreta   ).

Megalostomis (Minturnia) mariae Monrós 1951a: 1154   ; 1953c: 149 (place in synonymy with M. amazona   ); Moldenke 1981: 101 (reversed synonymy with M. amazona   ) (new status syn.)

Megalostomis balyi Monrós 1951a: 1152   SYN. NOV.

Megalostomis (Minturnia) weyrauchi Monrós 1952: 350   ; 1953c: 148 (junior synonym of M. anachoreta   ).

Megalostomis (Minturnia) hespenheidi Moldenke 1981: 100   SYN. NOV.

Type locality. Colombia   .

Type material examined. Megalostomis anachoreta   : Lectotype (present designation): [G-P]: Hist.-Coll. ( Coleoptera   )/ Nr. 23380/ Megalostomis   / Anachoreta Lac./ Bogota, Dej./ Zool. Mus. Berlin. // [R-P]: SYNTYPUS / Megalostomis   anacho-/ reta Lacordaire, 1848 / Labelled by MNHUB 2008. | ZMHB. Megalostomis amazona   : Lectotype (present designation): [R-P]: Type/ 8625. // [W-H]: R. Mauré/ Amazon/ Handing. // [W-P]: 1 st Jacoby/ Coll. | MCZ, url: http://insects.oeb.harvard.edu. Megalostomis balyi: Allotype   : [W-H]: BRAZIL /Amazonas/ Ega/ Col. Baly/ Ex. Brit. Museum. // [Pk-H]: Megalostomis   / ( Minturnia   )/ balyi/ mihi/ F. Monrós det. 1951. // [ RB-H]: Alotipo (♀) | USNM. Megalostomis generosa   : Lectotype (present designation): [G-H]: Megalostomis   / generosa / Baly / Ega. Upper Amazonas. // [ RB-P]: Type/ H.T. // [G-H]: Type. // [G-H]: Ega. // [W-P]: Baly Coll. | BMNH. Remaining specimens as paralectotypes (by present designation): [G-H]: Type. // [G-H]: Ega. // [W-P]: Baly Coll. | BMNH, (3). Megalostomis gratiosa   : Lectotype (present designation): [W-H]: Colomb. // [Pk-H]: Minturnia   / gratiosa/ Lac./ Lacordaire det. // [ RB-H]: Holotipo. // [W-H]: Type. // [W-H]: Gratiosa/ Lac. // [W-P]: Ex-Musaeo/ Miniszech. | USNM. The latter is evidently a syntype acquired by Monrós from Miniszech collection (most likely from MNHN) and added it to his personal collection presently at USNM. Megalostomis hespenheidi   : Holotype: [W-H]: Costa Rica/ Paz. H. Roble. // [W-P]: California Academy/ of Sciences/ Type Nº. 13693. // [Pk-H]: HOLOTYPE:/ Megalostomis   / hespenheidi (♀)/ det. Moldenke’ 1980. | Studied from California Academy of Sciences Digital image by Vic. Smith. Megalostomis mariae   : Holotype: ECUADOR: Balzar III., Ex. Coll Fry. | BMNH. Megalostomis weyrauchi   : Holotype: [W-H]: PANAMA / Balboa/ Jul/7/19/ G. V. Weyrauch. // [R-P]: Type Nº/ 65235/ U.S. N.M. // [Pk-H]: Megalostomis   / ( Minturnia   )/ weyrauchi/ mihi/ F. Monrós det. 1952. // [ RB-H]: Holotipo (♀)/ ilustrado. // [W-H] (probably added by Moldenke): placed by F.M./ under/ Megalostomis   / anachoreta/ Lac. | USNM. Megalostomis chuncho   : Holotype: (♀) Peru, Upper Amazon, Iquitos, ex coll. Jacoby | BMNH.

Remarks. Both Lacordaire (1848) and Moldenke (1970, 1981), used Dejean (1836: 440) as the original citation for M. anachoreta   . I did not find this in Dejean`s catalog, neither as Megalostomis   nor as Clytra   , that is why I considered Lacordaire as the original author. In addition, most names in Dejean catalog are to be considered nomina nuda since they are not accompanied by a description. The taxomony of this species is very complicated. I have concluded that most of the taxonomic problems were caused because the males of M. anachoreta   do not present sexual dimorphism in the head, and, consequently are very similar to the females of a group of species including: M. gazella   , M. cornuta   , M. kollari   , M. religiosa   , M. tricincta   , and M. consimilis   (former subgenus M. (Scaphigenia). For a better distinction between these taxa: the males of the latter group have a central tooth in the clypeus and well-developed mandibles, with apical teeth and auricular appendix; male specimens without these characters surely belong to M. anachoreta   (except for some specimens of M. gazella   ). Female specimens in the former subgenus M. (Scaphigenia) are quite difficult to identify to the species level, the most appropriate method is to check their elytral design with those of their respective males ( Monrós 1953 a, Agrain et al. 2007). Another fact that may be used to separate these taxa is that M. anachoreta   is distributed in northern Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Costa Rica, totally separated from the other mentioned species which are known only from Bolivia, southern Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Males of M. anachoreta   that exhibit slight differences in their elytral design have been historically named as new species. As mentioned before, M. anachoreta   is widely distributed throughout Amazonia ( Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Panama and Venezuela. All but one [ M. hespenheidi   ( Costa Rica)] of the synonymies proposed in this contribution (explained below) were described from Amazonia: M. amazona   (“Amazonas”), M. balyi   (“Lower Amazon”), M. chuncho   (“Upper Amazon”, Peru), M. generosa   (Ega, “Upper Amazonas”, M. gratiosa   ( Nueva Granada, Colombia), M. mariae   ( Ecuador, Balzar). Type material comparison between M. amazona   and M. anachoreta   , result in not other difference but polymorphic color variations in the elytral pattern.

Monrós (1951a) mentioned the head sculpture and elytral coloration pattern for the diagnosis of M. balyi   , this character is also present in other specimens when larger series are studied, without any distinct geographic separation. Megalostomis chuncho   , was described from a female specimen, according to Monrós (1951a), with a distinct interocular carina and almost straight lateral margins of pronotum (characters shared with M. anachoreta   ): he also mentioned the use of these characters to separate it from M. univittata   , an allied taxon according to Monrós. The latter is confirmed by the cladistic analysis of Agrain and Roig-Juñent (2011) where both species are sister taxa within the M. grossa   species group. Monrós (1953c) synonymized several taxa, by considering them small variations in coloration pattern, or minor differences in size and microsculpture that according to Monrós (1953c: 148): ” tend to be lost in large series”, a fact confirmed in this contribution for several other taxa. Among these taxa, he synonymized M. generosa   with M. amazona   . Later Moldenke (1981) removed it from synonymy without giving any explanation. Type material comparison of M. generosa   , M. amazona   , and M. anachoreta   , show no other difference but a polymorphic variation in coloration pattern of the elytra. Therefore, M. generosa   , and M. amazona   are synonymized with M. anachoreta   . Considering that there is only one year between Jacoby’s and Baly's descriptions of these two species, and the fact that Baly did not mention anything about M. amazona   , the most probable scenario is that Baly did not know about Jacoby's earlier description of this morph when describing M. generosa   . In the original description of M. gratiosa ( Lacordaire 1848: 534)   , the author mentioned the similarity of this species with M. gazella   females (of course, this was likely due to the situation explained above). M. gratiosa   was also described for Colombia as M. anachoreta   , and Lacordaire based his diagnosis on the color variations of the elytra. As the first reviser and following the ICZN (1999: Art. 24), I have decided to maintain M. anachoreta   as the senior species, because it is the most frequently used name used in the literature. M. hespenheidi   was described from a sole female specimen, the characters mentioned in Moldenke’s (1981) description are to be found in all other specimens of M. anachoreta   , I studied the type of M. hespenheidi   from a photograph kindly sent to me by Vic Smith (California Academy of Sciences). Finally, I borrowed from BMNH the type of M. mariae   , a species dedicated to Monrós’ wife, Dr María Muntañola. Although Monrós (1953c) synonymized it with M. anachoreta   for the reasons expressed above, Moldenke (1981) resurrected this synonymy without mentioning any character differences. After the examination of this type and the illustration of the male genitalia in Monrós’s original description, I decided to resynonymize it with M. anachoreta   . The type specimen of M. mariae   differs from M. anachoreta   only in the lighter coloration of the elytra (yellow instead of fulvous bands), and dark reddish pronotum instead of black, with no differences in male genitalia.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the black elytra with two straight and transverse reddish bands, and pilose transverse pronotum; male mandibles exceed the length of the clypeus; shape of head in males wider than long; basal hood structure of male genitalia forming a basal keel. Females: kotpresse central dorsal plate subquadrate with three arms; eighth sternite without central tooth. See remarks to further comments for the differentiation of this species from M. gazella   .

Body length: 10–12 mm, width: 5–6.1 mm. Coloration pattern: head black; black and reddish pronotum; tibiae (except at base) reddish; elytra black, with two reddish transverse bands, basal bands generally reaching external margin but not internal one, apical bands usually not reaching lateral margins, this apical reddish band may reach elytral apex in some specimens, while some specimens may also have an entirely reddish and glabrous pronotum. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; pubescence of the head highly variable among specimens; posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles longer than wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger, with curved, sharp tooth; right mandible hidden behind the left tooth upon mandibular occlusion; external side of mandibles glabrous; clypeal margin, distinctly V-shaped, sculpture formed by small diffuse punctation. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite without a central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 22D View FIGURE 22 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 22E–F View FIGURE 22 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate (with two lateral arms with the apex concave); ventral rectal sclerites without apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 22G–I View FIGURE 22 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe narrower than its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) up-directed forming wing-shaped structure in dorsal view; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves (4), Cauca Valley montane forests (1), Central American dry forests (1), Costa Rican seasonal moist forests (1), Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub (2), Guianan moist forests (2), Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests (2), Isthmian-Pacific moist forests (4), La Costa xeric shrublands (1), Magdalena Valley dry forests (2), Magdalena Valley montane forests (3), Panamanian dry forests (1), Talamancan montane forests (2), Venezuelan Andes montane forests (1), Western Ecuador moist forests (1).

Predators: Cerceris binodis   , reported in Panama by Giovanetti (2005).

Host plants: Anacardiaceae   : Mango, Mangifera indica   (buds) (from specimens label). Bignoniaceae   : Tabebuia rosea   (from specimens labels). Moraceae   : Ødegaard (2004) on Brosimum utile (Kunth)   . Myrtaceae   : Kliejunas (2001): Eucalyptus tereticornis   .

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Goias: 24 Km. E Formosa , (5/22/1956) | LACM   ; Other: Amazonas | USNM   . COLOMBIA. Bogota: | KBIN, | USNM   ; Bolivar: Cartagena | USNM, (1/1/1934)   , Col. (Castillo) | USNM   , Col. (Castillo) | IADIZA   , Col. (Creed) | USNM   ; Cundinamarca: Fusagasuga , (11/6/1965), Col. (Ramos), (2) | IADIZA   , Viota , (12/11/1965), Col. (Ramos) | IADIZA   ; Tolima: Coyaima , Det. Moldenke | USNM   ; Other: Guajiro, San Antonio , (1/1940), Col. (Abay), (7) | LACM   , Purina , (11/7/1996), Col. (Bürger S) | KBIN   | IADIZA, (11/1/1941)   , Col. (Gallego), Det. Moldenke, [En hojas de Guaba - Guamo - Mimosacea] | USNM   , Col. (Chapuis) | KBIN   , Col. ( Chapuis ), Det. Lacordaire, (4) | KBIN   . COSTA RICA. Guanacaste: Cerro el Hacha, (11/15/1991 - 12/15/1991), Col. (Espinoza) | INBC   , Los Almendros , (3/3/1992 - 4/3/1992), Col. (Reyes) | INBC   , Orosi volcano, (2/1/1992 - 3/1/1992), Col. (Florez K) | INBC, (2/1/1992 - 3/1/1992)   , Col. (Garcia), Det. Mora | INBC   , Santa Rosa National Park , (5/30/1983 - 6/30/1983), Col. (Janzen) | INBC   ; Puntarenas: El Palmar, Puerto Vilches , (8/25/1992), Det. White | USNM   ; Other: Bucaramanga , Puerto Vilches | USNM   . FRENCH GUYANA. Cayenne: (2) | USNM   ; Other: | KBIN   , | NMBA, [23381 - Hist Coll. Sta Martha fontan] | ZMHB   , [23381] | ZMHB   , Col. (Duvivier) | KBIN   . PANAMA. Chiriqui: Bugaba, Col. (Champion) | USNM   , El Boquete , [A bouteto SV] | ZMHB   ; Colon: | IADIZA, Det. Monrós | NMBA   ; Isla San Jose: Balboa, Col. (Morrison) | IADIZA   ;

Panama: | IADIZA   , Col. (Krauss), Det. Moldenke | USNM   , Other: Pedregal , (10/1/1946), Col. (Krauss) | USNM   , San Bernardino , Departamento de la Cordillera, Col. (Fiebrig) | IADIZA   , Taboga , (12/1/1946), Col. (Krauss), Det. Moldenke | USNM   . VENEZUELA. Merida: 38 Km SW Merida, (4/2/1981), Col. (Grisell) | IADIZA   ; Other: Caracas | ZMHB   . NO DATA. | USNM.

19 | Megalostomis flavipennis Jacoby 1880   | ( Fig. 23A–I View FIGURE 23 )

Megalostomis (Minturnia) flavipennis Jacoby 1880: 31   ; Jacoby 1888: 72; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 61; Clavareau 1913: 76; Blackwelder 1944: 636.

Megalostomis (Coleobyersa) flavipennis: Moldenke 1981: 101   .

Type locality. Nicaragua: Chontales. Type material examined. Lectotype (present designation): [W-P]: B.C.A., Col. VI, I./ Suppl. /  

Megalostomis   / flavipennis/ Jac. // [W-P]: Type/ Sp. Figured. // [W-P]: Chontales / Nicaragua / T. Belt. // [ RB-P]: Type/ H.T. | BMNH   . Remaining specimens as paralectotypes (by present designation): [W-P]: B.C.A., Col. VI, I./ Suppl. / Megalostomis   / flavipennis/ Jac. // [W-P]: V. de Chiriqui / 2-2000 ft. / Champion ) | BMNH   . [W-P]: B.C.A., Col. VI, I./ Suppl. / Megalostomis   / flavipennis/ Jac. // [W-P]: Bugaba / 800–3500 ft. / Champion ) | BMNH   .

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from M. basilaris   by the serrate fourth antennomere, entirely light brown (yellowish) elytra; frontal furrow beside the eyes delimited by strongly marked carina; visible frontoclypeal suture; and apical glabrous areas within the pygidial pubescence.

Body length: 11–12 mm, width: 5.1–6.1 mm. Coloration pattern: head pronotum black; tibiae black, in some specimens light brown with black base; elytra unicolored brown. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with longitudinal carina, on each side of this carina there is a slightly depressed glabrous area; with marked lateral carina on eye internal margin; posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger and with single sharp tooth; right mandible smaller, hidden behind left mandible upon mandibular occlusion; external side of mandibles pubescent; clypeal margin straight; clypeus puncturated. Antennae: scape robust, serrated beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with one marginal excavation. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctuation; sparse, short, and reclined white pubescence denser at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence.

Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 23D View FIGURE 23 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 23E–F View FIGURE 23 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate (apically excavated); ventral rectal sclerites without apodemes (round margins). Male genitalia: ( Fig. 23G–I View FIGURE 23 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe narrower than its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) up-directed forming wing-shaped structure in dorsal view; ejaculatory guide without ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Central American dry forests (1), Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests (4), Isthmian-Pacific moist forests (4).

Host plants: Moraceae   : Ødegaard (2004) on Brosimum utile (Kunth)   .

Additional material examined. COSTA RICA. Cartago: Turrialba | IADIZA   ; Guanacaste: 9 Km S Sta Cecilia, (9/14/1992 - 10/14/1992), Col. (Rios), Det. Flowers, (2) | INBC   ; Limon: Cerere, Est. Hitoy , (9/1/1992), Col. (Carballo), Det. Flowers | INBC   ; Puntarenas: Rancho Quemado , (3/1/1991), Col. (Saborio), Det. Moldenke | INBC   ; Other: | USNM   . PANAMA. Barro Colorado Island: Canal Zone , (7/22/1924), Col. (Banks), Det. Monrós | NMBA   ; Chiriqui: | USNM   .

20 | Megalostomis chalybeosoma Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 24A–F View FIGURE 24 )

M. (Minturnia) chalybeosoma Lacordaire 1848: 528   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Clavareau 1913: 76, Guérin 1943b: 12; Blackwelder 1944: 636.

Type locality. Brazil   .

Type material examined. Lectotype (present designation): [R-P]: SYNTYPUS / Megalostomis   chalybeo-/ soma Lacordaire, 1848 / labelled by MNHUB 2008. // [G-H]: Brasil. Virmnd. // [W-P]: 23370. // [W-H]: Megalostomis   / chalybeosoma/ Lacord* | ZMHB. Another specimen as paralectotype (by present designation): [W- H]: Megalostomis   / chalybeosoma/ Lacord. (♀). // [G-P]: Hist.-Coll. ( Coleoptera   )/ Nr. 23370/ Megalostomis   / chalybeosoma Lac.   / Brasil, Virmnd./ Zool. Mus. Berlin. // [R-P]: SYNTYPUS / Megalostomis   chalybeo-/ soma Lacordaire, 1848 / Labelled by MNHUB 2008. | ZMHB.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by having the lateral margins of pronotum visible from above, the clypeus not distinctly transverse, the elytra light brown with two distinct black dots (one on the humeral callus and another in the median region of each elytron), and the shape of head in males being longer than wide.

Females: kotpresse ventral sclerites external margin fan-shaped.

Body length: 7.2 mm, width: 4.3 mm. Coloration pattern: head pronotum and tibiae black; elytra almost unicolored light brown, with one black dot at humeral callus, and another at median region not reaching the margins. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; posterior side of eye with slight ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, slightly asymmetric; left mandible larger, with single sharp tooth; right mandible hidden behind left mandible; external side of mandibles with sparse pubescence; clypeal margin concave, sculpture formed by marked diffuse punctation, with marked transverse clypeal suture. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fifth antennomere, eleventh antennomere entire. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctuation; sparse, short, and reclined white pubescence denser at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 24D View FIGURE 24 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 24E–F View FIGURE 24 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate (apically excavated); ventral rectal sclerites without apodemes (round margins). Male genitalia: no specimens were available for dissection.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (1), Araucaria moist forests (2).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Santa Catarina: Minas Gerais, Det. Monrós | USNM   ; Other: Virmond, (4) | ZMHB   .

21 | Megalostomis grandis ( Forsberg 1821)   | ( Fig. 25A–I View FIGURE 25 )

Clythra grandis Forsberg 1821: 263   , 278.

Clythra tetrastigma Germar 1824: 544   .

Megalostomis tumida Dejean 1836: 416   . (nomen nudum).

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) grandis Lacordaire 1848: 544   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Heyne and Taschenberg 1908: 248; Clavareau 1913: 75; Guérin 1943b: 20; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Monrós 1953a: 76.

Type locality. Forsberg (1821) did not indicate any locality, later Lacordaire (1848: 545) indicated Brazil: Rio do Janeiro.

Type material. The type series was not available for this study; species determination relies on keys, redescriptions, and drawings by Guérin 1943b, and Monrós (1953a), as well as previously determined material, including specimens from the type locality.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the black dot and diffuse pilosity in the median region of the elytra, fourth antennomere serrate, eyes stalk hypertrophied; both male teeth of the same length; apical margin of dorsal plate of aedeagus convex; basal hood structure not forming any particular structure. Females: apex of spermathecal capsule short (capsule J-shaped).

Body length: 10.9–14 mm, width: 6–7.8 mm. Coloration pattern: head pronotum and tibiae black; elytra almost unicolored light brown, with small round black spot at median region, elytral callus black. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with longitudinal carina, on each side of this carina there is a slightly depressed glabrous area; posterior side of eye with salient post-ocular protuberance, next to a marked furrow; mandibles longer than wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger with single sharp tooth; right mandible with small teeth that fit into left mandible upon mandibular occlusion; external side of mandibles glabrous; labrum subquadrate; clypeal margin straight, sculpture thinly punctured. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctuation; sparse, short, and reclined white pubescence denser at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, without pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 25D View FIGURE 25 ) J-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule short, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 25E–F View FIGURE 25 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate (apically excavated); ventral rectal sclerites with very short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 25G–I View FIGURE 25 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin convex; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) up-directed forming wing-shaped structure in dorsal view; ejaculatory guide without ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (2), Araucaria moist forests (2), Cerrado (2), Humid Chaco (1), Madeira-Tapajós moist forests (1), Serra do Mar coastal forests (4), Southern Atlantic mangroves (1).

Material examined: BRAZIL. Mato Grosso: Santo Izabel, Det. Monrós | NMBA   ; Rio de Janeiro: (2) | USNM   , Col. (Van Voixem), (24) | KBIN   , Det. Föersberg, (2) | USNM; Santa Catarina: (2) | ZMHB   ; Other: Brasilia , Fuchs?, Col. (Luetgens) | FSCA   , Corupa , Col. (Scath) | AMNH   , Rio Natal , Col. (Scath) | AMNH   , V. Olf , [23383], (4) | ZMHB | USNM | ZMHB, (11/1/1944) | USNM   , [as C. tetrastigma   ], (6) | ZMHB   , Col. (Duvivier), (2) | KBIN   , Det. Monrós, (2) | NMBA. PARAGUAY. Caaguazú: Col. (Podquiantin), Det. Monrós | IADIZA | USNM   . NO DATA. Helgoland , Col. (Fryvaldsky), Det. Monrós | HNHM   , Rio d. pedr?., Det. Monrós | IADIZA, (4)   | ZMHB   , [23383] | ZMHB, Col. (Chapuis) | KBIN   , Col. (Van Voixem) | KBIN   , Det. Erber, (2) | ZMHB, Det. Monrós | IADIZA.

22 | Megalostomis unicincta Lefèvre, 1884   | ( Fig. 26A–I View FIGURE 26 )

Megalostomis unicincta Lefèvre, 1884: 149   ; Blackwelder 1944: 637.

Type locality. Venezuela: Caracas   .

Type material examined. Megalostomis unicincta   : Lectotype (present designation): [W-H]: Venezuela. // [G-P]: Van Lansberg. // [W-H]: Megalostomis   / unicincta Lef.   // [W-P]: Ex-typis. // [W-H]: Megalostomis   / unicincta/ (nov. sp.)/ var. A. type. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. Other specimens as paralectotype (by present designation): [W-H]: Venezuela. // [W-H]: Megalostomis   / unicincta Lef.   // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN.

Remarks. I also had the chance to study a specimen from Colombia, with a label added by Monrós indicating in Spanish: “Compared with the type in Brussels”

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the black band in the median region of the elytra; pronotum black; last antennomere with one excavation; epipleural fold expanded. Females: kotpresse dorsal apodemes longer than wide, curved; eighth sternite without central tooth.

Body length: 7.9–9.9 mm, width: 4–4.9 mm. Coloration pattern: head and pronotum black; tibiae reddish; elytra light brown, with thin, black band at lateral margin, not reaching internal margins, with black patch at humeral callus. Head: anterior surface strongly sculptured with marked longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; dense pubescence distributed all throughout anterior face formed by short reclined white setae; posterior side of eye with small ocular protuberance; mandibles longer than wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger with single sharp apical tooth; right mandible hidden behind left mandible; external side of mandibles pubescent; labrum rectangular and long, characteristically colored, brown with black, longitudinal stripe at median region; short double auricular appendix; clypeal margin slightly concave, sculpture formed by small rounded punctation. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; dense, reclined short white pubescence only at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, with white dense pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: ( Fig. 26D View FIGURE 26 ) eighth sternite without a central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 26E–F View FIGURE 26 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (curved) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate (apically excavated); ventral rectal sclerites with short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 26G–I View FIGURE 26 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) up-directed forming wing-shaped structure in dorsal view; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Venezuelan Andes montane forests (probably in the same habitat in Colombia).

Additional material examined. COLOMBIA. Col, Hoeg, [Comparado con tipo Ins. Sci. Nat. Bruselas / Ex D. E. Ins] | IADIZA, [23382], (3) | ZMHB. VENEZUELA. Trujillo: Las trincheras, Col. (Reynold) | IADIZA; Other: Cazatlas, Col. (Fry) | BMNH, Col. (Fry), (2) | BMNH, Col. (Fry), (2) | IADIZA, Col. (Jacoby) | BMNH | KBIN, (2) | ZMHB, Col. (Geitner) | HNHM. NO DATA. (3) | ZMHB, Col. (Andrewest, Bequest) | BMNH, Det. Guérin | NMBA.

23 | Megalostomis placida Baly 1877b   | ( Fig. 27A–C View FIGURE 27 )

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) placida Baly 1877b: 341   ; Clavareau 1913: 75; Guérin 1943b: 22 Blackwelder 1944: 637.

Type locality. Ega, Upper Amazons.

Material examined. Lectotype (♂) (present designation): [W-H]: S. Paulo / Amaz. // [ RB-P]: Type/ H.T. // [G-H]: Megalostomis   / placida/ Baly/ Amazonas. // [W-P]: Baly coll. // [G-H]: Type. // [G-H]: H | BMNH. Remaining specimens as paralectotypes (by present designation): [W-P]: Baly coll. // [G-H]: Tapajos | BMNH, (2); [W-P]: Baly coll. // [G-H]: Ega | BMNH.  

Remarks. I studied four syntypes from BMNH, and althougth Baly (1877b: 336, 341) indicates “Ega, Upper Amazons”, only one of the specimens I studied matched the type locality (Ega), yet, there is one of these specimens labelled by Baly as “type”, so even if this one is from Sâo Paulo, I respect the original author`s choice by designating this specimes as the Lectotype, and the rest as paralectotypes. An explanation to the latter might be that Baly (1877b: 336) did not mention how many specimens he studied, nor the details of each one, he only presented a table called: “ List of Species and their Habitat ”, thus, this might be a general appreciation by the author of the species` habitat, rather than the precise specimen`s location.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the elytra uniformly colored; pronotum reddish; eye stalk hypertrophied; both male teeth of the same length. Females: pygidium anterior border with median ventral excavation (egg dimple).

Body length: 8.9 mm, width: 4.9 mm. Coloration pattern: head black; pronotum reddish except at base where it exhibits a thin black transverse band; tibiae reddish; elytra uniformly reddish, humeral callus black. Head: anterior surface smooth with longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; anterior face without pubescence; posterior side of eye with ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger; external side of mandibles densely pubescent; clypeal margin straight, sculpture with median longitudinal carina; transverse clypeal suture present. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; disk without pubescence; scutellum with posterior margins curved, with sparse pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Genitalia: no specimens were available for dissection.

Ecoregions: Serra do Mar coastal forests (1).

24 | Megalostomis gigas Lacordaire, 1848   | ( Fig. 28A–I View FIGURE 28 )

Megalostomis gigas Dejean 1836: 416   (nomen nudum).

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) gigas Lacordaire 1848: 538   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Clavareau 1913: 76; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906; Achard 1926: 146; Guérin 1943b: 17; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Guérin 1953: 161.

Type locality. Brazil   .

Type material examined. Lectotype: (present designation): [G-H]: Chlytra Megalostomis   / gigas mihi./ h. in Brasilia D. Latreille. // [G-H]: (♂) | MIZT (De Breme Collection ).  

Diagnosis. This is the largest species in the genus (body length more than 15 mm); it can be distinguished from

M. obesa   , by its larger size and the black pronotum; distribution of pilosity in the frontal region of the face, specificly around the eyes; clypeus not distinctly transverse; length of dorsal plate of aedeagus less than 2x the length of the lateral arms; lateral arms of the median lobe large (reaching the mid-point of the dorsal plate).

Body length: 12.2–18 mm, width: 6.8–10 mm. Coloration pattern: head and pronotum black; tibiae black or reddish; elytra each with three black and three reddish wavy sub-parallel transverse bands. Head: anterior surface smooth with longitudinal glabrous line, dense pubescence distributed throughout anterior face formed by short reclined white setae; posterior side of eye with salient protuberance; male mandibles longer than wide, asymmetric; left mandible larger, with single sharp tooth; right mandible hidden behind left mandible; external side of mandibles pubescent; short double auricular appendix; labrum subquadrate; clypeal margin straight, sculpture formed by slight punctation. Antennae: scape robust, serrate beyond fourth antennomere, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; dense, reclined short, white pubescence, denser at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, with white dense pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 28D View FIGURE 28 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 28E–F View FIGURE 28 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate (apically excavated); ventral rectal sclerites with very short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 28G–I View FIGURE 28 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe long, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) up-directed forming wing-shaped structure in dorsal view; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (1), Araucaria moist forests (1), Caatinga (1), Cerrado (12), Serra do Mar coastal forests (1).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Bahia: Sello   , [23372], (4) | ZMHB; Goias: Bananeiras, Det. Guérin | USNM, Jataby | IADIZA | USNM, Col. (Pujol) | IADIZA, Col. (Halik) | IADIZA; Mato Grosso: Chapada | IADIZA | USNM, (3) | USNM | ZMHB; Minas Gerais: Sete Lagoas | ZMHB; Parana: Curitiva, Col. (Lange), Det. Monrós | USNM; São Paulo: Brasilia, Det. Monrós | HNHM, Brotas, Rio Claro, [Baetge] | ZMHB | ZMHB;

Other: Nalida, [23372] | ZMHB | USNM, [unreadable label], (2) | ZMHB, Col. (Chapuis), (6) | KBIN, Det. Monrós | NMBA, (2) | ZMHB. NO DATA. Patria?, Det. Monrós | HNHM | ZMHB, (5) | ZMHB, [unreadable label] | ZMHB, Det. Clavareau | NMBA.

25 | Megalostomis dynamica Monrós 1952   stat. rev. | ( Fig. 29A–C View FIGURE 29 )

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) dynamica Monrós 1952: 351   .

Megalostomis (Minturnia) flavipennis dynamica: Moldenke 1970: 22   (status change); 1981: 101. SYN. NOV.

Type locality. Colombia: Muzo   .

Type material examined. Holotype: [W-H]: COLOMBIA / Muzo/ V/1915 / Apollinaire leg. // [R-P]: Type Nº/ 65234/ U.S. N.M. // [Pk-H]: Megalostomis   / Megalostomis   )/ dynamica/ mihi/ F. Monrós det. 1952. // [ RB-H]: Holotipo (♂)/ ilustrado | USNM.

Remarks. Moldenke included M. dynamica   as a subspecies of M. flavipennis   , describing M. flavipennis   specimens from Costa Rica and Panama as “shinier and less robust” than M. dynamica   specimens from Panama and Colombia. The study of the holotype of M. dynamica   , found in USNM Monrós collection shows several subtle morphological differences such as: scutellum with white dense pubescence, head anterior surface smooth, head and pronotum distinctly transverse, and clypeal margin almost straight with small central tooth. Therefore, M. dynamica   is once again considered a valid species-level taxon. Monrós (1952: 351) considered M. dynamica   to be phylogenetically close to other species from northern South America including M. platyceros Monrós.   The latter was confirmed by Agrain and Roig-Juñent (2011) as both species (as well as M. flavipennis   ) belong within the Megalostomis grossa   species group.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the strong frontal carina beside the eyes; clypeus centrally protruded; scutellum pilose; elytra uniformly colored orange-brown.

Body length: 9.5–11.8 mm, width: 5–5.8 mm. Coloration pattern: head and pronotum black; tibiae (except at base) reddish; elytra unicolored brown. Head: anterior surface smooth, with longitudinal carina, with a pair of subadjacent slightly depressed areas; sparse pubescence distributed throughout anterior face formed by short reclined setae; posterior side of eye with salient ocular protuberance; mandibles as long as wide, asymmetric; mandibles forceps-like; left mandible larger with sharp tooth; right mandible hidden behind the left mandible upon mandibular occlusion; external side of mandibles pubescent; clypeus margin almost straight with small central tooth, sculpture reduced. Antennae: (broken in holotype). Thorax: without constrictions, anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges; pronotal punctation diffuse, weaker than elytral punctation; dense, reclined short white pubescence only at margins; scutellum with posterior margins curved, with white dense pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina rounded. Genitalia: no specimens were available for dissection.

Ecoregions: Magdalena Valley montane forests.

Predators: Cerceris binodis   , reported in Panama by Giovanetti (2005).

26 | Megalostomis gazella Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 30A–I View FIGURE 30 )

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) gazella Lacordaire 1848: 552   ; Blanchard 1851: 534; Harold 1875: 95; Gemminger and Harold

1876: 3295; Burmeister 1877; 61; Fiebrig 1910: 248 (Biology); Jacoby and Clavereau 1913: 75; Bruch 1914: 348; Guérin

1943b: 27; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Monrós 1953a: 42 (drawings of egg and larvae), 89; Agrain et al. 2007: 349. Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) gazella var. clavapex Achard 1926: 152   ; Blackwelder 1944: 636. Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) gazella var. flavapex: Monrós 1953a: 89   (misspelling pro clavapex) (SYN). Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) gazella var. nigrapex Achard 1926: 152   ; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Monrós 1953a: 89 (SYN). Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) gazella var. nigrescens Achard 1926: 152   ; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Monrós 1953a: 89 (SYN). Megalostomis meretrix Lacordaire 1848: 536   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Guérin 1943b: 24; Blackwelder 1944: 637.

SYN. NOV. Megalostomis bicingulata Lacordaire 1848: 542   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Clavareau 1913: 75; Blackwelder 1944:

636; Guérin 1943b: 19 SYN. NOV.

Type locality. Lacordaire (1848) cited the following countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, French Guiana and Chile. As explained before, the specimens from French Guiana must belong to M. anachoreta   , and those from Chile could be a label error, since no megalostomines are known from that country   .

Type material. The type series was not available for this study; species determination relies on keys, redescriptions, and drawings by Monrós (1953a), as well as previously determined material, including specimens from the type locality. Megalostomis bicingulata   : Lectotype (present designation): [W-H]: bicingulata Lac.   //

[W-P]: Coll. F. Chapuis. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. Megalostomis meretrix   : Lectotype (present designation): [G-P]: 10. // [W-P]:? SYNTYPE / Megalostomis   / meretrix Lac. Det. Lacordaire   | BMNH.

Remarks. It is interesting to note that most male specimens hitherto referred to as M. bicingulata   do not possess a central tooth in the clypeus, but few specimens do; when those teeth are present the specimens are easily identified as M. gazella   . I do not consider M. bicingulata   a species-rank taxon, since these characters are obviously polymorphic, furthermore, there are no differences in male genitalia between M. bicingulata   and M. gazella   , the same is also true for M. meretrix   . M. gazella   is the most common and widespread species of Megalostomis   in South America, and also the most polymorphic one. I have examined about 1,000 specimens of this species and I have failed to recognize any clearly separated geographical forms but only polymorphic specimens. Since M. bicingulata   , M. meretrix   and M. gazella   were described by Lacordaire in the same work, as first reviser and following the ICZN (1999: Article 24), I decided to maintain M. gazella   as the senior species, because it is the frequently used name used in the literature, and it is also the one that more accurately describes this taxon. M. bicingulata   was described from Brazil, and M. meretrix   from Bolivia, M. gazella   is widespread in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay. Monrós (1953a) synonymized Achard’s varieties clavapex, nigrapex, and nigrescens by considering them color morphs with no taxonomic value or distinct geographic significance.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the reddish pronotum, and reddish elytral apex (rarely black); the male auricular appendix short, almost as long as width of its base; male mandibles with long, sharp tooth, the right mandible larger than the left mandible; right and left mandibles horn-like, crossed upon mandibular occlusion; fourth antennomere not serrated (round shape). Females: kotpresse (apodemes of ventral sclerites) present, long; apex of spermathecal capsule short, (capsule J-shaped).

Body length: 6.2–11.5 mm, width: 4–7 mm. Coloration pattern: head black, in some specimens with frontal dark reddish patch, frontal carina black; dark red pronotum, occasionally with black dorsal patch; tibiae (except at base) reddish; elytra with two bands, varying in color from dark reddish to yellow, apex and lateral margin also dark reddish to yellow; in some specimens elytral apex black. Head: anterior surface smooth with small longitudinal carina, on each side of carina with slightly depressed area, dense pubescence distributed throughout anterior face, formed by short reclined white setae, in some specimens pubescence can be sparse or absent; posterior side of eye convex, limiting with an oblique furrow; ocular protuberances not very salient; mandibles much longer than wide, very asymmetric; left mandible with dorsal tooth (wide at base, abruptly sharp in distal portion); apex of mandibles with a series of peaks (molariform area) surrounding a depressed area that fits in the right mandible; right mandible with large tooth, almost twice as large as same of left mandible and reaching its base upon mandibular occlusion; molariform area of right mandible smaller than left mandible, formed by three peaks; mandibles present great intra-specific variation in size among examined series, the length of right tooth diminishes until reaching the length of the left mandible, left tooth can be diminished to a stump; external side of mandibles densely pubescent; clypeal margin with central tooth, with two minor teeth on each side. Antennae: scape robust, antennomeres three to eight serrate, ninth sub-rhomboidal with external margin excavated, eleventh with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, lateral and posterior margins with narrow edges, slightly constrained near central region; pronotal punctation weaker than elytral punctuation; dense, reclined short white pubescence covering entire surface, usually sparse or even absent in the central part of the disk in some specimens; scutellum with posterior margins curved, with white dense pubescence. Elytra: sub-rectangular, base and middle equally wide, truncated at apex, elytral apex not projecting beyond pygidium; epipleural fold wider below humeral carina than on remaining elytral margin; humeral carina subpiramidal, with subapical mark. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 30D View FIGURE 30 ) J-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule short, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 30E–F View FIGURE 30 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate (apically excavated); ventral rectal sclerites with long apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 30G–I View FIGURE 30 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (8), Araucaria moist forests (1), Bolivian montane dry forests (1), Central Andean Puna (4), Cerrado (2), Chiquitano dry forests (2), Dry Chaco (60), Espinal (12), High Monte (6), Humid Chaco (45), Humid Pampas (1), Low Monte (4), Paraná flooded savanna (5), Serra do Mar coastal forests (3), Southern Andean Yungas (18), Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna (2). (*) This species was cited (by Monrós 1953a) from Guiana: Cayenne (specimen misidentified with M. anachoreta   ). It was also incorrectly cited from Chile by Blanchard (1851: 534), and Peña (1986: 165).

Ant hosts: Colonies of Camponotus sp.   Monrós (1953a, as Dr. Oblobin pers. comm.

Host plants: Fabaceae   : Monrós (1953a) on Prosopis sp.   , Acacia sp   ; Aravena (1974) on Prosopis caldenia Burk   ; Roig-Juñent (2004) on Prosopis flexuosa DC.  

Additional material examined. ARGENTINA. Catamarca: 12 Km. Recreo, Belen | IMLA   , El Rodeo , 1.500 mts | IMLA   , La Estancia | IMLA   ; Chaco: Colonia Benitez | IMLA   , Gancedo | IMLA   , Pcia. Roque Sáenz Peña | IMLA   , Resistencia , (11/1/1945), Col. (Martinez) | USNM, (12/23/1965)   | HNHM, (7/23/1963)   | HNHM, Col. (Parker) | USNM   , Col. (Parker), (4) | USNM   ; Córdoba: 60 Cuadras , (1/26/1953) | USNM, (1/26/1953), (5)   | USNM, Agua de Oro , Anizacaste, Col. (Daguerre) | USNM   , Argüello | IMLA   , Bialet Maasé | IMLA   , Calamuchita , El Sauce | IMLA   , Capilla del Monte , Col. (Monrós) | USNM   , Casabamba | IMLA   , Ciudad | IMLA   , La Calera, (7/ 15/1951), Col. (Papp) | LACM   , La Falda | IMLA   , La Paz | IMLA   , Monte Cristo | IMLA   , Rio Cuarto , (10/1/1942) | USNM   , Río Primero | IMLA   , Rio Seco | IMLA   , San Esteban | IMLA   , San Javier , (11/1/1945), Col. (Monrós) | USNM   , San Vicente , Col. (Frenzel) | ZMHB   , Tanti | IMLA   , Tulumba | IMLA   , Unquillo , Cabana | IMLA   , Valle Hermoso | IMLA   , Villa Carlos Paz | IADIZA   , Cordoba: Yacanto | IADIZA, (2)   | ZMHB   ; Corrientes: Ciudad , Col. (Duvivier), [61] | KBIN   , Isla Apipe , (11/1/1945), Col. (Martinez) | USNM   , Isla Apipe grande | IADIZA   , Ituzaingo | IMLA   , Manantiales | IMLA   , Paso de la patria | IMLA   , San Roque | CZAA   , Socorro , (2/1/1945) | USNM   , Ventana | IMLA   | ZMHB   ; Entre Ríos: 20 Km. al sur de Victoria | IMLA   , Parana | IADIZA   ; Formosa: Capital , Col. (Daguerre) | USNM   , Clorinda | IADIZA   , Espinillo | IADIZA   , Gran Guardia , (12/1/1951), Col. (Foerster) | USNM   , Misión Laishi | IMLA   , Pilcomayo | IMLA   , Riacho Negro | IMLA   , Tapikiolé | IMLA   | USNM   ; Jujuy: Calelegua | IMLA   , Ciudad | IADIZA   , Dique La Cienaga | IMLA   , Jujuy : El Pongo | IMLA   , Ledesma , (1/1/1930), Col. (Jaynez) | USNM   , Col. ( Vezenyi ), Det. Monrós, (2) | HNHM   , Los Perales | IMLA   , Palpalá | IMLA   , Perico del Carmen | IMLA, (01/1949)   , Col. (Widodzinsky), (5) | KBIN   , Col. (Widodzinsky) | USNM   , Det. Bruch | USNM; La Rioja: Patquia | IMLA   ; Mendoza: Desaguadero | IADIZA   , Santa Rosa , Ñacuñán | IADIZA   , Tupungato (San José) | IADIZA, (6)   | ZMHB   ; Misiones: Concepción, Santa Maria , Col. (Viana), Det. Watts, (5) | FSCA   , Posadas | IADIZA   , Puerto Bernberg | IMLA   , Puerto Iguazu | USNM   , San Ignacio , Col. (Baden) | USNM   , Santa Maria | IADIZA   ; Salta: Cabeza de Buey   | IMLA, Cafayate, Yacochuya , Cerro San Bernardo, Det. Monrós | KBIN   , Cruz Quemada | IMLA   , Embarcacion | IMLA   , Guemes , (1/1/1930), Col. (Jaynez) | USNM, (2/1/1944)   , Col. (Martinez) | USNM   , J V Gonzalez | USNM   , Juramento | IMLA   , Lumbreras | IMLA   , Metán | IMLA   , Orán , Abra Grande | IMLA   , Rosario de la Frontera | IMLA   , Ruiz de los Llanos, Col. (Golbach) | USNM   , Salto Forestal , 33 Km. de J. V. González | IMLA   , San Bernardo | IMLA   , San Lorenzo | IMLA   , San Martin de Aguaray , (1/14/1957), Col. (Widodzinsky) | USNM   , Urundel , (2/1/1944), Col. (Monrós) | USNM   , Valle de Lerma | IMLA   | USNM, (1905)   , Col. (Steinbach), (9) | ZMHB   , Col. (Harriston) | IADIZA   ; San Juan: Valle Fertil | IADIZA   ; San Luis: Candelaria | IADIZA   ; San Luis: Ciudad | IADIZA   ; Santa Fé: Arduent , (2/1941), Col. (Parker), (3) | USNM   , Col. (Parker) | USNM   , La Gallareta | IMLA   , La Rubia | IMLA   , Paul Groussac | IMLA   , Piquete | IMLA   , Santo Tome | IMLA   , Sauce Viejo | IMLA   , Villa Ana | IMLA   , Villa Guillermina | IMLA   ; Santiago del Estero: Añatuya , Col. (Monrós), Det. Monrós, (3) | KBIN   , Colonia Dora | IMLA   , Fernandez | IMLA   , Girardet | IMLA   , Rio Salado, Col. (Wagner), Det. Monrós, (3) | KBIN   , Sumampa , (5/1962), Col. (Kolalei), (23) | USNM   , Col. (Kolalei), (2) | USNM   , Suncho corral | IADIZA   , Villa Union | IMLA, (3)   | KBIN   ; Tucumán: Ciudad | IMLA   , Raco , La Sala | IMLA   , Ruinas de Quilmes | IMLA   , Tacanas | IMLA   , Tafi Viejo | IMLA   , Trancas   , San Pedro de Colalao | IMLA   , Trancas | IMLA   ; Other: | ZMHB, (2)   | HNHM, (2)   | ZMHB. BOLIVIA. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista | IMLA   , Puerto Pailas | IMLA   , Valle Grande , Comarapa, 1.900 mts | IMLA   ; Other: Valle Iguembe. BRAZIL   . Goias: Mineiro | IADIZA   ; Maranhao: Balsas , Col. (Holt) | IADIZA   ; Mato Grosso: Guyaba, (2) | ZMHB   , Fazenda Tio Sao Tiago , (11/1982), Col. (Udephol), Det. Medvedev, (2) | ZMHB   ; Parana: | IADIZA   ; São Paulo: Sao Jose dos Campos, (10/19/1960 - 10/22/1960), Col. (Tieman) | LACM   | IADIZA   ; Other: Villa Rica | AMNH   | USNM | ZMHB   , CHILE. Col. (Duvivier), (2) | KBIN   . [ M. gazella   is not present in Chile, these labels are surely mistaken]. PARAGUAY. Concepción: Sapucay, Col. (Foster) | IADIZA   | IADIZA   , Det. Monrós | HNHM; Cordillera: San Bernardino, Col. (Fiebrig) | USNM   ; Departamento Central: Aregua, Col. (Lourie) | IADIZA   ; Paraguari: Sapucay , (2/1/1950), Col. (Foster) | USNM, (2)   | ZMHB   ; San Pedro: | IADIZA   ; Other: Asunción, Villa Morra , Col. (Vezenyi), Det. Monrós | HNHM   , Asunción , (1921) | HNHM, (1921), (4)   | HNHM   , Col. ( Vezenyi ), Det. Monrós, (5) | HNHM   , Camacho, Chaco , (6/5/1945), Col. (Podquiantin) | USNM   , Chaco, Camacho , L de Bocard, (1926), Det. Medvedev, (2) | ZMHB   , San Bernardino , Col. (Eissenbber) | ZMHB   , Santa Trinidad | IADIZA   , Villa Rica | IADIZA, (4)   | ZMHB   . NO DATA. (5) | ZMHB, [23387] | ZMHB   , [23388] | ZMHB, [559] | ZMHB, Col. ( Duvivier ), Det. Monrós | KBIN   , Det. Erber | ZMHB   , Det. Monrós | HNHM.

27 | Megalostomis cornuta Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 31A–I View FIGURE 31 )

Megalostomis cornuta Dejean 1836: 416   (nomen nudum).

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) cornuta Lacordaire 1848: 551   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 60; Clavareau 1913: 75; Guérin 1943b: 26; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Agrain et al. 2007: 347.

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) cornuta var. baeri Achard 1926: 151   ; Guérin 1943b: 26 (SYN); Blackwelder 1944: 636.

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) cornuta var. obliterata Achard 1926: 150   ; Guérin 1943b: 26 (SYN); Blackwelder 1944: 636.

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) cornuta var. divisa Guérin 1949: 229   SYN. NOV.

Type locality. Lacordaire (1848: 552) indicated that although Dejean stipulated Cayenne, this species was from Brazil   .

Type material examined. Lectotype: (present designation): [G-H]: Chlytra Megalostomis   / cornuta mihi/ h. Cayenne? D. Guerin. // [W-H]: M. gazella Lac.   // [G-H]: Bolivia | MIZT (De Breme Collection).

Remarks. Guérin (1943b) placed Achard’s varieties M. cornuta obliterata   , and M. cornuta baeri   in synonymy with M. cornuta   without giving any details about his decision; subsequent study of Achard’s collection in Prague is necessary to confirm Guérin`s decision. Later, Guérin (1949) described a new variety: M. cornuta divisa   , based on the bifurcation of the reddish apical band on each elytron, while in the typical specimens of M. cornuta   this band is not bifurcated. Since this is a common intra-specific color morph in larger series of specimens, I have synonymized M. cornuta divisa   . Furthermore, M. cornuta divisa   was described from Bahia (Brazil)   whereas its senior species is distributed in Brazil and Argentina. Type material of M. cornuta divisa   as indicated by the author: Holotype: Nº: 18353, Alotype Nº: 18360 (presumable at MZSP), and other two (♀) paratypes at Instituto Biológico de São Paulo. All specimens from: Mucugê, Estado da Baia, Gregório Bondar leg. The latter specimens were not available for the present study.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from Megalostomis consimilis   by the pronotum, scutellum and auricular appendix possessing dense, thin pubescence; the male clypeus is divided by a medial longitudinal carina; male mandibles with an asymmetric and rounded tooth, the left mandible larger and up-curved, right tooth of the male mandible smaller (transverse or down-turned). Females: kotpresse (apodemes of ventral sclerites) absent (ventral sclerites with round margins).

Body length: 12–13.5 mm, width: 5.6–6.2 mm. Coloration pattern: elytra with two reddish central bands and three black bands reaching elytral apex and base. Head: left mandible with wide-based rounded tooth, the right tooth sharp and curved inside (horn-like); clypeal margin with central tooth and two minor teeth on each side; postocular region with slight protuberance, less noticeable than in other species; central carina in inter-ocular area reaching the clypeus in some specimens; auricular appendix straight and well-developed, much longer than the width of its base, puncturated and with reclined pubescence. Antennae: antennomeres 3–8 serrate, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: pronotum black, lacking transverse constriction, para-medial areas with uniform thin and irregular punctation (same as rest of its surface), central region mostly glabrous, sparse pubescence on lateral margins; scutellum triangular, curvilinear, pubescent, as high as elytra. Elytra: mostly glabrous, as wide as base of pronotum, elytral margins very narrow, slightly wider at elytral base; punctation larger than on pronotum, irregular; humeral carina lacking protuberance, in some specimens with sub-apical mark; epipleural fold well-developed at base. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 31D View FIGURE 31 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 31E–F View FIGURE 31 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate (apically excavated); ventral rectal sclerites without apodemes (round margins). Male genitalia: ( Fig. 31G–I View FIGURE 31 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Bahia interior forests (3), Cerrado (6), Chiquitano dry forests (1), Dry Chaco (2).

Additional material examined. ARGENTINA. Cordoba: Capilla del Monte , (2/1888), Col. (Frenzel)   | ZMHB; Salta: (1905), Col. (Steinbach)   | ZMHB; Santiago del Estero   : | ZMHB. BOLIVIA. Santa Cruz   : Santa Cruz de la Sierra | ZMHB. BRAZIL. Goias   : | IADIZA; Mato Grosso: 200 engl Meilen v. Guyaba, Col. (Heller)   ,

(2) | ZMHB, Chapada | USNM, Guyaba, (3) | ZMHB, Col. (Heller) | ZMHB | ZMHB; Minas Gerais: Uberaba, Le moult vendit, Det. Monrós, (12) | KBIN, Det. Monrós, (8) | KBIN, Uberaba | USNM; Other: Chapada, Campo, [23387], (2) | ZMHB. NO DATA. (3) | ZMHB.

28 | Megalostomis kollari Lacordaire, 1848   | ( Fig. 32A–I View FIGURE 32 )

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) kollari Lacordaire 1848: 549   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 60; Clavareau 1913: 75; Guérin 1943b: 25; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Agrain et al. 2007: 351.

Type locality. Brazil: Ipanema   .

Type material. The type series was not available for this study; species determination relies on keys, redescriptions, and drawings by Guérin 1943 b, and Agrain et al. (2007), as well as previously determined material.

Diagnosis. Males of this species can be distinguished by the auricular projections, with large coarse punctation in the external margin, inferior right tooth salient upon mandibular occlusion. As mentioned previously, the best way to identify the females is by comparing coloration pattern with their respective males.

Body length: 13–14 mm, width: 5.6–6 mm. Coloration pattern: elytra reddish, with black basal band reaching humeral carina, and a median black band in lateral margin that reaches the suture; apical region of elytra with black patches. Head: mandibular apex with very sharp tooth, internal margin with teeth; right mandible with basal teeth; basal tooth of left mandible very sharp, directed upwards; apex of left mandible with four small teeth that contain a concavity similar to that of M. gazella   ; clypeal margin, with single central tooth, two minor teeth on each side; male auricular appendix with large coarse punctation in external margin; ocular projection wider than long, rounded at apex. Antennae: antennomeres 3–8 serrate, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: anterior edge of pronotum convex, bisinuate posteriorly; posterior projection short and smooth, median lateral region with two strong transverse constrictions; punctation weak and regular, absent in paramedial regions; scutellum with posterior margins curved, with white dense pubescence. Elytra: a pical margin projected, surpassing pygidium; elytral humeral region wider than pronotal base, gradually narrowed toward apex; diffuse punctation, denser than that of pronotum; elytral margin narrow, enlarged in humeral region; humeral carina rounded, apex with transverse mark. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 32D View FIGURE 32 ) U-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule long, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 32E–F View FIGURE 32 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate; ventral rectal sclerites with very short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 32G–I View FIGURE 32 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (1), Bahia interior forests (3), Cerrado (2), Serra do Mar coastal forests (1), Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna (2).

Material examined: ARGENTINA. Corrientes: Santo Tome | IADIZA; Misiones: Bonpland | IADIZA, Pindapoy | IADIZA. BRAZIL. Goias: | IADIZA; Mato Grosso: | IADIZA; Minas Gerais: Uberaba, Le moult vendit, Det. Monrós, (68) | KBIN, Uberaba | IADIZA; São Paulo: | IADIZA; Other: Col. (Chapuis), (2) | KBIN.

29 | Megalostomis religiosa Lacordaire 1848   | ( Fig. 33A–F View FIGURE 33 )

Megalostomis religiosa Dejean 1836: 416   (nomen nudum).

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) religiosa Lacordaire 1848: 548   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 60; Clavareau 1913: 75; Guérin 1943b: 25; Blackwelder 1944: 637; Agrain et al. 2007: 352.

Megalostomis distincta Lacordaire 1848: 535   ; Dejean 1836: 416 (nomen nudum); Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Clavareau 1913: 75; Achard 1926: 146; Guérin 1943b:16; Blackwelder 1944: 636. SYN. NOV.

Type locality. Brazil: Minas Gerais   .

Type material examined. Megalostomis religiosa   : Lectotype: (present designation): [W-P]: Col. Ogier de Baulny. // [W-H]: religiosa/ Brasil. // [G-P]: Brésil. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. Following specimens as paralectotypes (by present designation): [W-H]: M. (Scaphigenia)/ religiosa Lac.   // [W-P]: Coll. F. Chapuis. // [Pu- P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | (2), KBIN. [W-P]: Coll. F. Chapuis. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. [W-P]: Colect./ Dudivier. // [G-H]: Brésil. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. [W-H]: M. (Scaphigenia)/ religiosa Lac.   // [W-H]: Scaphigenia/ religiosa/ Brasil Lac. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. [G-H]: Chlytra Megalostomis   / religiosa mihi./ h. in Brasilia D. Latreille. // [G-P]: Brasilia/ Truqui. | MIZT (De Breme Collection).

Megalostomis distincta   : Lectotype (present designation): [W-P]: 23377. // [W-H]: Megalostomis   / disticta Dej. Lacord*. // [G-H]: subcauda/ ta N/ Brasil Sello. // [R-P]: SYNTYPUS / Megalostomis distincta   / Lacordaire, 1848 / Labelled by MNHUB 2008. | ZMHB. Remaining specimens as paralectotypes (by present designation): [G- P]: Hist.-Coll. ( Coleoptera   / Nr. 23377/ Megalostomis   / distincta Lac.   / Brasil., Sello/ Zool. Mus. Berlin). // [R-P]: SYNTYPUS / Megalostomis distincta   / Lacordaire, 1848 / Labelled by MNHUB 2008. | (4), ZMHB. [W-H]: disticta Lac. // [W-P]: Coll. F. Chapuis. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. [G-H]: Chlytra Megalostomis   / distincta mihi/ h. in Brasilia D. S. Latreille?. | MIZT (De Breme Collection).

Remarks. The morphological study of lectotypes and paralectotypes of M. distincta   and M. religiosa   did not result in any useful character to separate these species. Both species were described from Brazil, the author indicated Minas Gerais for M religiosa   . Since both species were described by Lacordaire in the same work, as first reviser and following the ICZN (1999: Article 24), I decided to choose the name M. religiosa   because it is the most frequently used name in the literature.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the elytra with a black basal patch, and reddish apex; and right mandible of the males with a simple sheet turned up from its base.

Body length: 11.5–11.8 mm, width: 6–6.3 mm. Coloration pattern: elytra red-orange, with black basal band reaching scutellum and humeral callus, and black median band (wider at sutural margin), sutural margin black, with sub-squared black patches at apical region, elytral apex reddish; legs reddish; ventral side of body, with dense yellowish pubescence. Head: right mandible with wide lamina, inwardly curved at apical region; with rounded strong expansions under eyes and near antennal insertion; auricular appendix very large, with an angular expansion (easily visible in dorsal view). Antennae: antennomeres 3–8 serrate, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: pronotal pubescence grey and sparse on lateral sides, same as in head and scutellum; pronotum sub-cylindrical, narrower than head; anterior margin slightly curved, lateral margins convergent toward apical region, with weak punctation, interrupted in para-medial regions; pronotum with strong transverse constriction on each side of central region; scutellum with posterior margins curved. Elytra: apical margin slightly projected, surpassing pygidium; elytra wider than base of pronotum in humeral region, gradually narrowed toward apex; with diffuse punctation denser than that of pronotum; elytral margin narrow, enlarged in humeral region; humeral carina rounded, apex with transverse mark. Female genitalia: no material available for dissection. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 33D–F View FIGURE 33 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Araucaria moist forests (1), Cerrado (1), Caatinga (1).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Parana: Curitiva | USNM; Other: [23379] | ZMHB, Col. Ogier de Baulny | KBIN, Col. (Duvivier) | KBIN. NO DATA. | BMNH, [23386] | ZMHB, Col. (Chapuis), (4) | KBIN.

30 | Megalostomis tricincta ( Germar 1824)   | ( Fig. 34A–I View FIGURE 34 )

Clythra tricincta Germar 1824: 550   .

Megalostomis (Megalostomis) tricincta ( Germar 1824)   : Lacordaire 1848: 535; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Clavareau 1913: 75; Guérin 1943b: 16; Blackwelder 1944: 637.

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) bubalus Lacordaire 1848: 550   ; Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3295; Jacoby and Clavareau 1906: 60; Clavareau 1913: 75; Guérin 1943b: 26; Blackwelder 1944: 636; Monrós 1953a: 99; Agrain, et al. 2007: 343. SYN. NOV.

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) religiosa Monrós 1945   (nec Lacordaire 1848): 153; 1953a: 99.

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) bubalus bubaloides Monrós 1953a: 99   SYN. NOV.

Type locality. Brasilia.

Type material examined. M. tricincta   : Lectotype: (present designation): [W-P]: Rio Grande/ do sul. // [Pu- P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. The following specimens as paralectotypes (by present designation): [W-P]: Rio Grande/ do sul. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. [W-P]: Coll. F. Chapuis. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. [W-H]: bubalus/ Lac. // [W-P]: Roelof. // [Pu-P]: Col. R. I. Sc. N. B. | KBIN. Megalostomis bubalus   : Lectotype: (present designation): [W-H]: bubalus (♀)/ Lac/ Brésil Type. // [ RB-H]: Holotipo. // [W-P]: Ex. Musaeo Miniszech. // [Pk-H]: Scaphigenia/ bubalus/ Lac./ Lacordaire det. | USNM. The latter is evidently a syntype, acquired by Monrós from Miniszech collection (most likely from MNHN) and added it to his personal collection presently at USNM. M. bubalus bubaloides   : Holotype: [W-H]: R.A. Misiones, Loreto: Yabebiri, Oglobin, Monrós (col.). // [R-P]: Type Nº/ 45233/ U.S. N.M. // [ RB-H]: Holotipo (♂)/ ilustrado. // [Pk-H]: M. (S.) bubalus   / ssp bubaloi-/ des mihi/ F. Monrós det. 1952. | USNM. Allotype: [W-H]: R.A. Misiones: Pindapoy, 1-1945, Bridarolli. / / [ RB-H]: Alotipo (♀). // [Pk-H]: M. (S.) bubalus   / ssp bubaloi-/ des mihi/ F. Monrós det. 1952. | USNM. Paratype: [W-H]: R.A. Corrientes: Isla Apipe Grande, 11-1945, Martinez (col.). // [ RB-H]: Paratipo (♀). // [Pk-H]: M. (S.) bubalus   / ssp bubaloi-/ des mihi/ F. Monrós det. 1952. | USNM. Paratype (♂): [W-H]: R.A. Misiones: Concepción: Santa María, Viana (col.). // [ RB-H]: Paratipo (♂). // [Pk-H]: M. (S.) bubalus   / ssp bubaloi-/ des mihi/ F. Monrós det. 1952. | USNM.

Remarks. I have synonymized M. bubalus bubaloides   with M. bubalus bubalus   because the characters that Monrós (1953a) mentioned for these morphs are coloration, pubescence and size variations that are not reflected in the genitalia. Furthermore, bubaloides was described from Misiones, Argentina, supposedly separated from the Brazilian nominotypic species, but new specimens indicate that M. tricincta   is widely distributed in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Colombia. Actually, for M. gazella   a similar situation was presented regarding specimens from Paraguay, which are generally smaller and were described as M. distincta   . I argue that these differences are due only to intra-specific variation and I strongly recommend considering a more widespread distribution for M. bubalus   . With respect to M. tricincta   , I based my decision on a specimen from KBIN (Chapuis’ collection) determined by Lacordaire as M. tricincta   , designated here as Lectotype, and comparing it with Germar and Lacordaire’s original works, and also with a Lacordaire’s syntype of M. bubalus   found in Monrós collection at USNM, herein designated as Lectotype.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from M. kollari   by the smaller male auricular projections, perfect mandibular occlusion, and up-curved male upper mandibular teeth. Females: kotpresse central dorsal plate subquadrate with three arms; apex of spermathecal capsule short (capsule J-shaped).

Body length: 9.7–10.2 mm, width: 5.1–5.7 mm. Coloration pattern: elytra dark black, with whitish pubescence; elytra black with large ante-median and post-median red-orange bands; humeral carina black. Head: mandibles robust, longer than wide, left mandible ending in a sharp tip that bears two triangular teeth; right mandible apex sub-truncate, internal tooth up-curved; external side of mandibles pubescent; clypeal margin with central tooth, two minor teeth on each side; eyes conspicuous, with distinct internal excavation; post-ocular region with small protuberance limited by a slight furrow; large oblique auricular appendix, slightly inclined outwards, with apical furrow; frontal region of head with thin median longitudinal carina, each side of which with slight triangular mark, its sculpture formed by thin punctation absent in post-ocular region and denser at inter-ocular portion; pubescence covering head surface, denser in clypeus and inter-ocular area, and absent in occipital region; male auricular appendages small. Antennae: with antennomeres 3–8 serrate, eleventh antennomere with two marginal excavations that delimit central lobe. Thorax: anterior margin of pronotum smooth, moderately curved; base almost straight, pronotal sides convergent toward head, with slight, flat and reflective median constriction; punctation not uniformly distributed; more abundant throughout central longitudinal region of the disk and its margins, absent in transverse constrinction; abundant pubescence at base and margins, sparse (frequently absent) on disk, completely absent in anterior half and in lateral transverse impressions; lateral and posterior margins narrow; scutellum with posterior margin curved. Elytra: punctation more or less dense, almost absent in discal region, with very thin pubescence, concentrated at apex; humeral carina with strongly marked impression; elytral margins very narrow, slightly wider at elytral base; surface moderately brilliant, with less pubescence than discal region; epipleural fold distinctly developed. Female genitalia: eighth sternite with central tooth. Spermathecal capsule: ( Fig. 34D View FIGURE 34 ) J-shaped, distal part more than 2x longer than proximal part, proximal part longer than base; angle formed between basal and apical regions of spermathecal capsule nearly 45º; apex of spermathecal capsule short, with sharp tip. Rectal sclerites: ( Fig. 34E–F View FIGURE 34 ) dorsal rectal sclerites represented only by dorsal (straight) apodemes, and central dorsal plate, central dorsal plate subquadrate (with three lateral arms); ventral rectal sclerites with very short apodemes. Male genitalia: ( Fig. 34G–I View FIGURE 34 ) apex of dorsal plate of median lobe as wide as its base, with anterior margin straight; lateral arms of median lobe short, with setae; dorsal sclerite of internal sac (not everted) not visible in fixed position; ejaculatory guide with ventral keel; sperm transfer structure with campanulate sclerite.

Ecoregions: Alto Paraná Atlantic forests (12), Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves (2), Caatinga (1), Cerrado (2), Cordillera Oriental montane forests (1), Humid Chaco (2), Serra do Mar coastal forests (1), Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna (5), Uruguayan savanna (7).

Additional material examined. ARGENTINA. Corrientes: Isla Apipe , (11/1/1945), Col. (Martinez) | USNM   , Isla Apipe grande | IADIZA   , Santo Tome | IADIZA; Misiones : Bonpland | IADIZA   , Concepción, Santa Maria , Col. (Viana), (5) | IADIZA   , Loreto , Arroyo Yabebiri | IADIZA   , Loreto , Col. (Waiz) | USNM   , Pastoreo Grande , (2/1/1954), Col. (Waiz) | USNM   , Pindapoy , (1/1/1945), Col. (Bridarolli) | USNM   , San Ignacio , Col. (Waiz) | USNM   , San Jose | USNM, Santa Ana | IADIZA, Santa Maria | IADIZA. BRAZIL. Bahia: Sello   , (3) | ZMHB   ; Goias: Goiatuba | IADIZA   | ZMHB   ; Rio de Janeiro: Col. (Henzel) | ZMHB   ; Río Grande Do Sul: Porto Alegre , (12/22/1947), Col. (Becker) | USNM   , [as M. distincta   ], (2) | KBIN   , [as M. distincta   ], (8) | NMBA, (5) | ZMHB; Other: Jatahi , (2) | ZMHB   , [unreadable label] | ZMHB   . COLOMBIA. Bolivar : Cartagena, Col. (Castillo) | USNM   ; Santander Del Norte: La Playa | IADIZA   ; Other: Helgoland, Col. (Fryvaldsky), Det. Monrós, (2) | HNHM   . PARAGUAY. Alto Parana: | IADIZA   ; Other: Hoenahu , Det. Guérin, [as M. distincta   ] | NMBA. NO DATA. (6) | ZMHB   , [23376] | ZMHB   , [23378] | ZMHB, [ Scbaufub collection] | ZMHB   , Col. (Bridarolli) | USNM   , Col. ( Chapuis ), Det. Lacordaire, [as M. tricincta   ] | KBIN   , Col. (Roelof) | KBIN   .

31 | Megalostomis consimilis Achard 1926   | ( Fig. 35A–I View FIGURE 35 )

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) consimilis Achard 1926: 151   ; Monrós 1953a: 95; Agrain et al. 2007: 345 (reassigned to species status).

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) cornuta Monrós 1945   (nec Lacordaire 1848): 154 (identification error).

Megalostomis (Scaphigenia) cornuta consimilis: Monrós 1956: 161   (synonymization and status change).

Type locality. Argentina: Santiago del Estero (Rio Salado), and Bolivia: Yacuiba ( Villa Montes )   .

Type material. The type series was not available for this study; species determination relies on keys, redescriptions, and drawings by Monrós (1953a), and Agrain et al. 2007, as well as previously determined material, including specimens from the type locality.

Remarks. Monrós (1956) established this species as a subspecies of M. cornuta