Rana chalconota, (SCHLEGEL, 1837)

Inger, Robert F., Stuart, Bryan L. & Iskandar, Djoko T., 2009, Systematics of a widespread Southeast Asian frog, Rana chalconota (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 155 (1), pp. 123-147 : 129-130

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00440.x

persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Rana chalconota



(Previously referred to as Java morphotype)

Hyla chalconotus Schlegel, 1837: 24 – Java.

Rana chalconota Boulenger, 1882: 66 (part); Boulenger, 1920: 201 (part); van Kampen, 1923: 217 (part); Iskandar, 1998: 66; Iskandar & Colijn, 2000: 86 (part).; Stuart et al., 2006: 473.

Clade letters refer to Figure 2 View Figure 2 . Clades D and E occur in sympatry.

Rana (Chalcorana) chalconota Dubois, 1992: 328 .

Polypedates junghuhnii Bleeker, 1856 – Java.

The likely types are RMNH 4264 View Materials , 5364 View Materials (‘Java’). These are the only specimens collected early enough to have been sent to Schlegel by S. Müller. SVL of these types are: females 64.8, 67.7 mm, males 43.6– 49.8 (N = 3) .

Other specimens examined

Java: Bandung (6°57′S / 107°34′E) FMNH 83623-41 View Materials , 131052-62 View Materials GoogleMaps ; Cibodas (6°45′S / 107°01′E) FMNH 172352- 61 View Materials , 173623-37 View Materials , GoogleMaps ZRC 1.2755 View Materials GoogleMaps ; Pengalengan (7°10′S / 107° 34′E) BM; Sukabumi (6°55′S / 106°50′E) ZRC 1.6402 View Materials GoogleMaps - 03 View Materials GoogleMaps , 1.6405, 1.6505; Desa Sukahami (6°34′S / 106°45′E), near Bogor UTA 53665 View Materials -66 .

Sumatra: South Sumatra, Pagaralam (3°59′S / 103°26′E) on road to Lahat UTA 53685 View Materials GoogleMaps ; Lampung, S side of Gunung Rajabasa (5°47′S / 105°38′E) UTA 53686 View Materials GoogleMaps . ‘ Java-Sumatra’ in Figure 2 View Figure 2 .


A large member of the chalconota group, SVL of females 49.3–73.1, mean 60.05 ± 1.23 (N = 22); males 33.8–49.8, mean 39.02 ± 0.47 (N = 47); leg relatively short for the group, T/SVL 0.50–0.60 (median 0.537, N = 31); nuptial pad in males not constricted; humeral gland in males large, protuberant and visible through skin. Back with (18) or without (15) dark spots. HW/SVL of females 0.30–0.33 (median 0.313, N = 8), of males 0.28–0.33 (median 0.309, N = 21); TYM/SVL of females 0.07–0.08 (median 0.075, N = 8); of males 0.088 –0.129, median 0.113 (N = 24).

Descriptive notes

Head triangular; snout slightly projecting; tympanum slightly depressed relative to surface of temporal region; pineal body faintly visible, slightly anterior to or in line with front corners of upper eyelids; dorsolateral fold narrow; skin of back granular in females, with many fine spinules in males; crossbars on hind limb visible in about half of preserved individuals; rear of thigh brown with obscure, rounded light markings.


Rana chalconota is one of the two largest members of this species complex ( Table 2). Both sexes of this Javan species are larger (SVL) than the continental forms and the small species from Padang, Sumatra ( parvaccola , see below). Females of chalconota are also larger than those of raniceps and of megalonesa (see below) from Borneo ( Table 2). Males of chalconota , however, are smaller than those of the large form from Padang, Sumatra ( rufipes , see below). Rana chalconota (both sexes) has a significantly wider head (HW/SVL) than parvaccola and labialis from Selangor. Females of chalconota have larger heads than those of raniceps and rufipes . Males of chalconota are the only ones in this complex that have conspicuously protruding humeral glands.

This species, and all the other members of the Rana chalconota group, differs from many Sundaland species of Rana (Hylorana), sensu Boulenger (1920) , by its green coloration; this is the case with respect to Rana baramica (Boettger) , R. cubitalis Smith , R. glandulosa Boulenger , R. laterimaculata Barbour & Noble , R. luctuosa (Peters) , R. miopus Boulenger , R. nigrovittata (Blyth) , R. picturata Boulenger and R. signata (Günther) . The R. chalconota group differs from Rana crassiovis Boulenger , R. kampeni Boulenger , R. miopus Boulenger and Odorrana hosii (Boulenger) in the presence, only in the R. chalconota group, of a distinct outer metatarsal tubercle. In all members of the R. chalconota group, the tips of the fingers are much enlarged and that of the third finger is equal to half (males) or almost two-thirds (females) the diameter of the tympanum. In contrast, the tip of the third finger is equal to or less than one-third the diameter of the tympanum in Rana baramica , R. cubitalis , R. glandulosa , R. luctuosa , R. miopus and R. nigrovittata .


Bristol Museum














Rana chalconota

Inger, Robert F., Stuart, Bryan L. & Iskandar, Djoko T. 2009

Rana (Chalcorana) chalconota

Dubois A 1992: 328

Rana chalconota

Stuart BL & Inger RF & Voris HK 2006: 473
Iskandar DT & Colijn E 2000: 86
Iskandar DT 1998: 66
van Kampen PN 1923: 217
Boulenger GA 1920: 201
Boulenger GA 1882: 66

Hyla chalconotus

Schlegel H 1837: 24