Spinoliella packeri Gonzalez and Engel, 2017
Gonzalez, Victor H., Smith-Pardo, Allan H. & Engel, Michael S., 2017, Phylogenetic Relationships Of A New Genus Of Calliopsine Bees From Peru, With A Review Of Spinoliella Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2017 (412), pp. 1-72 : 47-52
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|Spinoliella packeri Gonzalez and Engel|
DIAGNOSIS: Both sexes of this species are most similar to S. psamita . Spinoliella packeri can be separated from that species by the punctation of the mesoscutum and mesoscutellum, which is finely and contiguously punctate-alveolate among large, sparse setiferous punctures (fig. 14B). In S. psamita the punctures of both mesoscutum and mesoscutellum are fainter than in S. packeri (e.g., cf. fig. 19B), and thus it appears shinier and imbricate, particularly on the disc of mesoscutellum. Also, both sexes of S. packeri are larger than those of S. psamita (head width 1.6–1.9 vs. 1.4–1.6 mm), and maculation is often absent from the male metasoma of S. packeri (T1–T4 with large lateral maculation in S. psamita ). The hypostomal projection in S. packeri is particularly strongly pronounced (fig. 15B), while in S. psamita it is present but much smaller.
DESCRIPTION: Female. Body length 6.5 mm (5.5‒6.5 mm); forewing length 3.9 mm (3.8‒3.9 mm); head width 1.7 mm (1.6‒1.8 mm). Head 1.2× wider than long; inner orbits of compound eyes slightly diverging ventrally (fig. 14A); intertorular distance 2.5× OD, about 1.3× greater than torulorbital distance; torulus diameter about equal to OD; ocellocular distance 1.9× OD, about as long as ocelloccipital distance; interocellar distance 2.4× OD, 1.2× greater than ocellocular distance; compound eye about twice as long as wide; clypeus 2.9× broader than long, with apex surpassing inferior tangent of compound eyes by about half of its length, projected about 0.4× compound eye width in lateral view; gena 0.7× width of compound eye in profile, widest medially; inner subantennal sulcus about one-half length of outer subantennal sulcus; facial fovea about 7.5× longer than broad, 1.8× longer than scape, deep, forming a groove, about 0.7× width of scape ventrally, progressively becoming narrower (0.5× width of scape) dorsally; scape 3.1× longer than broad; pedicel slightly shorter than F1, about as long as broad; F1 about twice as long as F2, slightly longer than broad; F2 about as long as F3; remaining flagellomeres broader than long, except last flagellomere longer than broad. Protibial spur with apical portion of rachis about two-thirds length of malus, with distinct row of eight elongate branches (not including apical portion of rachis); mesotibial spur straight, 0.6× mesobasitarsus length; mesobasitarsus robust, 2.7× longer than broad; metatibia 3.6× longer than broad; outer metatibial spur 0.6× length of inner, distinctly curved apically, inner spur straight, about 1.8× longer than outer spur; metabasitibial plate concave on disc, delimited by strong border (fig. 14D); metabasitarsus 5.0× longer than broad, about 0.6× length of metatibia. Pygidial plate with apex narrowly rounded, not bifid.
Head and mesosoma black (fig. 14A–C, 14E), except galea, maxillary and labial palpi yellow, apical half of mandibles and labrum (yellow) dark reddish brown, and cream to yellowish maculations as follows: mandible basally; clypeus except basally on disc; supraclypeal area; paraclypeal swelling; subantennal area; ventral surfaces of scape, pedicel, and flagellum; dorsal surface of pronotum with small lateral spot; pronotal lobe; distal margins of mesoscutellum and metanotum (entirely absent on both or with small maculation on metanotum); apices of femora; outer surface of protibia, apices and bases of meso- and metatibia; tarsi of all legs; humeral sclerite; T1 and T2 with medially interrupted bands, gap between bands about onefourth to one-third of transversal width of lateral band (broadly separated on T2); T3–T5 each with a complete band notched medially on anterior margin (medially separated on T3 and T4, deeply notched to medially separated on T5). Terga dark brown on discs, distal margins translucent brownish; sterna light reddish brown with diffuse brown spots laterally. Tegula translucent yellowish; wing membranes brownish, with weak green and copper highlights, veins dark brown.
Body pubescence as described for S. aidae (see above).
Outer surface of mandible distally and basal area of labrum smooth and shiny, impunctate; clypeus imbricate among faint punctures on disc, becoming smooth and shiny apically, punctures separated by 1–2× a puncture width on disc, denser laterally; paraclypeal swelling and subantennal area impunctate; supraclypeal area imbricate as on base of clypeus, with small punctures separated by 1–2× a puncture width; lower paraocular area largely impunctate, with smaller and sparser punctures than on supraclypeal area; paraocular area lateral to facial fovea shiny, weakly imbricate with scattered setiferous punctures; remaining areas of face including vertex dull, minutely and contiguously punctate-alveolate among large, scattered (2–3× a puncture width) setiferous punctures; gena and hypostomal area shiny, imbricate with faint, scattered punctures. Mesoscutum and mesoscutellum weakly shiny, finely and contiguously punctatealveolate among large, sparse (2–4× a puncture width) setiferous punctures (fig. 14D), as on face. Remaining areas of mesosoma, including legs, imbricate except mesepisternum dorsally and base of propodeum alveolate. Metasoma strongly imbricate with minute, scattered punctures on terga, punctures coarser and denser on sterna and terminal terga.
Male. As in female except pubescence longer and denser, clypeus and gena more strongly imbricate, and the following: body length 5.0‒ 6.4 mm; forewing length 3.6‒3.9 mm; head width 1.7–1.9 mm. Head 1.2–1.3× wider than long; ocellocular distance 2.1× OD, 0.7× ocelloccipital distance; compound eye 2.1× longer than wide; clypeus 3.2× broader than long, projected about 0.3× compound eye width in lateral view; gena 0.9× width of compound eye in profile; facial fovea weakly impressed, linear, slitlike, about 9.3× longer than broad, one-fourth width of scape, 0.8× length of scape; scape 2.8× longer than broad; pedicel slightly longer than F1, F1 about as long as broad, slightly longer than F2 and F3 individually, F2 and F3 broader than long as remaining flagellomeres; hypostomal carina projecting anteriorly (fig. 15B); mandible with large, triangular basal tooth on upper margin (fig. 15A, B). Metatibia 4.3× longer than broad; mesobasitarsus 5.4× longer than broad; metabasitibial plate as in figure 15D; outer metatibial spur straight, inner spur about 1.6× longer than the outer. Pygidial plate with apex pointed. Metasomal S7, S8, and genital capsule as in figure 15G–J.
Metasoma dark brown to black often without distinct yellow or cream maculation, sometimes with small, diffuse maculations laterally on T2 and T3, depressed apical margins yellowish to light reddish brown, particularly on basal three terga (fig. 15F).
HOLOTYPE: ♀, Chile: Quebrada Cardones [Arica and Parinacota (R-XV)], -18.45698, -69.77264, 2378 m, 17.iv.2012 [17 April 2012], L. Packer ( PCYU).
PARATYPES (n = 20♀♀, 25♂♂): CHILE: Tarapacá (R-I): 3♂♂, Region I, 71 km E Pozo Almonte, -20.29732, -69.14223, 2969 m, 14–21. iv.2012 [14–21 April 2012], pan trap, L. Packer (2♂♂ PCYU, 1♂ SEMC); Arica and Parinacota (R-XV): 3♀♀, 7♂♂, Quebrada Cardones, 2378 m, 13.v.2012 [13 May 2012], L. Packer (3♀♀, 6♂♂ PCYU, 1♂ SEMC); 1♂, same as previous except -18.45698, -69.77264, 17.iv.2012 [17 April 2012], 2378 m ( PCYU); 3♀♀, same as previous except -18.44759, -69.76234, 2443 m, 17.vi.2012 [17 June 2012], pan trap (1♀ MNHN, 1♀ PUCV, 1♀ SEMC); 4♂♂, same as previous except 18.vi.2012 [18 June 2012] ( PCYU); 2♀♀, same as previous except -18.4378, -69.74481, 2618 m, Cacabus flavus (PCYU) ; 4♂♂, same as previous except 17.iv.12 [17 April 2012] ( PCYU); 8♀♀, 2♂♂, same as previous except 17.iv.2012 [17 April 2012], blue vane trap, L. Packer (2♀♀, 2♂♂ PCYU, 2♀♀ MNHN, 2♀♀ PUCV, 1♀ BBSL, 1♀ SEMC); 4♀♀, 4♂♂, same as previous except pan traps ( PCYU).
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: (n = 6♀♀, 34♂♂): CHILE: Tarapacá (R-I): 4♀♀, 1♂, Region I, E. Pozo Almonte, -20.27720, -69.23552, 2358 m, 17.x.2013 [17 May 2013] ( PCYU); 5♂♂, Mamina [Mamiña, Tarapacá], vertedero, -20.06175, -69.22181, 2660 m, 16–21.iv.2012 [16–21 April 2012], pan traps, L. Packer ( PCYU); Antofagasta (R-II): 1♂, Region II, (WP: 77), E. of Calama, Hwy B-159, km 7, -22.34715, -68.34889, 3000 m, 02.iv–27.iv.2013 [2–27 April 2013], white cup, S. Monckton & J. Postlethwaite ( PCYU); 1♂, Gautin near San Pedro de Atacama, S22°45, W06804, 3255m, pans, iv.04 [April 2004], L. Packer ( PCYU); 1♂, NW of SP [ San Pedro] de Atacama, 23- CH, km 87.6, -22.90294, -68.26608, 2573 m, 28.iv–03.v.2013 [28 April–3 May 2013], J. Postlethwaite & S. Monckton ( PCYU); 1♂, E of SP [ San Pedro] de Atacama, 27- CH, km 19.9, -22.91061, -68.00141, 3045 m, 24.i–6. iv.2013 [24 January–6 April 2013], lt. blue [light blue pan trap], J. Postlethwaite & S. Monckton ( PCYU); 1♀, 4♂♂, (WP: 1115), 50 km SW of Peine, -24.09683, -68.29408, 3060 m, 02.iv.2013 – 01.v.2013 [2 April–1 May 2013], J. Postlethwaite & S. Monckton ( PCYU); 1♂, W. of Talabre, 2852 m, -23.293, -67.943, 23. iv.2015 [23 April 2015], L. Packer ( PCYU); 1♂, same as previous except 01.v.2013 [1 May 2013], L. Packer ( PCYU); 3♂♂, Talabre Viejo, 28.iii.00 [28 March 2000], L. Packer ( PCYU); Arica and Parinacota (R-XV): 5♂♂, Quebrada Cardones, -18.41266, -69.66638, 2942 m, 18–19.iv.2012 [18–19 April 2012], L. Packer, pans (4♂♂ PCYU, 1♂ BBSL); 5♂♂, same as previous except -18.46403, -69.80427, 2189 m, 17.iv-12.v.2012 [17 April–12 May 2012], blue vane trap, L. Packer ( PCYU); 2♂♂, Quebrada Cardones, -18.45698, -69.77264, 2378 m, 17. iv.2012 [17 April 2012], L. Packer ( PCYU); 2♂♂, Hwy 11, 74.5 km, -18.44759, -69.76234, 2443 m, 18.iv.2012 [18 April 2012], L. Packer, pan traps ( PCYU); 1♀, 1♂, Hwy 11, 65 km, -18.47355, -69.84498, 1935 m, 19.iv-12.v.2012 [19 April–12 May 2012], blue vane trap, L. Packer ( PCYU).
ETYMOLOGY: The specific epithet honors Laurence Packer, friend and colleague who not only collected the type series but also contributed significant material for our work.
DISTRIBUTION: Chile: Tarapacá (R-I): Tamarugal; Antofagasta (R-II): El Loa; Arica and Parinacota (R-XV).
FLORAL RECORD: Cacabus flavus I.M. Johnst. (Solanaceae) .
COMMENTS: Some male and female specimens from Talabre Viejo and Peine (Region II) are distinctively smaller than specimens from regions I and XV. The head width in these specimens is about 75% of the head width of specimens from other localities. The sculpturing of the mesoscutum and frons is also slightly coarser. Besides these differences, we did not find other features (i.e., pygidial and metabasitibial plates, male genitalia, and hidden metasomal sterna) that reliably separate them from S. packeri . Thus, we tentatively assigned them to that species.
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