Spinoliella confusa Gonzalez and Engel, 2017
Gonzalez, Victor H., Smith-Pardo, Allan H. & Engel, Michael S., 2017, Phylogenetic Relationships Of A New Genus Of Calliopsine Bees From Peru, With A Review Of Spinoliella Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2017 (412), pp. 1-72 : 31-35
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|Spinoliella confusa Gonzalez and Engel|
DIAGNOSIS: Spinoliella confusa can be recognized by the following combination of traits: large body size (6–8 mm); female pygidial plate narrow, with lateral margins converging toward apex at a 40° angle, apically bifid (fig. 6F); discs of mesoscutum and mesoscutellum nearly smooth and shiny among punctures in the female (fig. 6B), minutely, shallowly punctate in the male (fig. 7D), with coarse, scattered setiferous punctures separated by at least a puncture width; female mesobasitarsus slender, 3.6× longer than broad; and metabasitibial plate delimited by a strong border or carina (fig. 6C) (not well defined in the male: fig. 7E). The female is most similar to that of S. herbsti in the large body size, pygidial plate with apex bifid, dark brown to black body color, and sculpturing of the mesoscutum. However, in S. herbsti the pygidial plate is much broader, with lateral margins converging toward apex at a 60° angle (fig. 8F) and the metabasitibial plate is not delimited by a strong carina or border. The male of S. confusa resembles to some degree that of S. maculata , mainly in the body size and sculpturing of the mesoscutum and mesoscutellum; however, in S. maculata these areas are rather dull, with micropunctures distinctly deep throughout, whereas in S. confusa they are shinier, with micropunctures shallow, particularly on the disc of mesoscutellum (fig. 7D).
DESCRIPTION: Female. Total body length 8.3 mm (8.3‒9.1 mm); forewing length 5.4 mm (5.4‒5.8 mm); head width 2.4 mm (2.3‒2.5 mm). Head 1.3× wider than long; inner orbits of compound eyes slightly diverging ventrally (fig. 6A); intertorular distance 2.8× OD, about 1.4× greater than torulorbital distance; torulus diameter about equal to OD; ocellocular distance 2.3× OD, about as long as ocelloccipital distance; interocellar distance 2.2× OD, about as long as ocellocular distance; compound eye about twice as long as wide; mandible with large, triangular basal tooth or process on upper margin; clypeus 3.1× broader than long, with apex surpassing inferior tangent of compound eyes by about onehalf its length, projected about 0.5× compound eye width in lateral view; gena 0.7× width of compound eye in profile, widest medially; inner subantennal sulcus about one-half length of outer subantennal sulcus; facial fovea deep, widest inferiorly (0.9× width of scape), about 5.4× longer than broad, 1.7× longer than scape; scape 2.8× longer than broad; pedicel about as long as F1, 1.2× broader than long; F1 slightly longer than broad, about as long as F2, 1.2× longer than F3; remaining flagellomeres broader than long, except last flagellomere longer than broad. Protibial spur with apical portion of rachis about two-thirds length of malus, with distinct row of seven elongate branches (not including apical portion of rachis); mesotibial spur straight, about one-half mesobasitarsus length; mesobasitarsus slender, about 3.6× longer than broad; metatibial spurs straight, inner spur about 1.4× longer than the outer spur; metabasitibial plate slightly depressed, asetose on disc, delimited by strong border, narrowly rounded (fig. 6F); metatibia 4.3× longer than broad; metabasitarsus 8.0× longer than broad, about 0.7× length of metatibia. Pygidial plate with lateral margins converging toward apex at 40° angle, apex bifid (fig. 6F).
Color mainly dark reddish brown except black on face, mesoscutum, mesoscutellum, propodeal triangle, mesepisternum, and lateral fovea of T2 (head and mesosoma, excluding legs, largely black in one paratype) (fig. 6A, B), and cream to yellowish maculations as follows (fig. 6A–E): mandible except apically; labrum; clyp- eus except basally and distal margin submedially; supraclypeal area; lower paraocular area including paraclypeal swelling; subantennal area; outer surfaces of scape, pedicel, F1, and F2 with small apical spot; inner surface of flagellum, darkened apically; dorsal surface of pronotum with small lateral spot; pronotal lobe; anterior half of tegula; humeral sclerite; veins near wing bases; mesoscutellum with thin band on distal margin; metanotum; apices of femora; outer surfaces of tibiae and basitarsi, except anteromedially on meso- and metatibiae; discs of T1, T4, and T5 each with complete band medially emarginate on anterior margin, T2 and T3 each with medially interrupted band, broadly separated on T2 (T1 with medially interrupted band in one paratype). Tegula translucent yellow; wing membranes subhyaline, slightly yellowish, with weak green and copper highlights, veins light brown, darker on Sc+R, prestigma, and pterostigma.
Body pubescence yellowish to light reddish brown, sparse, minutely branched, except ventral margin of mandible, labrum, mesepisternum ventrally, tarsi of all legs, and outer surface of metatibia with simple, stiff setae; setae longer (at least 2× OD) on ventral margin of mandible, hypostomal area, mesoscutellum, protrochanter, profemur, posterior margin of metabasitarsus, T5 and T6. Metasomal terga and sterna with minute, appressed, sparse setae, denser and longer laterally, particularly on T2‒T4; anteriorfacing surface of T1 with sparse, minutely branched, erect setae (OD).
Outer surface of mandible distally and basal area of labrum smooth and shiny, impunctate; clypeus smooth and shiny, with faint punctures separated by a puncture width or more, punctures absent midapically, denser laterally; paraclypeal swelling and subantennal area impunctate; supraclypeal area smooth and shiny, laterally with scattered, small punctures as on lower paraocular area; paraocular area, lateral to torulus, and lower half of frons smooth and shiny, with coarse setiferous punctures as on supraclypeal area, separated by a puncture width or less; remaining areas of face, including vertex, minutely punctate with smaller, sparser setiferous punctures than on lower half of frons; paraocular area, lateral to facial fovea, smooth and shiny to weakly impunctate, with coarse, small punctures; gena smooth and shiny, with small, faint punctures separated by at least two puncture widths, punctures coarser, denser on hypostomal area. Mesosoma, including legs, generally smooth and shiny between punctures, except: propodeal triangle alveolate, somewhat imbricate distally; disc of mesoscutum, metepisternum, sides of propodeum, tegula, and legs weakly imbricate; ventral surface of mesepisternum strongly imbricate. Pronotum with scattered, minute punctures; mesoscutum with large, scattered punctures separated by at least a puncture width on disc (fig. 6B); disc of mesoscutellum with sparser punctures than mesoscutum; mesepisternum laterally with scattered, larger, shallower punctures than on disc of mesoscutum, ventrally with denser, smaller punctures. Metasomal terga and sterna weakly imbricate with minute, scattered punctures, coarser and denser on sterna and terminal terga.
Male. As in female except longer, denser pubescence (cf. figs. 6A and 7A), terga with integumental bands often broadly separated medially, and the following: total body length 8.2‒10 mm; forewing length 5.0‒ 5.8 mm; head width 2.2‒2.6 mm. Head 1.5× wider than long; intertorular distance 2.7× OD, about 1.5× greater than torulorbital distance; torulus diameter 0.8× OD; ocellocular distance about twice as long as OD, about 0.8× ocelloccipital distance; interocellar distance slightly longer than ocellocular distance; clypeus 4.0× broader than long; facial fovea about 4.0× longer than broad, widest medially (0.5× width of scape), 0.8× length of scape; scape 2.5× longer than broad; pedicel slightly shorter (0.8×) than F1, 1.3× broader than long; F1 1.2× longer than broad, 1.2× longer than F2, about as long as F3. Protibial spur with apical portion of rachis with distinct row of 11 elongate branches; inner metatibial spur about 1.3× lon- ger than the outer spur; metabasitibial plate delimited by border not as strong as in female (fig. 7E); metabasitarsus 5.0× longer than broad, about 0.5× length of metatibia. Metasomal S7, S8, and genital capsule as in figure 7F–I.
Meso- and metabasitarsi dark reddish brown; T1‒T5 each with band broadly interrupted medially (narrowly interrupted in one paratype).
Paraocular area, below facial foveal, impunctate, nearly smooth and shiny (weakly imbricate in one paratype). Pronotum with dense, small punctures midposteriorly on dorsal surface; mesoscutum and mesoscutellum with two types of punctures (fig. 7D): minute, nearly contiguous, shallow punctures, becoming faint to nearly absent on discs, and larger, deeper, sparser, setiferous punctures separated by one to two puncture widths. Metabasitibial plate with minute punctures on disc.
HOLOTYPE: ♀, Chile: Huasco Prov., 5 km N Incahausi, rd. to Mina Los Cristales, 990 m, pantrap M Irwin/D Yeates, 29.1899°S, 71.0204°W // SEMC 1008467 ( SEMC).
PARATYPES (n = 4♀♀, 5♂♂): CHILE: Atacama (R-III): 1♂, with same data as holotype and barcode label SEMC 1008466 ( SEMC); Coquimbo (R-IV): 1♀, 2♂♂, Coquimbo: Tilama, X-24-1971 [24 October 1971], Rozen & Pena // SEMC 1008463–1008465 ( SEMC); 1♀, Elqui: El Tofo, Llande [Llano de la] Higuera, Nov.17, 1991, J.G. Rozen, L. Pena & A. Ugarte // SEMC 1008479 ( SEMC); 2♀♀, 2♂♂, Elqui Prov., S 30°09′14.2″, W 70°39′50.6″, 11–30.IX.2004 [11–30 September 2004], Pangue ( PCYU).
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL (n = 6♀♀, 22♂♂):
CHILE: Atacama (R-III): 1♀, W of Junta del Toro, 41- CH, km 137, -29.96568, -70.20154, 1716 m, 17.x–14.xii.2013 [17 October–14 December 2013], J. Postlethwaite & S. Monckton ( PCYU); 2♀♀, 8 km W of Domeyko (c-500), -28.97934, -70.97232, 659 m, 15.x–30.xii.2014 [15 October–30 December 2014], J. Postlethwaite ( PCYU); 1♀, 4♂♂, -28.01883, -70.55381, 488 m, 22–25.x.2010 [22–25 October 2010], pan traps, L. Packer ( PCYU); 2♂♂, Rd. to Pircas Negras, km 8, -28.12614, -69.76213, 2086 m, 6.xi–11. xii.2013 [6 November–11 December 2013], blue [trap], S. Monckton & J. Postlethwaite ( PCYU); 1♂, Rd. to Pircas Negras, km 16, -28.06649, -69.73631, 2277 m, 20.x–12.xii.2013 [20 October–12 December 2013], J. Postlethwaite & S. Monckton ( PCYU); 1♂, Rd. to La Serrilla, c-493, km 10.5, -28.24885, -69.74290, 2500 m, 6.xi–10. xii.2013 [6 November–10 December 2013], S. Monckton & J. Postlethwaite ( PCYU); Coquimbo (R-IV): 1♀, Los Lavadores, -30.29961, -70.62728, 1396 m, 10–19.ix.2010 [10–19 September 2010], L. Packer ( PCYU); 1♀, 1♂, same as previous except 19.ix.2010 [19 September 2010], L. Packer (1♀ PCYU, 1♂ PUCV); 1♂, Panam km 232.5, -31.85161, -71.51435, 70 m, 2.ii.2016 [2 February 2016], L. Packer ( PCYU); 2♂♂, Hwy 5, N of La Higuera, 20.x.2009 [20 October 2009], net, J. Gibbs (1♂ PCYU, 1♂ MNHN); 1♂, 1.1 km S on road to Tololo Obs., S30.3058, W70.8151, 11–22.x.2009 [11–22 October 2009], J. Gibbs ( PCYU); 1♂, S. of Tongoy, R-440, km 5, -30.32008, -71.46635, 124 m, 12.x.2013 [12 October 2013], S. Monckton ( PCYU); 3♂♂, Rd. to Playa Blanca, -30.22739, -71.45116, 143 m, 12.x.2013 [12 October 2013], S. Monckton (2♂♂ PCYU, 1♂ BBSL); 4♂♂, same as previous except 18.x.2013 [18 October 2013], S. Monckton (3♂♂ PCYU, 1♂ SEMC); 1♂, Morrillos Ruta 5, km 458, -30.15394, -71.36885, 27 m, 9.xi.2013 [9 November 2013], S. Monckton ( PCYU).
ETYMOLOGY: The specific epithet is derived from confusus (Latin, “disordered”), and in reference to the morphological similarity of this species with S. herbsti , with which it is easily confused.
DISTRIBUTION: Chile: Atacama (R-III): Huasco; Coquimbo (R-IV): Tilama, Elqui.
COMMENTS: This species appears to be partially sympatric with S. herbsti in Coquimbo. In addition to the characters indicated in the keys and diagnosis, the female of this species differs from that of S. herbsti in the inner orbits of the compound eyes, which are slightly divergent ventrally in S. confusa and subparallel or nearly so in S. herbsti .
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