Nigilgia anactis Diakonoff, 1982,

Kallies, Axel, 2013, New and little known Brachodidae from tropical Asia and Papua New Guinea (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea), Zootaxa 3641 (3), pp. 241-259: 254

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Nigilgia anactis Diakonoff, 1982


Nigilgia anactis Diakonoff, 1982 

( Figs 20 –22, 27View FIGURES 18 – 27, 31View FIGURES 31 – 32, 33, 34View FIGURES 33 – 36)

Material examined. China, Hong Kong 13 “Mai Po Peter Scott F.S.C., N.T. Hong Kong, UTM 50 Q JV 963 907, 14 Aug 1994, 125W MBF, coll. R.C. Kendrick” (CAK); 13 “Po Leung Kuk Camp, Pak Tam Chung, Sai Kung C.P., N.T. Hong Kong, utm 50 Q KK 231792 alt 5m, 19 Oct 1998 / 4, 125 W MBF, leg. R.C. Kendrick” (genitalia examined by A. Kallies, on slide #AK 601, CAK); 1 Ƥ “Sha Lo Tung, Hong Kong NT, MV 600ft, 7. 9. [20]05, M.J. Sterling” (CAK); 1 Ƥ “Tai Po Kau, Hong Kong NT, MV, 6. 5. [20]06, M.J. Sterling” (Gen. prep. AK 607, CAK); 1 Ƥ “ Hong Kong, BF. 21. 7. [18] 96 / Meyrick Coll. B.M. 1938 - 290. / Phycodes adjectella Walk.  [sic] 3 / 5, E. Meyrick det., in Meyrick Coll. (BMNH); 1 Ƥ “[ India] Ganesh Gudi, Kanara, RM. 11.5.[19] 12 / Meyrick Coll. B.M. 1938 - 290. / Phycodes adjectella Walk.  [sic] 5 / 4, E. Meyrick det., in Meyrick Coll. (BMNH); 1 Ƥ, same data as previous, but … 5 / 1, E. Meyrick det. … (Gen. prep. AK 602, BMNH); 13 “Trincomali, Ceylon, EEG.. 11.ab / Meyrick Coll. B.M. 1938 - 290. / Phycodes adjectella Walk.  [sic] 5 / 2, E. Meyrick det., in Meyrick Coll. (BMNH).

Additional material (not examined). 2 Ex, [ India, Karnataka] Dibidi, N. Coorg (BMNH); Hong Kong: 1 Ex, Po Toi Island, Cheung Shek Pai, 25 m, coastal abandoned orchard, 22.163 N 114.254 E, 10. x. 2008, at light; 1 Ex, Kadoorie Agricultural Research Centre, Shek Kong, 200m, secondary forest, 22.428 N 114.114 E, 8. ix. 2010, at light; 1 Ex, Fung Yuen, Tai Po, 60 m, fung shui wood, 22.464 N 114.184 E, 4.viii. 2011, at light; 1 Ex, Mai Po Peter Scott Centre, 3 m, reedbed, 22.496 N 114.048 E 14.viii. 1994, at light; 1 Ex, Po Leung Kuk Camp, Pak Tam Chung, 10 m, tall shrub, 22.393 N 114.320 E, 19. x. 1998, at light; 2 Ex, Tung Chung on Lantau Island, coastal, 11. viii. 2006 and 5. viii. 2007, diurnal; 1 Ex, NT, Tai Po Kau Headland, 4. ix. 2010, at light; 1 Ex, NT, Kadoorie Institute, 8. ix. 2010, at light (all CMS).

This taxon was described from Sri Lanka as a subspecies of Nigilgia limata Diakonoff & Arita, 1979  (type locality Taiwan). Diakonoff (1982) based his decision to place N. anactis  as a subspecies of N. limata  on the fact that despite the striking external differences, he could not find major differences in the genitalia morphology of anactis  and limata  . Interestingly, in his later study Diakonoff (1986) did not mention anactis  as a subspecies of N. limata  and did not list Sri Lanka as part of the range of the latter, suggesting that he himself considered this taxon distinct. Examination of Nigilgia  specimens from various parts of southern Asia and Papua New Guinea supported this view and indicated that several species related to N. limata  exist. Thus, N. anactis  was treated as a valid species subsequently (Kallies 2004).

Nigilgia limata  together with N. anactis  , N. cuprea Kallies, 1998  and N. atribractea  sp. nov. form the N. limata  species-group. The species in this group share the constitution of the individual forewing scales (each with a white spot in the centre) and show very similar structures of the male and female genitalia.

Genitalia. Male (Gen. Prep. AK 601, Fig. 31View FIGURES 31 – 32). Valva relatively narrow and long, baso-ventral sclerotization of valva with distinct brush of setae; saccus relatively long and narrow. Female (Gen. Prep. AK 607 and AK 702 / BMNH 32399, Figs 33, 34View FIGURES 33 – 36). Ovipositor long, very narrow; ostium round, situated in an evenly curved indentation at posterior edge of last sternite; ductus bursae very long and narrow, with a distinct internal coil-like structure towards bursa; bursa globular, with large crescent-shaped signum with a triangular extension in middle.

Diagnosis. N. anactis  is similar to N. cuprea  and N. atribractea  sp. nov., from both of which it differs in details of the forewing markings (inner black transverse fascia with white speckles near posterior margin, arrow, Fig. 22View FIGURES 18 – 27). N. cuprea  can further be distinguished from N. anactis  by the broader and relatively straight signum of the female genitalia. N. limata  can be distinguished by the simple outer fascia (not Y-shaped) and the presence of metallic streaks near the termen. N. anactis  is also similar to Nigilgia venerea (Meyrick, 1921)  ; however, the latter can be distinguished by its wing markings (distal arm of the Y-shaped mark in the outer half of the forewing bordered with gold on both sides) and its distinctly different female genitalia (with a small round signum).

Remarks. N. anactis  is currently known from Sri Lanka, southern India, and Hong Kong. It can be assumed that it ranges more widely through much of the southern Asian mainland. A record of Nigilgia  from ‘Tonkin’ ( Vietnam) (Diakonoff 1986) could not be validated, but it may also represent this species. In Hong Kong N. anactis  has two distinct flight periods, the first in April and the second in July to October. The species was found at light but also flying in hot afternoon sunshine in secondary woodland. There are also records of specimens visiting flowers diurnally (Kendrick and Sterling, pers. comm.). The hostplant is unknown but likely is a species of Ficus  .