Opisthoncus L. Koch 1880, L. Koch, 1880

Gardzińska, Joanna & Żabka, Marek, 2013, Redescription of the genus Opisthoncus L. Koch, 1880 (Araneae: Salticidae), Zootaxa 3717 (4), pp. 401-447: 402-405

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3717.4.1

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Opisthoncus L. Koch 1880
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Genus Opisthoncus L. Koch 1880  

( Figs 1–30 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10 View FIGURE 11 View FIGURE 12 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 View FIGURE 16 View FIGURE 17 View FIGURE 18 View FIGURE 19 View FIGURE 20 View FIGURE 21 View FIGURE 22 View FIGURE 23 View FIGURE 24 View FIGURE 25 View FIGURE 26 View FIGURE 27 View FIGURE 28 View FIGURE 29 View FIGURE 30 )

Attus   [part.]: L. Koch 1867: 222, 223, 227.

Marptusa   [part.]: Thorell 1881: 437, 447, 449.

Hyllus   [part.]: Keyserling 1882: 1342.

Cytaea   [part.]: Simon 1903: 816.

Chalcotropis   [part.]: Simon 1903: 788.

Gangus   [part.]: Simon 1903: 700.

Opisthoncus: L. Koch 1880: 1180   ; Keyserling 1883: 1473; Peckham & Peckham 1885: 267, 309, 1901: 345; Hogg 1900: 77; Simon 1903: 826–830; Rainbow 1911: 308–311; Żabka, 1991: 44–48.

Type species: Attus polyphemus L. Koch, 1867   , by original designation.

Diagnosis. Cephalothorax with a small cephalic protuberance between PLE. Chelicerae in males inclined forwards, dentition basically fissidentate with uni- or pluridentate modifications and with additional spurs. Spermophore C-shaped or slightly meandering, embolus from short and wide to elongate and moderately thin, tibial apophysis conical. Epigyne with posterior notch, copulatory openings C-shaped, creviced, spermathecae S- or bean-shaped, insemination ducts coiled in circles and loops.

Description. Spiders 5–10 mm long. Cephalothorax in both sexes moderately high, from almost rectancular and slightly wider than PEW, through more or less round to trapezoid-like ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 A –D), in many cases (males) with distinct cheek swellings ( Fig 1 View FIGURE 1 D). Cephalic part with medial protuberance (CP), located between PLE; fovea (F) located below PLE ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 D). Thoracic slope gentle. Eyes in three rows, eye field occupies about 35–40 % of CL. Clypeus from narrow (15–25 % of AME diameter) to moderately wide (30–40 % of AME diameter), in males usually narrower than in females. Cheliceral promargin with 2 separate teeth, retromargin uni-, fissi-, pluridentate or of unclear pattern ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 H –N). In most species male chelicerae with distinct frontal ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 H –J) and ventral spurs ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 K –N), differing in size, shape and position. In O. lineativentris   , O. mandibularis   and O. tenuipes   frontal spurs are vestigial, whereas frontal edge of each chelicera is sharp and strongly sclerotized ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 H). Endites subparallel, labium subtriangular ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 E –F). Sternum moderately wide (most species, see Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 F) or relatively narrow ( O. abnormis   , O. keyserlingi   , O. lineativentris   , O. machaerodus   , O. mandibularis   , O. tenuipes   , O. unicolor   , see Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E), with anterior margin equal or narrower than labium width. Abdomen elongate-ovoid or cylindrical, usually covered with scales, with dorsal pattern of longitudinal, serrated, pallid streak, on darker background. In males more or less distinct dorsal scutum present. First legs more robust than the others, in males with somewhat elongate patellae. Leg formula: I –II –IV –III. Leg I spination: patella: pl 1, rl 0; tibia: p 1, rl 0, pv 3, rv 3, metatarsus: pv 2, rv 2 ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 G).

In relation to cymbium, palpal tegulum small and round ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A) or large and elliptic ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 B). Embolus (E) vary in length and shape, sometimes coiled clockwise (left palp) around tegulum ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A). Translucent part of spermophore (Sp) not meandering (most species) or slightly meandering ( O. lineativentris   ). Retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA) single and conical, slightly hook-like.

Epigyne ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C) with posterior notch (N) triangle, round or truncate, shallow or relatively deep. Copulatory openings (CO) creviced, in most species placed anteriorly and oriented mid-anteriorly (except O. unicolor   ). Insemination ducts vary in width, membranous in proximal parts (MD), distally more sclerotized, coiled and forming kind of intermediate duct (ID). Spermathecae located anteriorly (in most species) or posteriorly ( O. abnormis   , O. keyserlingi   ), accompanied by more or less visible accessory glands.

List of the valid species: 1. O. abnormis L. Koch, 1881   ; 2. O. albiventris L. Koch, 1881   ; 3. O. alborufescens L. Koch, 1880   ; 4. O. barbipalpis (Keyserling, 1882)   ; 5. O. bellus (Karsch, 1878)   ; 6. O. bitaeniatus L. Koch, 1880   ; 7. O. confinis L. Koch, 1881   ; 8. O. devexus Simon, 1909   ; 9. O. grassator Keyserling, 1883   ; 10. O. keyserlingi Żabka, 1991   ; 11. O. kochi Żabka, 1991   ; 12. O. lineativentris L. Koch, 1880   ; 13. O. machaerodus Simon, 1909   , 14. O. magnidens L. Koch, 1880   ; 15. O. mandibularis L. Koch, 1880   ; 16. O. mordax L. Koch, 1880   ; 17. O. necator L. Koch, 1881   ; 18. O. nigrofemoratus (L. Koch, 1867)   ; 19. O. parcedentatus L. Koch, 1880   ; 20. O. polyphemus (L. Koch, 1867)   ; 21. O. quadratarius (L. Koch, 1867)   ; 22. O. rubriceps (Thorell, 1881)   ; 23. O. sexmaculatus (C. L. Koch, 1846)   ; 24. O. serratofasciatu   s L. Koch, 1881; 25. O. tenuipes (Keyserling, 1882)   ; 26. O. unicolor L. Koch, 1881   .

Species excluded from the genus: O. delectabilis Rainbow, 1920   ; O. inconspicuus (Thorell, 1881)   ; O. eriognathus (Thorell, 1881)   ; O. nigritifemur Strand, 1911   ; O. pallidulus L. Koch, 1880   .

Nomen dubium: O. clarus Keyserling, 1883   (type species lost).

Species not studied: O. verisimilis Peckham & Peckham, 1901   (types not located), O. mandibularis Szombathy, 1915   (= O. kochi Zabka, 1991   ), redescribed by Prószyński, 1983.