Nychiodes divergaria Staudinger, 1892

Wanke, Dominic, Hausmann, Axel, Krogmann, Lars, Petrányi, Gergely & Rajaei, Hossein, 2020, Taxonomic revision of the genus Nychiodes Lederer, 1853 (Geometridae: Ennominae: Boarmiini) with description of three new species-an integrative approach, Zootaxa 4812 (1), pp. 1-61 : 32-34

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4812.1.1

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scientific name

Nychiodes divergaria Staudinger, 1892
status

 

Nychiodes divergaria Staudinger, 1892  

( figs 52–72, 113–119 View FIGURES 108-114 View FIGURES 115-118 View FIGURE 119 , 141, 142 View FIGURES 135-144 ; maps 4, 5)

Nychiodes divergaria divergaria Staudinger, 1892   . Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift Iris 5, 171. Syntypes ♂ (Mesopotamia [ Turkey]: Mardin, Egin ) (in MNHU, examined).

Nychiodes divergaria achtyca Wehrli, 1939   . Entomologische Rundschau 56 (33), 365. Syntypes 3♂ ([Transcaucasus]: Rjabov) (in ZFMK, examined). Hereby regarded as a new synonym of Nychiodes divergaria   based on morphological examination and sympatric occurrence of these forms.

Nychiodes divergaria elbursica Wehrli, 1937   . Lambillionea 37 (8-9), 187. Syntypes 11♂ 4♀ ([ Iran]: Elburs Mts.), (in NHRS, examined). Hereby regarded as a new synonym of Nychiodes divergaria   based on morphological examination and sympatric occurrence of these forms.

Nychiodes divergaria fallax Wehrli, 1939   . Entomologische Rundschau 56 (33), 366. Holotype ♂ (Transcaucasus), (in ZFMK, examined). Hereby regarded as a new synonym of Nychiodes divergaria   based on morphological examination and sympatric occurrence of these forms.

Nychiodes variabila Brandt, 1938   . Entomologische Rundschau, 55 (51), 37. Syntypes ♂, ♀ ([ Iran]: Comèe , Fort Mian-Kotal , Fort Sine-Sefid), (in NHRS, examined). Hereby regarded as a new synonym of Nychiodes divergaria   based on morphological and molecular examination.

Nychiodes variabila opulenta Brandt, 1941   . Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 31, 878. Syntypes ♂, ♀ ( Iran, Baloutchistan , Kouh i Taftan (Khach )), (in NHRS, examined). Hereby regarded as a new synonym of Nychiodes divergaria   based on morphological examination and sympatric occurrence of these forms.

Nychiodes variabilis   . Incorrect subsequent spelling of Nychiodes variabila   syn. nov. of Nychiodes divergaria   in Wiltshire, 1943. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay, 43, 630.

Nychiodes variabilis   . Incorrect subsequent spelling of Nychiodes variabila   syn. nov. of Nychiodes divergaria   in Wiltshire, 1957. The Lepidoptera   of Iraq. Government of Iraq (Ministry of Agriculture), 111.

Type material examined. Nychiodes divergaria   , Lectotype (herewith designated), ♂, Origin, [ Turkey], Mardin, g.prep. 2106/2017 H. Rajaei   ; Paralectotype (herewith designated), 1 ♂, Origin, [ Turkey], Egin, g.prep. 2107/2017 H. Rajaei; all in MNHU   .

Nychiodes divergaria achtyca   . Syntype, 1 ♂, Dagestan, Ackty, 28.vii.[19]33, M. Rjabov, g.prep. 7272; in ZFMK   .

Nychiodes divergaria elbursica   Holotype, ♂, Persia, Elbursgebirge , Rehne-Demavend, 2600 m, 21.- 27.vii.[19]36, Schwingenschuss; in ZFMK.  

MAP 4. Distribution pattern of N. divergaria   . This species is widely distributed from Turkey to south-eastern Iran. MAP 5. Distribution pattern of male N. divergaria   specimens indicating on a cline in the Middle East. The ampulla inferior is highly variable from absent to present in this species. An increase in the development of this structure is visible from Southern Iran to Turkey.

Nychiodes divergaria fallax   Holotype, ♂, Transcaucasus, Arax, Darasham, v. 1934, M. Rjabov g.prep. 7273; in ZFMK.  

Nychiodes variabila   Holotype, ♂, Iran, Fars, Strasse Chiraz-Kazeroun, Fort Sine-Sefid , ca. 2200 m, 25.v.1937, coll. Brandt, g.prep. 10930   ; Paratypes, 1 ♀, same locality, ca. 2000 m, 8.-7.v.1937, coll. Brandt, (labeled as Al- lotype)   , g.prep. 10931; all in NHRS. 1 ♂, same locality, ca. 2200 m, Sept.1937, coll. Brandt   ; 1 ♀, same locality, 28.v.1937, coll. Brandt   ; 1 ♂, same locality, Mai.1937, coll. Brandt   ; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, same locality, 10.v.1937, coll. Brandt   ; all in ZFMK.

Nychiodes variabila opulenta   Holotype ♂, Iran, Baloutchistan , Kouh i Taftan (Khach), 2500 m, 26.iv.1938, coll. Brandt, g.prep. 10928   ; Paratypes, 1 ♂, Iran, Baloutchistan , Kouh i Taftan (Khach), 2500 m, 3.v.1938, coll. Brandt, (labeled as Allotype) g.prep. 10929; NHRS   . 1 ♂, same locality, 3000 m, 20.vi.1938, coll. Brandt   ; Paratype 1 ♂, same locality, 2500 m, 17.vi.1938, coll. Brandt; all in ZFMK   .

Additional material studied: 232 ♂, 84 ♀ (see appendix).

Note. Nychiodes divergaria   is the most variable species within this genus, in sense of wing pattern and male genitalia (see figs 52–72). This extreme variability caused the description of several species and subspecies, which are regarded as synonymous taxa based on the extensive morphological and molecular examinations in the current study. In male genitalia, the most variable structure is the ampulla inferior of the valva. Examination of 180 genitalia slides and plotting these on a geographic map reveals a clinous charater distribution of the size of the ampulla inferior, starting from southern Iran (without ampulla inferior) to south-western Turkey (with well-developed ampulla inferior) (see map 5). The female genitalia show stable diagnostic characters with little variation between populations.Another reliable differential character is the costa of valva in the male genitalia. Therefore, we strongly recommend dissection for secure species identification of N. divergaria   .

Diagnosis. Wingspan ♂ 25–40 mm, ♀ 29–44 mm (forewing length ♂ 15–22 mm, ♀ 17–25 mm) ( figs 52–72). Ground colour of wings highly variable, differing from sandy yellow and light brown to dark, almost black specimens. N. divergaria   can be confused with most sympatric congeners ( N. farinosa   , N. rayatica   , N. subfusca   , N. leviata   , N. subvirida   , N. eberti   sp. nov.). Diagnostic characters of male and female genitalia in comparison to the above mentioned sympatric species are presented below.

Male genitalia ( figs 113–119 View FIGURES 108-114 View FIGURES 115-118 View FIGURE 119 ) with costa of valva wide, strongly sclerotized, reaching the apex of valva (in rare cases exceeding apex, figs 119 View FIGURE 119 J–P) (costa of valva exceeding tip of valva, slightly curved in N. farinosa   ; apically extremely dilated, exceeding tip of valva in N. rayatica   ; curved towards uncus in N. subfusca   ; curved in N. leviata   ; medially humped in N. subvirida   ; costa of valva narrow, digitiform in N. eberti   sp. nov.) (see figs 98 View FIGURES 96-102 , 105, 106 View FIGURES 103-107 , 108, 110, 111 View FIGURES 108-114 , 119 View FIGURE 119 , 120, 122 View FIGURES 120-126 ). Ampulla superior long, broad, usually tubular; ampulla inferior highly variable, from absent state to thin and long in size, if present always much narrower than ampulla superior (see fig 119 View FIGURE 119 ) (ampulla superior apically dilated, ampulla inferior slightly curved in N. farinosa   ; ampulla superior conical, broad, ampulla inferior strongly curved in N. rayatica   ; ampulla superior narrow, apically dilated, ampulla inferior short and broad in N. subfusca   ; ampulla superior broader than ampulla inferior, both with similar length and curved in N. leviata   ; both ampullae slightly conical in N. subvirida   ; both ampullae digitiform, characteristically located in the distal half of valva in N. eberti   sp. nov.) (see figs 98 View FIGURES 96-102 , 105, 106 View FIGURES 103-107 , 108, 110, 111 View FIGURES 108-114 , 119 View FIGURE 119 , 120, 122 View FIGURES 120-126 ).

Female genitalia N. divergaria   with strongly reduced apophyses anteriores, and two strongly sclerotized spherical patches on sternite A9 which cannot be confused with any other species of the amygdalaria   species-group (see figs 141, 142 View FIGURES 135-144 ).

Phenology. Three generations (as mentioned also by Wiltshire 1957), flying from March to November.

Biology. In Iraq feeding observations on trees and shrubs of Rosaceae   ( Prunus   , Amygdalus   and cultivated apricot) ( Wiltshire 1957).

Habitat. Occurring in the woodland zone of the mountains and in apricot orchards in lower plains; in the Zagros range inhabiting scrub woods ( Wiltshire 1957). In altitudes from 400 up to 3000 m.

Distribution. Anatolian-Iranian, from southern Turkey, southern Armenia, to western, northern and south-eastern Iran (maps 4, 5).

DNA barcoding. Clustering with N. subvirida   in a ‘ divergaria   - subvirida   -complex’, but showing diagnostic morphological characters, supporting the taxonomic validity of both taxa at species rank. Nearest species (minimum pairwise distances): N. eberti   sp. nov. (3.1%) ( fig. 145 View FIGURE 145 ).

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

NHRS

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Geometridae

Genus

Nychiodes

Loc

Nychiodes divergaria Staudinger, 1892

Wanke, Dominic, Hausmann, Axel, Krogmann, Lars, Petrányi, Gergely & Rajaei, Hossein 2020
2020
Loc

Nychiodes variabila opulenta

Brandt 1941
1941
Loc

Nychiodes divergaria achtyca

Wehrli 1939
1939
Loc

Nychiodes variabila

Brandt 1938
1938
Loc

Nychiodes variabila

Brandt 1938
1938
Loc

Nychiodes divergaria divergaria

Staudinger 1892
1892
Loc

Nychiodes divergaria

Staudinger 1892
1892
Loc

Nychiodes divergaria

Staudinger 1892
1892
Loc

Nychiodes divergaria

Staudinger 1892
1892
Loc

Nychiodes divergaria

Staudinger 1892
1892