Bouzan, Rodrigo S., Iniesta, Luiz Felipe M., de Souza, Claudio A. R., Zampaulo, Robson A. & Brescovit, Antonio D., 2020, Taxonomic review of the Amazonian millipede genus Parastenonia Hoffman, 1977 and description of a new species from iron-ore caves (Polydesmida: Chelodesmidae), Journal of Natural History 53 (45 - 46), pp. 2781-2799: 2782-2784

publication ID 10.1080/00222933.2020.1749956

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Family CHELODESMIDAE Cook, 1895  

Subfamily CHELODESMINAE Cook, 1895  

Tribe Priodesmini Hoffman, 1977  

Genus Parastenonia Hoffman, 1977  

Parastenonia Hoffman, 1977: 449 – 459   . Type species: Priodesmus aurae Schubart, 1947   [= Priodesmus parae Cook 1895   ], by original designation. Hoffman 1980: 152; Shelley et al. 2000: 120.


Males of Parastenonia   differ from those of other chelodesmid genera by the combination of the following characters: metaterga granular and crossed by a transversal sulcus ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (d)), as in Cypraeogona   , Cayenniola   , Cearodesmus   and Brasiloschubartia   , from which however this genus differs in the shape of the gonopod; lateral edge of paranota trilobed by the presence of two deep sinuses ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (a,b)), as in Priodesmus   and Stenonia   , (see Attems 1938, figs 68 – 69; Jeekel 1963, figs 30 – 32) however without modifications on the walking legs; gonocoxae large, with a dorsal field of setae; a long slender acuminate process on acropodite and an elongated prefemoral process ( Figure 9 View Figure 9 (a,b)).


General measurements. Body length between 32.30 mm (female of P. parae   ) and 22.60 mm (male of P. carajas   sp. nov.).

Colouration (in 70% ethanol). Variable among species, ranging from reddish brown to ochre.

Head. With scattered tubercles, some of which bearing setae ( Figure 2 View Figure 2 (a – f)); shape of the incisura lateralis suboval. Antenna elongated, about 1.5x the width of midbody ring ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (a – d)).

Body rings. Integument with small tubercles, without setae ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (a,b,d,e)). A transversal groove on the metazonite. Collum with the anterior border arched and posterior border straight. Spiracles oval. Sternites without modifications. Ozopores on trunk rings: 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15 – 19 (the standard polydesmid pore formula), located at the tip of the intermediate paranotum; and surrounded by peritremata. Paranota: prominent and long, wide, covering part of the legs, without setae on the edges. Paranota divided laterally into three lobes: -pro; -meso and -meta ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (a,b)). Telson: triangular, wide and with tubercles ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (e)). Epiproct with five pairs of macrosetae projecting through the tubercles on the dorsal side and two pairs in the apical region; paraproct with two macrosetae on each valve; hypoproct with two macrosetae.

Legs. Granulated; scattered setae along the entire surface ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (c)).

Male sexual characters. Gonopore located on the coxae of the legs of the third body ring, coxae rounded, with a large apical pore ( Figure 9 View Figure 9 (a)). Gonopod aperture large, rectangular-shaped; posterior edge slightly folded ( Figures 8 View Figure 8 (a – b) and 9(b)). Gonopods: coxae (Cx; Figures 6 View Figure 6 (a) and 9(c,d)) equivalent to about half the length of the telopodite, without spiniform process, with several setae on dorsal side; coxae dorsally prominent in ectal view. Cannula (C; Figure 9 View Figure 9 (e)) robust and hook-shaped. Spermatic groove: runs along the mesal side of the acropodite in the entire length (SG; Figure 6 View Figure 6 (b)). Telopodite elongated, divided into two parts: the prefemoral region ( Figure 9 View Figure 9 (d)) and the femoral region ( Figure 9 View Figure 9 (d)). Prefemoral process ( Figure 9 View Figure 9 (d)): branch long with stretch marks ( Figure 9 View Figure 9 (f)). Acropodite long divided into two parts, the larger central branch is the solenomere carrying the spermatic groove with a thin elongated branch, rising proximally from the femoral region ( Figure 9 View Figure 9 (d)).

Female sexual characters. Cyphopods elongated, situated directly behind the second pair of legs on the third body ring; composed of valves and operculum, all densely setose; two valves joined by a membrane and operculum apically, appressed against both larger

valves ( Figures 6 View Figure 6 (c – f) and 10(a – e)). A small projection of the valves with S-shaped curvature in the intermediate membrane ( Figures 6 View Figure 6 (c,d) and 10(a)).

Included species

Two species: Parastenonia parae ( Cook, 1895)   and P. carajas   sp. nov.


Known only from Amazon rainforest in the state of Pará, Brazil ( Figure 11 View Figure 11 ).













Bouzan, Rodrigo S., Iniesta, Luiz Felipe M., de Souza, Claudio A. R., Zampaulo, Robson A. & Brescovit, Antonio D. 2020


Shelley RM & Sierwald P & Kiser SB & Golovatch SI 2000: 120
Hoffman RL 1980: 152