Kleemannia Oudemans, 1930,

Masan, Peter, 2017, A revision of the family Ameroseiidae (Acari, Mesostigmata), with some data on Slovak fauna, ZooKeys 704, pp. 1-228: 1

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Kleemannia Oudemans, 1930


Genus Kleemannia Oudemans, 1930 

Kleemannia  Oudemans, 1930: 135. Type species: Zercon pavidus  C. L. Koch, 1839, by original designation.

Primoseius  Womersley, 1956b: 116. Type species: Zercoseius macauleyi  Hughes, 1948 (= Seiulus plumosus  Oudemans, 1902), by original designation. Synonymy by Hughes (1961).

Kleemannia  . - Evans 1963a: 229. not Zercoseius  Berlese, 1916a: 33. Type species: Seius spathuliger  Leonardi, 1899, by original designation. Incorrect synonymy by Oudemans (1939b).

Diagnosis (adults).

Dorsal shield variously sclerotised and ornamented, normally with 28-29 pairs of setae (z6 present or absent). Dorsal shield setae similar in adults of both sexes, well developed and relatively long, thickened, tubiform or flattened, mostly densely pilose or serrate. In female, st1 and st2 on sternal shield, st3 on small suboval or subcircular pseudo-metasternal platelets or sometimes on soft integument (in Kleemannia mirabilis  sp. n. on sternal shield), and st4 on soft integument; endopodal platelets II-III present, subtriangular, and relatively small; anterior margin of epigynal shield convex, genital poroids on soft integument. Female with five or six pairs of opisthogastric setae (JV1-JV3, JV5, ZV2; JV4 sometimes absent), two pairs of which (JV2, JV3) on ventrianal shield (in Kleemannia insignis  , JV2 occasionally on soft integument but contiguous to anterior margin of ventrianal shield), other on soft integument; male with five pairs of opisthogastric setae (JV4 always absent), 3-5 pairs of which on expanded ventrianal shield (JV1 and/or JV5 sometimes on soft integument). In both sexes, JV5 usually similar to those on dorsal shield, other ventrally inserted setae simple, smooth and needle-like. Peritrematal shields anteriorly connected to dorsal shield, and often with enlarged cavity-like poroid structure at level of coxae III. Metapodal platelets well developed, elongate. Corniculi well sclerotised and spaced, usually with bifid or trifid apex; setae h1 thickened, straight or slightly and regularly curved, progressively taperred and pointed. Fixed digit of chelicera with four subequal teeth on proximal masticatory area; male spermatodactyl relatively small, usually as long as movable cheliceral digit (if not shorter). Epistome with anterior margin produced into narrow and pointed central projection or, sometimes, short obtuse cusp; lateral margins mostly smooth. Palptarsal apotele usually two-tined. Coxae I–IV with delicate sculptural ornamentation, striate and reticulate. Genu III and tibiae III–IV with two anterolateral and two posterolateral setae. Tarsi I–IV each with empodium and claws; tarsi I usually well pigmented, brown in colour. Insemination apparatus with papilla-like sperm induction pores (solenostomes) associated with inner margin of coxae III.


Oudemans (1930) proposed the new genus Kleemannia  with Zercon pavidus  C. L. Koch, 1839 as type species, and added three further species in the genus ( plumosa  , plumea  and plumigera  ). Since then, this taxon has been variously treated as a genus ( Vitzthum 1942; Hughes 1961, 1976; Evans 1963a; Ishikawa 1972; Domrow 1974, 1979; Evans and Till 1979), a subgenus of Ameroseius  ( Athias-Henriot 1959, Hajizadeh et al. 2013a), or a junior synonym of Ameroseius  ( Westerboer and Bernhard 1963; Bregetova 1977; Karg 1993, 2005; Halliday 1997; Karg and Schorlemmer 2009; Narita et al. 2013b), although it may be easily and reliably separated from Ameroseius  by the presence of two posterolateral setae on genu III and tiabiae III–IV (one in Ameroseius  ), four proximal denticles on fixed digit of chelicerae (at most three denticles in Ameroseius  ), two pairs of opisthogastric setae on ventrianal shield (at most one pair in Ameroseius  , but never JV2), two-tined claw on palptarsus (three-tined in Ameroseius  ), thickened h1 (similar if compared to other hypostomal setae in Ameroseius  ), epistome usually with sharply or obtusely pointed apex (never produced into a single pointed process in Ameroseius  ). Therefore, the genus Kleemannia  is considered to be a valid genus, and is removed from synonymy with Ameroseius  .

The related genus Primoseius  was proposed and very briefly characterised by Womersley (1956b). He included two species in the genus, the type species, mentioned as Lasioseius (Zercoseius) macauleyi  Hughes, 1948 (sic, should be Zercoseius macauleyi  ), and Lasioseius (Zercoseius) gracei  Hughes, 1948 (sic, should be Zercoseius gracei  ), which were subsequently synonymised with Kleemannia plumosa  and Kleemannia plumigera  , respectively ( Evans 1954). Later, the separate taxonomic status of this genus was rejected by Hughes (1961), Evans and Till (1979), Karg (1971a, 1993, 2005), Bregetova (1977), and many others, because the original concept of Primoseius  was defined with the help of the same characters as they can be found in the most relative genus Ameroseius  , or Kleemannia  s. l. Womersley (1956b) based the diagnosis of his new genus especially on the possession of two pairs of setae (st1, st2) on sternal shield, a pair of pseudo-metasternal platelets each bearing a seta (st3), and metasternal setae (st4) on soft integument. Despite these facts, Primoseius is included as a subgenus of Kleemannia  in the list of valid taxa of Ameroseiidae  in this paper. It may be reliably distinguished from Kleemannia  s. str. mainly by the absence of z6, and presence of specifically modified dorsal setae (conspicuously flattened, leaf- to feather-shaped). Primoseius  currently comprises 12 described species ( bisetae  , dipankari  , dubitatus  , eumorphus  , macauleyi  , mineiro  , parplumosa  , plumosoides  , plumosa  , potchefstroomensis  , pseudoplumosa  and wahabi  ), of which only eight species are considered here to be valid ( bisetae  , dipankari  , mineiro  , parplumosa  , plumosoides  , plumosa  , pseudoplumosa  and wahabi  ). Narita et al. (2013b) classified eight species of " Ameroseius  " into a species group named plumosus  -group ( dipankari  , eumorphus  , mineiro  , parplumosa  , plumosa  , potchefstroomensis  , reticulatus  and wahabi  ). They defined the group by the following character states, of which some are vague and applicable also for other groups inside the genus: corniculus  bifid or trifid; dorsal shield reticulate and without pit-like depressions; 26 or 28 pairs of dorsal shield setae, most of which are lanceolate to leaf-shaped; and five or six pairs of opisthogastric setae, two pairs of which are on ventrianal shield. The plumosus  -group of Narita et al. (2013b) could be considered to be identical with Primoseius  , and it omits three species described before 2013, namely Kleemannia bisetae  , Kleemannia plumosoides  and Kleemannia pseudoplumosa  , and inexplicably includes Kleemannia reticulata  , which has z6 clearly developed and present on the dorsal shield.

Kleemannia  currently comprises 28 valid species described mostly from the Palaearctic, and only rarely from Neotropics (four species), Nearctic (one species), Afrotropics (one species) and Oriental Region (two species). Specimens reported as plumosa  and plumigera  have been reported from many countries around the world, from various natural and synanthropic habitats (stored grain and food, litter in sheds and stalls, mould in buildings). In Slovakia, this genus is represented by eight recorded species.

Key to species of Kleemannia  occurring in Europe (females)

Partial keys to species of Kleemannia  (classified in Ameroseius  ) from Europe and former Soviet Union may be found in Karg (1971a, 1993) and Bregetova (1977), and they include eight and 13 species, respectively. The world species can be identified using keys from Narita et al. (2013b, 2015). A new key to the genus is needed to include a species here firstly reported from Europe ( Kleemannia kosi  and Kleemannia parplumosa  ), the new species described in this study ( Kleemannia dolichochaeta  sp. n.), and a revised Berlese species previously considered to be dubious ( Kleemannia tenella  ). The identification key for 12 species presented below is based on direct examination of type specimens or specimens considered to be conspecific with the type material, except for Kleemannia elegans  .

Several diagnostic features can be useful in recognising of the Kleemannia  species occurring in Europe, namely (1) presence/absence of z6 (absent in dolichochaeta  , parlplumosa, plumosa  and pseudoplumosa  ); (2) placement of st3 (on soft integument in plumea  and tenella  ); (3) number of opisthogastric setae (with reduced number of five pairs in insignis  , plumea  and tenella  ); (4) presence/absence of cavity-like poroid structure on peritrematal shield (absent in plumea  , plumigera  and tenella  ); (5) placement of JV2 and JV3 on anterior portion of ventrianal shield (both setae on medial surface in elegans  , kosi  , pavida  and plumigera  ; JV2 on anterior margin or surface in dolichochaeta  , insignis  , parplumosa  , plumosa  and pseudoplumosa  ; both setae on anterior margin or surface in delicata  and tenella  ; and (6) relative length of Z- and S-setae (Z-setae apparently shorter than S-setae in tenella  ).












Kleemannia Oudemans, 1930

Masan, Peter 2017


Womersley 1956


Oudemans 1930


Oudemans 1930

Zercoseius macauleyi

Berlese 1916


Berlese 1916

Seiulus plumosus

Berlese 1887

Seius spathuliger

Agassiz 1845