Proctoporus carabaya, Goicoechea & Padial & Chaparro & Castroviejo-Fisher & Riva, 2013Proctoporus iridescens, Goicoechea & Padial & Chaparro & Castroviejo-Fisher & Riva, 2013

Goicoechea, NoemÍ, Padial, José M., Chaparro, Juan Carlos, Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago & Riva, Ignacio De La, 2013, A taxonomic revision of Proctoporus bolivianus Werner (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with the description of three new species and resurrection of Proctoporus lacertus Stejneger, American Museum Novitates 2013 (3786), pp. 1-32 : 14-21

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1206/3786.1

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4574371

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/F0310256-152E-5315-FE10-0FF49E91FA8A

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Proctoporus carabaya Proctoporus iridescens
status

new species

Proctoporus carabaya , new species

Figure 5 View FIG

Proctoporus bolivianus [Ca4 MNCN5580]: Goicoechea et al., 2012: 953.

HOLOTYPE: MHNC 5428 View Materials (field number MNCN 4709 View Materials ) (fig. 5), adult male, from Tambillo (13°52′40.9″S / 70°12′57.2″W), Province Carabaya , Department of Puno, Peru 3818 m, collected by Ignacio De la Riva, José Manuel Padial, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, and Juan Carlos Chaparro on 25 February 2006. GoogleMaps

PARATYPES: MHNC 5429 View Materials (field number MNCN 4710 View Materials ), adult male, and MHNC 5430–31 View Materials (field numbers MNCN 4715 View Materials , 4714 View Materials ), MNCN 43675–77 View Materials (field numbers MNCN 4710 View Materials , 4711 View Materials , 4713 View Materials ), juveniles, same data as holotype GoogleMaps .

DIAGNOSIS: (1) Frontonasal length equal to frontal length; (2) nasoloreal suture present; (3) supraoculars three; (4) superciliaries 3–4, first expanded onto dorsal surface of head; (5) postoculars two; (6) palpebral disc made up of a single, undivided scale; (7) four supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular; (8) two pairs of genials in contact; (9) dorsal body scales quadrangular, slightly keeled; (10) transverse rows of dorsals 34–35; (11) transverse ventral rows 23; (12) a continuous series of small lateral scales separating dorsals from ventrals; (13) posterior cloacal plate made up of six scales in both sexes; (14) anterior preanal plate scales paired; (15) femoral pores per hind limb in males 5–6; (16) preanal pores absent; (17) subdigital lamellae on toe IV 19–21; subdigital lamellae on toe V 6–13; (18) limbs not overlapping when adpressed against body on adults; (19) pentadactyl; digits clawed; (20) dorsum dark brown without laterodorsal stripes; lateral ocelli absent; ventral surfaces dark with some light mottling on lateral side of scales; throat paler than rest of the body, with more evident cream splitting.

Specimens of Proctoporus carabaya show the presence of an undivided palpebral disc, which identifies them as members of the genus Proctoporus , as opposed to Riama or Petracola (Doan and Castoe, 2005; Uzzell, 1970). Proctoporus carabaya can be distinguished from P.pachyurus by having three supraoculars (four in P. pachyurus ) and fewer transverse dorsal scale rows (34–35 in P. carabaya , 47–60 in P.pachyurus ); from P. sucullucu , by having limbs not overlapping when adpressed and loreal scale not in contact with supralabials (loreal in contact with second and third supralabials in P. sucullucu ); from P. bolivianus by being larger and having the frontonasal subequal to frontal; from P. unsaacae and P. guentheri by having the loreal not in contact with supralabials and by the absence of a series of ocelli (present in both P. unsaacae and P. guentheri ); from P. kiziriani by having first supraocular fused with first superciliary and the lack of dorsolateral stripes; from P. iridescens by having four supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular (three in P. iridescens ), presence of loreal scale (absent in P. iridescens ), and two pairs of genials in contact (three pairs in P. iridescens ); from P. lacertus by having first supraocular fused with first superciliary (not fused in P. lacertus ) and a loreal scale (absent in P. lacertus ); from P. xestus by the lack of prefrontal scales (present in P.xestus ) and having keeled dorsal scales (smooth in P.xestus ); and from P. chasqui by the lack of prefrontal scales.

DESCRIPTION OF HOLOTYPE: Adult male, snout-vent length (SVL) 66.5 mm, tail length 76.5 mm; head scales smooth, without striations or rugosities; rostral scale wider (2.0 mm) than tall (1.0 mm), meeting supralabials on either side at above the height of supralabials, and becoming higher medially, in contact with frontonasal, nasals, and first supralabials; frontonasal longer than wide, subequal in length with frontal, widest posteriorly, in contact with rostral, nasals, anteriormost supraocular, and frontal; prefrontals absent; frontal longer than wide, roughly polygonal, not in contact with anteriormost superciliary, in contact with frontonasal, first two supraoculars, and frontoparietals; frontoparietals polygonal, in contact with frontal, second and third supraoculars, parietals, and interparietal; supraoculars three, all in contact with superciliaries, third in contact with frontoparietal, parietal, and postocular; interparietal longer than wide, roughly rectangular, in contact with frontoparietals anteriorly, with parietals laterally, and with occipitals posteriorly; parietals polygonal, with anterior sutures in contact with frontoparietals and third supraoculars, posterior sutures in contact with occipital, lateral sutures diagonally in contact with temporal; occipitals three, smaller than parietals, subequal in size. Nasal divided, longer than high, in contact with first and second supralabials; loreal present, not in contact with supralabials, in contact with nasal, first superciliary, and frenocular; four superciliaries, first fused with first supraocular; two preoculars, first in contact with first superciliary and loreal scales, second in contact with frenocular, loreal, and first subocular; frenocular roughly triangular, in contact with second and third supralabials, second preoculars, first subocular, and loreal scales; palpebral disc made up of a single transparent scale; suboculars three; postoculars two; temporals smooth, glossy, polygonal; supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular four. Mental wider (2.0 mm) than long (1.1 mm), in contact with first infralabial and postmental posteriorly; postmental single, pentagonal, in contact with first infralabials and first pair of genials; two pairs of genials in contact, anterior pair in contact with first infralabials; second pair of genials in contact with second and third infralabials laterally; one pair of chin shields, separated by two smaller median pregulars; gular scale rows six; collar fold slightly distinct, concealing one row of small scales; lateral neck scales round, smooth. Dorsals rectangular, longer than wide, juxtaposed, with single high, rounded keel, in 35 transverse rows; longitudinal dorsal scale rows 23 at midbody; continuous lateral scale series, smaller than dorsals, partially hidden in lateral fold; reduced scales at limb-insertion regions present; transverse ventral scale rows 23; longitudinal ventral scale rows at midbody 11; anterior preanal plate scales paired; posterior preanal plate scales six, lateralmost scales small; scales on tail rectangular, juxtaposed; dorsal, dorsolateral, and ventrolateral caudal scales smooth; midventral subcaudal scales wider than adjacent scales, almost square, anteriormost midventral subcaudal scales subimbricate. Limbs pentadactyl; digits clawed; dorsal brachial scales polygonal, subequal in size, subimbricate, smooth; ventral brachial scales roundish, subimbricate, smooth; antebrachial scales polygonal, subequal in size, smooth, ventral antebrachial scales smallest; dorsal manus scales polygonal, smooth, subimbricate; palmar scales small, rounded, subimbricate, domelike; dorsal scales on fingers smooth, quadrangular, covering dorsal half of digit, overhanging subdigital scales, three on finger I, six on II, eight on III, 10 on IV, and four on V; scales on anterodorsal surface of thigh large, polygonal, smooth, subimbricate; scales on posterior surface of thigh small, rounded, juxtaposed; scales on ventral surface of thigh large, rounded, flat, smooth; femoral pores five; preanal pores absent; scales on anterior surface of crus polygonal, smooth, juxtaposed, decreasing in size distally; scales on anterodorsal surface of crus rounded, juxtaposed; scales on ventral surface of crus large, smooth, flat, subimbricate; scales on dorsal surface of toes quadrangular, smooth, overhanging supradigital lamellae, three on toe I, six on II, 11 on III, 10 on IV, seven on V; subdigital lamellae single distally, double proximally, three on toe I, seven on II, 11 on III, 15 on IV, eight on V; limbs not overlapping when adpressed against the body, separated by eight to nine dorsal scale lengths.

COLORATION IN PRESERVATIVE: Dorsal and lateral surfaces of head dark brown (fig. 5); lip irregularly barred with cream coloring; ventral surface of head cream with clumps of black stippling on each scale; pregular region like head but with fainter stippling. Dorsal and lateral surface of body nearly the same color as head; ventral surface of body dark brown ground color, with cream spots on posterior margin of some scales. Limbs similar to body, dorsal surface of arms with dark coloration decreasing toward ventral surface, ventral surface of arms gray without black stippling, dorsal surface of legs similar to body, ventral surface of legs with cream ground color and scattered gray stippling. Dorsal tail coloration like that of body, ventral surface of tail like ventral surface of the body but without mottling.

COLORATION IN LIFE: Likely similar to that in preservative, but no field notes or color photos of living specimens are available.

VARIATION: Scalation of the paratypes are similar to the holotype. Coloration among the specimens examined is also very similar, with adults darker than juveniles. Two juvenile specimens ( MHCN 5430 –31 ) have two light brown dorsolateral longitudinal stripes that originate near the occiput and extend to forelimb insertions. Variation of morphometric and meristic characters is shown in table 3. The small sample size (only two adult males and five juveniles) did not allow us to study variation due to sexual dimorphism.

DISTRIBUTION: Proctoporus carabaya is known only from type locality (fig. 9).

HABITAT AND ECOLOGY: Individuals were found during the day under logs and stones around the small village of Tambillo, occupying disturbed areas and agricultural fields.

ETYMOLOGY: The specific terms refers both to the province and the mountain range where the species occurs, the Cordillera de Carabaya, one of the most spectacular formations in the Andes of southern Peru.

Proctoporus iridescens , new species

Figures 3B View FIG , 6 View FIG

Proctoporus bolivianus [Ca3 MNCN21323]: Goicoechea et al., 2012: 953.

HOLOTYPE: MHNC 5359 View Materials (field number MNCN 4590 View Materials ) (fig. 6), adult male, from the road between Huancasarani and Limbani (14°10′29.4″S / 69°41′36.1″W), Province Sandia , Department of Puno, Peru, 3643 m, collected by Ignacio De la Riva, José Manuel Padial, Jaime Bosch, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, and Juan Carlos Chaparro on 16 February 2006. GoogleMaps

PARATYPES: MNCN 43666 View Materials (field number MNCN 4589 View Materials ), adult male, and MNCN 43667 View Materials (field number MNCN 4593 View Materials ), MHNC 5361 View Materials (field number MNCN 4592 View Materials ), adult females, same data as holotype; MNCN 43668–69 View Materials (field numbers MNCN 4607 View Materials , 4699 View Materials ), MHNC 5421 View Materials (field number MNCN 4698 View Materials ), adult females, from road between Ollachea and Corani (13°50′31.2″S / 70°29′51.7″W), Province Carabaya, Department of Puno, Peru, 3213 m, collected by Ignacio De la Riva, José Manuel Padial, Jaime Bosch, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, and Juan Carlos Chaparro on 24 February 2006; GoogleMaps MHNC 5699 View Materials (field number MNCN 4793 View Materials ), MHNC 5701 View Materials (field number MNCN 4795 View Materials ), MNCN 44222 View Materials (field number MNCN 4798 View Materials ), MNCN 44224 View Materials (field number MNCN 4790 View Materials ), adult females, and MNCN 44223 View Materials (field number MNCN 4789 View Materials ), MNCN 44225 View Materials (field number MNCN 4791 View Materials ), juveniles, from road between Usicayos and Quetapalo (14°07′21.1″S / 70°57′06.7″W), Province Carabaya, Department of Puno, Peru, 3773 m, collected by Ignacio De la Riva, José Manuel Padial, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, and Juan Carlos Chaparro on 5 February 2007 GoogleMaps .

DIAGNOSIS: (1) Frontonasal length equal to frontal length; (2) nasoloreal suture absent; (3) three supraoculars; (4) 3–4 superciliaries, first not expanded onto dorsal surface of head; (5) postoculars two; (6) palpebral disc made up of a single, undivided scale; (7) three supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular; (8) three pairs of genials in contact; (9) dorsal body scales quadrangular, slightly keeled; (10) transverse rows of dorsals 34–37 in males and 34–40 in females; (11) transverse ventral rows 22–24 in both sexes; (12) a continuous series of small lateral scales separating dorsals from ventrals; (13) posterior cloacal plate made up of six scales in both sexes; (14) anterior preanal plate scales paired; (15) femoral pores per hind limb in males 5–6 in males, absent in females; (16) preanal pores absent; (17) subdigital lamellae on toe IV 14–20; subdigital lamellae on toe V 6–13; (18) limbs not overlapping when adpressed against body in adults; (19) pentadactyl; digits clawed; (20) dorsum dark gray; lateral surface of head like dorsal surface, lip irregularly barred with cream coloring; ventral surface of head cream with clumps of black stippling on each scale; pregular region like head but with fainter stippling.

Specimens of Proctoporus iridescens show the presence of an undivided palpebral disc, which identifies them as members of the genus Proctoporus , as opposed to Riama and Petracola (Doan and Castoe, 2005; Uzzell, 1970). Proctoporus iridescens can be distinguished from its congeners by having three supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular (four in all other species of Proctoporus ) and three pairs of genials in contact (two in all other species of Proctoporus ). It can also be distinguished from P.pachyurus by having three supraoculars not fused with superciliaries (four supraoculars in P. pachyurus , first fused with first superciliary), and 34–40 transverse dorsal scale rows (47–60 in P.pachyurus ); from P. sucullucu by having limbs not overlapping when adpressed against body, first supraocular not fused with first superciliary (fused in P. sucullucu ), and by the lack of loreal scale (present in P. sucullucu ); from P. bolivianus by having frontonasal subequal to frontals and first supraocular not fused with first superciliary; from P. unsaacae and P. guentheri by the absence of a series of lateral ocelli; from P. carabaya by having first supraocular not fused with first superciliary and the lack of loreal scale; from P. kiziriani by the lack of loreal scale (present in P. kiziriani ) and by the absence of dorsal stripes; from P. lacertus by having three supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular (four in P.lacertus ); from P.xestus by the lack of prefrontal scales (present in P.xestus ) and having keeled dorsal scales (smooth in P. xestus ); and from P. chasqui by the lack of prefrontal scales.

DESCRIPTION OF HOLOTYPE: Adult male, snout-vent length (SVL) 56.0 mm, regenerated tail length 62.8 mm; head scales smooth, without striations or rugosities; rostral scale wider (1.9 mm) than tall (0.9 mm), meeting supralabials on either side at above the height of supralabials, and becoming higher medially, in contact with frontonasal, nasals, and first supralabi- als; frontonasal longer than wide, widest posteriorly, in contact with rostral, nasals, anteriormost supraocular, and frontal; prefrontals absent; frontal longer than wide, pentagonal, not in contact with anteriormost superciliary, in contact with frontonasal, first two supraoculars and with frontoparietals; frontoparietals pentagonal, in contact with frontal, second and third supraoculars, parietals, and interparietal; supraoculars three, all in contact with superciliaries, third in contact with frontoparietal, parietal, and postocular; interparietal longer than wide, roughly heptagonal, in contact with frontoparietals anteriorly, parietals laterally, and occipitals posteriorly; parietals polygonal, with posterior sutures in contact with occipital, lateral sutures diagonally in contact with temporal; occipitals three, smaller than parietals, medial pentagonal smaller than laterals. Nasal entire with no separate loreal scale, longer than high, in contact with first supralabials, first superciliary, and frenocular; nostril situated in anterior third of nasal scale; three superciliaries, first not fused with first supraocular; palpebral disc made up of a single transparent scale; suboculars two; postoculars two; temporals smooth, glossy, polygonal; supratympanic temporals two; supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular three. Mental wider (2.2 mm) than long (1.8 mm), in contact with first infralabial and postmental posteriorly; postmental single, pentagonal, in contact with mental, first infralabials, and first pair of genials; three pairs of genials in contact, anterior pair in contact with first and second infralabials; second pair of genials in contact with second and third infralabi- als; third pair of genials in contact with third and fourth infralabials laterally; one pair of chin shields, separated by two smaller median pregulars; gular scale rows eight; lateral neck scales round, smooth. Dorsals rectangular, longer than wide, juxtaposed, slightly keeled, in 33 transverse rows; longitudinal dorsal scale rows 23 at midbody; continuous lateral scale series, smaller than dorsals, partially hidden in lateral fold, reduced scales at limb-insertion regions present; transverse ventral scale rows 22; longitudinal ventral scale rows at midbody 12; anterior preanal plate scales paired; posterior preanal plate scales six, lateralmost scales small; scales on tail rectangular, juxtaposed; all caudal scales smooth. Limbs pentadactyl; digits clawed; dorsal brachial scales polygonal, subequal in size, subimbricate, smooth; ventral brachial scales roundish, subimbricate, smooth; antebrachial scales polygonal, subequal in size, smooth, ventral antebrachial scales smallest; dorsal manus scales polygonal, smooth, subimbricate; palmar scales small, rounded, subimbricate, domelike; dorsal scales on fingers smooth, quadrangular, covering dorsal half of digit, overhanging subdigital scales, three on finger I, five on II, eight on III, 10 on IV, five on V; scales on anterodorsal surface of thigh large, polygonal, smooth, subimbricate; scales on posterior surface of thigh small, rounded, juxtaposed; scales on ventral surface of thigh large, rounded, flat, smooth; femoral pores five; preanal pores absent; scales on anterior surface of crus polygonal, smooth, juxtaposed, decreasing in size distally; scales on anterodorsal surface of crus rounded, juxtaposed; scales on ventral surface of crus large, smooth, flat, subimbricate; scales on dorsal surface of toes quadrangular, smooth, overhanging supradigital lamellae, three on toe I, six on II, seven on III, seven on IV, five on V; subdigital lamellae single distally, double proximally, three on toe I, four on II, 11 on III, 14 on IV, nine on V; limbs not overlapping when adpressed against the body, separated by eight to nine dorsal scale lengths.

COLORATION IN PRESERVATIVE: Dorsal and lateral surfaces of head dark gray (fig. 6); lip irregularly barred with cream color; ventral surface of head creamy gray with clumps of black stippling on each scale; pregular region like head but with fainter stippling; gular region like head. Dorsal and lateral surface of body nearly same color as head; ventral surface of body with dark gray ground color, with cream spots on posterior margin of some scales. Limbs similar to body. Dorsal tail coloration like that of body, ventral surface of tail like ventral surface of the body but without mottling.

COLORATION IN LIFE: Dorsal, lateral, and ventral surfaces are similar to coloration in preservative but with bluish-green iridescences (fig. 3).

VARIATION: Coloration is similar among all the specimens with some of them having a lighter dorsum. Stippling on the venter is more distinct in some specimens and nearly absent in others; throat coloration is also variable, with some specimens having lighter coloration in this region. Sexual dimorphism includes males having wider heads (relative to head length; see table 3); femoral pores number is also sexually dimorphic, with males possessing 5–6 femoral pores per leg and females lacking them. Variation of morphometric and meristic characters is shown in table 3.

DISTRIBUTION: This Peruvian species has a relatively broad distribution, from the Limbani valley and Corani in northern department of Puno to the Kosñipata Valley, in the department of Cusco, covering an air distance of 160 km approximately, with an altitudinal range of 2700–3850 m (fig. 9).

HABITAT AND ECOLOGY: Individuals were found during day time under rocks and logs in cloud forests and humid cleared areas.

ETYMOLOGY: The specific epithet comes from Greek iris (“rainbow”), in allusion to the pretty iridescent reflections of the scales of this species.

Proctoporus iridescens , new species

Figures 3B View FIG , 6 View FIG

Proctoporus bolivianus [Ca3 MNCN21323]: Goicoechea et al., 2012: 953.

HOLOTYPE: MHNC 5359 View Materials (field number MNCN 4590 View Materials ) (fig. 6), adult male, from the road between Huancasarani and Limbani (14°10′29.4″S / 69°41′36.1″W), Province Sandia , Department of Puno, Peru, 3643 m, collected by Ignacio De la Riva, José Manuel Padial, Jaime Bosch, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, and Juan Carlos Chaparro on 16 February 2006. GoogleMaps

PARATYPES: MNCN 43666 View Materials (field number MNCN 4589 View Materials ), adult male, and MNCN 43667 View Materials (field number MNCN 4593 View Materials ), MHNC 5361 View Materials (field number MNCN 4592 View Materials ), adult females, same data as holotype; MNCN 43668–69 View Materials (field numbers MNCN 4607 View Materials , 4699 View Materials ), MHNC 5421 View Materials (field number MNCN 4698 View Materials ), adult females, from road between Ollachea and Corani (13°50′31.2″S / 70°29′51.7″W), Province Carabaya, Department of Puno, Peru, 3213 m, collected by Ignacio De la Riva, José Manuel Padial, Jaime Bosch, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, and Juan Carlos Chaparro on 24 February 2006; GoogleMaps MHNC 5699 View Materials (field number MNCN 4793 View Materials ), MHNC 5701 View Materials (field number MNCN 4795 View Materials ), MNCN 44222 View Materials (field number MNCN 4798 View Materials ), MNCN 44224 View Materials (field number MNCN 4790 View Materials ), adult females, and MNCN 44223 View Materials (field number MNCN 4789 View Materials ), MNCN 44225 View Materials (field number MNCN 4791 View Materials ), juveniles, from road between Usicayos and Quetapalo (14°07′21.1″S / 70°57′06.7″W), Province Carabaya, Department of Puno, Peru, 3773 m, collected by Ignacio De la Riva, José Manuel Padial, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, and Juan Carlos Chaparro on 5 February 2007 GoogleMaps .

DIAGNOSIS: (1) Frontonasal length equal to frontal length; (2) nasoloreal suture absent; (3) three supraoculars; (4) 3–4 superciliaries, first not expanded onto dorsal surface of head; (5) postoculars two; (6) palpebral disc made up of a single, undivided scale; (7) three supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular; (8) three pairs of genials in contact; (9) dorsal body scales quadrangular, slightly keeled; (10) transverse rows of dorsals 34–37 in males and 34–40 in females; (11) transverse ventral rows 22–24 in both sexes; (12) a continuous series of small lateral scales separating dorsals from ventrals; (13) posterior cloacal plate made up of six scales in both sexes; (14) anterior preanal plate scales paired; (15) femoral pores per hind limb in males 5–6 in males, absent in females; (16) preanal pores absent; (17) subdigital lamellae on toe IV 14–20; subdigital lamellae on toe V 6–13; (18) limbs not overlapping when adpressed against body in adults; (19) pentadactyl; digits clawed; (20) dorsum dark gray; lateral surface of head like dorsal surface, lip irregularly barred with cream coloring; ventral surface of head cream with clumps of black stippling on each scale; pregular region like head but with fainter stippling.

Specimens of Proctoporus iridescens show the presence of an undivided palpebral disc, which identifies them as members of the genus Proctoporus , as opposed to Riama and Petracola (Doan and Castoe, 2005; Uzzell, 1970). Proctoporus iridescens can be distinguished from its congeners by having three supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular (four in all other species of Proctoporus ) and three pairs of genials in contact (two in all other species of Proctoporus ). It can also be distinguished from P.pachyurus by having three supraoculars not fused with superciliaries (four supraoculars in P. pachyurus , first fused with first superciliary), and 34–40 transverse dorsal scale rows (47–60 in P.pachyurus ); from P. sucullucu by having limbs not overlapping when adpressed against body, first supraocular not fused with first superciliary (fused in P. sucullucu ), and by the lack of loreal scale (present in P. sucullucu ); from P. bolivianus by having frontonasal subequal to frontals and first supraocular not fused with first superciliary; from P. unsaacae and P. guentheri by the absence of a series of lateral ocelli; from P. carabaya by having first supraocular not fused with first superciliary and the lack of loreal scale; from P. kiziriani by the lack of loreal scale (present in P. kiziriani ) and by the absence of dorsal stripes; from P. lacertus by having three supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular (four in P.lacertus ); from P.xestus by the lack of prefrontal scales (present in P.xestus ) and having keeled dorsal scales (smooth in P. xestus ); and from P. chasqui by the lack of prefrontal scales.

DESCRIPTION OF HOLOTYPE: Adult male, snout-vent length (SVL) 56.0 mm, regenerated tail length 62.8 mm; head scales smooth, without striations or rugosities; rostral scale wider (1.9 mm) than tall (0.9 mm), meeting supralabials on either side at above the height of supralabials, and becoming higher medially, in contact with frontonasal, nasals, and first supralabi- als; frontonasal longer than wide, widest posteriorly, in contact with rostral, nasals, anteriormost supraocular, and frontal; prefrontals absent; frontal longer than wide, pentagonal, not in contact with anteriormost superciliary, in contact with frontonasal, first two supraoculars and with frontoparietals; frontoparietals pentagonal, in contact with frontal, second and third supraoculars, parietals, and interparietal; supraoculars three, all in contact with superciliaries, third in contact with frontoparietal, parietal, and postocular; interparietal longer than wide, roughly heptagonal, in contact with frontoparietals anteriorly, parietals laterally, and occipitals posteriorly; parietals polygonal, with posterior sutures in contact with occipital, lateral sutures diagonally in contact with temporal; occipitals three, smaller than parietals, medial pentagonal smaller than laterals. Nasal entire with no separate loreal scale, longer than high, in contact with first supralabials, first superciliary, and frenocular; nostril situated in anterior third of nasal scale; three superciliaries, first not fused with first supraocular; palpebral disc made up of a single transparent scale; suboculars two; postoculars two; temporals smooth, glossy, polygonal; supratympanic temporals two; supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular three. Mental wider (2.2 mm) than long (1.8 mm), in contact with first infralabial and postmental posteriorly; postmental single, pentagonal, in contact with mental, first infralabials, and first pair of genials; three pairs of genials in contact, anterior pair in contact with first and second infralabials; second pair of genials in contact with second and third infralabi- als; third pair of genials in contact with third and fourth infralabials laterally; one pair of chin shields, separated by two smaller median pregulars; gular scale rows eight; lateral neck scales round, smooth. Dorsals rectangular, longer than wide, juxtaposed, slightly keeled, in 33 transverse rows; longitudinal dorsal scale rows 23 at midbody; continuous lateral scale series, smaller than dorsals, partially hidden in lateral fold, reduced scales at limb-insertion regions present; transverse ventral scale rows 22; longitudinal ventral scale rows at midbody 12; anterior preanal plate scales paired; posterior preanal plate scales six, lateralmost scales small; scales on tail rectangular, juxtaposed; all caudal scales smooth. Limbs pentadactyl; digits clawed; dorsal brachial scales polygonal, subequal in size, subimbricate, smooth; ventral brachial scales roundish, subimbricate, smooth; antebrachial scales polygonal, subequal in size, smooth, ventral antebrachial scales smallest; dorsal manus scales polygonal, smooth, subimbricate; palmar scales small, rounded, subimbricate, domelike; dorsal scales on fingers smooth, quadrangular, covering dorsal half of digit, overhanging subdigital scales, three on finger I, five on II, eight on III, 10 on IV, five on V; scales on anterodorsal surface of thigh large, polygonal, smooth, subimbricate; scales on posterior surface of thigh small, rounded, juxtaposed; scales on ventral surface of thigh large, rounded, flat, smooth; femoral pores five; preanal pores absent; scales on anterior surface of crus polygonal, smooth, juxtaposed, decreasing in size distally; scales on anterodorsal surface of crus rounded, juxtaposed; scales on ventral surface of crus large, smooth, flat, subimbricate; scales on dorsal surface of toes quadrangular, smooth, overhanging supradigital lamellae, three on toe I, six on II, seven on III, seven on IV, five on V; subdigital lamellae single distally, double proximally, three on toe I, four on II, 11 on III, 14 on IV, nine on V; limbs not overlapping when adpressed against the body, separated by eight to nine dorsal scale lengths.

COLORATION IN PRESERVATIVE: Dorsal and lateral surfaces of head dark gray (fig. 6); lip irregularly barred with cream color; ventral surface of head creamy gray with clumps of black stippling on each scale; pregular region like head but with fainter stippling; gular region like head. Dorsal and lateral surface of body nearly same color as head; ventral surface of body with dark gray ground color, with cream spots on posterior margin of some scales. Limbs similar to body. Dorsal tail coloration like that of body, ventral surface of tail like ventral surface of the body but without mottling.

COLORATION IN LIFE: Dorsal, lateral, and ventral surfaces are similar to coloration in preservative but with bluish-green iridescences (fig. 3).

VARIATION: Coloration is similar among all the specimens with some of them having a lighter dorsum. Stippling on the venter is more distinct in some specimens and nearly absent in others; throat coloration is also variable, with some specimens having lighter coloration in this region. Sexual dimorphism includes males having wider heads (relative to head length; see table 3); femoral pores number is also sexually dimorphic, with males possessing 5–6 femoral pores per leg and females lacking them. Variation of morphometric and meristic characters is shown in table 3.

DISTRIBUTION: This Peruvian species has a relatively broad distribution, from the Limbani valley and Corani in northern department of Puno to the Kosñipata Valley, in the department of Cusco, covering an air distance of 160 km approximately, with an altitudinal range of 2700–3850 m (fig. 9).

HABITAT AND ECOLOGY: Individuals were found during day time under rocks and logs in cloud forests and humid cleared areas.

ETYMOLOGY: The specific epithet comes from Greek iris (“rainbow”), in allusion to the pretty iridescent reflections of the scales of this species.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Reptilia

Order

Squamata

Family

Gymnophthalmidae

Genus

Proctoporus

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Reptilia

Order

Squamata

Family

Gymnophthalmidae

Genus

Proctoporus

Loc

Proctoporus carabaya Proctoporus iridescens

Goicoechea, NoemÍ, Padial, José M., Chaparro, Juan Carlos, Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago & Riva, Ignacio De La 2013
2013
Loc

Proctoporus bolivianus

Goicoechea, N. & J. M. Padial & J. C. Chaparro & S. Castroviejo-Fisher & I. De la Riva 2012: 953
2012
Loc

Proctoporus bolivianus

Goicoechea, N. & J. M. Padial & J. C. Chaparro & S. Castroviejo-Fisher & I. De la Riva 2012: 953
2012