Anastatus Motschulsky, 1859

Peng, Lingfei, Gibson, Gary A. P., Tang, Lu & Xiang, Jiawei, 2020, Review of the species of Anastatus (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) known from China, with description of two new species with brachypterous females, Zootaxa 4767 (3), pp. 351-401: 354-355

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4767.3.1

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Anastatus Motschulsky, 1859


Anastatus Motschulsky, 1859  

Diagnosis. FEMALE. Mandibles bidentate, with truncate dorsoapical margin and small, acute, ventroapical tooth ( Fig. 10B View FIGURE 10 , insert]. Mesotibia anteroapically with mesotibial groove ( Fig. 3J View FIGURE 3 : mgr) between mesotibial apical pegs ( Fig. 3J View FIGURE 3 : map) and part of tibia above tarsus. Propodeum (e.g., Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 , insert) with anterior margin V-like incised medially for reception of dorsellum and foramen broadly, ∩-like incurved almost to apex of V-like incision so as to differentiate more or less bowtie-like medial region formed by inclined surface of plical region on either side of very short medial region. Fore wing discal region infuscate with either hyaline cross-band (e.g., Fig. 1D View FIGURE 1 ) or anterior and posterior hyaline spots (e.g., Fig. 6H View FIGURE 6 ) with white setae behind marginal vein. Gaster with subbasal white band in dorsal and lateral views (e.g., Figs 3A, B View FIGURE 3 ), and syntergum apically reflexed into paler syntergal flange.

MALE. Mandible bidentate ( Figs. 17F View FIGURE 17 , 21C View FIGURE 21 ) similar to female ( Fig. 10B View FIGURE 10 , insert). Head with toruli inserted near lower margin of eyes, not distinctly closer to each other than to oral margin or to inner orbits, gena with subequally short setae, and maxillary palpus not conspicuously long (e.g., Fig. 5E View FIGURE 5 ). Antenna with short, subglobular pedicel lacking line of apically curved setae ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 : pdl); flagellum of regional species robust-filiform (e.g., Figs 2E View FIGURE 2 , 5D View FIGURE 5 ) with first flagellomere so strongly reduced that at most seven funiculars clearly visible, the funiculars and clava variably long (cf. Figs 2E View FIGURE 2 , 5D View FIGURE 5 : clv), but all flagellomeres microsetose with multiple rows of multiporous plate sensilla ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 : mps). Metapleuron bare. Fore wing hyaline, without or with variably large speculum (cf. Figs 5H View FIGURE 5 , 17I View FIGURE 17 : spc).

Remarks. The extensive generic synonymy of Anastatus   was reviewed by Gibson (2020), who listed 16 junior synonyms. The key to genera based on females by Gibson (1995) can be used to differentiate females from those of other genera of Eulpelminae. Because of similar fore wing colour patterns, macropterous females of Chinese species of Anastatus   could be mistaken for females of two other eupelmine genera, Zaischnopsis Ashmead, 1904   or some Mesocomys Cameron, 1905   . However, Zaischnopsis   females have tridentate mandibles, the gaster lacks a subbasal white region, and propodeal structure is different ( Peng et al. 2018). Females of some Mesocomys   species are superficially more similar to Anastatus   females because they have similar bidentate mandibles, a subbasally white gaster, and similar fore wing colour patterns, but in addition to having a different propodeal structure are differentiated by the mesotibia lacking both an apical groove and apical pegs, among several other features detailed by Gibson (1995).

Males can also be identified to genus using the key to genera based on males in Gibson (1995), who keyed out males of Anastatus   in eight different places, which reflects their morphological diversity, particularly in flagellar structure. Males of most species from China will key through couplet eight in the key of Gibson (1995) only with difficulty because the fore wing often has a large, quadrangular speculum between the parastigma and mediocubital fold (e.g., Figs 5H View FIGURE 5 , 9I View FIGURE 9 , 24I View FIGURE 24 : spc), which is otherwise characteristic of males of Eupelmus Dalman, 1820   and Xenanastatus Bouček, 1988   . However, males of these latter two genera have different flagellar structures than described for regional males of Anastatus   , and males of the much more common of the two genera, Eupelmus   , often have one seta on the gena that is much longer than the others and a more elongate-triangular pedicel with a line of apically curved setae ventrally (see figures in Gibson 2011; Gibson and Fusu 2016).