Anastatus (Anastatus) fulloi Sheng and Wang, 1997

Peng, Lingfei, Gibson, Gary A. P., Tang, Lu & Xiang, Jiawei, 2020, Review of the species of Anastatus (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) known from China, with description of two new species with brachypterous females, Zootaxa 4767 (3), pp. 351-401 : 373-377

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Anastatus (Anastatus) fulloi Sheng and Wang, 1997


Anastatus (Anastatus) fulloi Sheng and Wang, 1997

Figs 10 View FIGURE 10 , 11 View FIGURE 11

Anastatus fulloi Sheng and Wang, in Sheng et al. 1997: 61–62 , figs 14, 15. Described: both sexes.

Anastatus fulloi ; Peng et al., 2017: 10–13 View Cited Treatment , figs 19–27.

A. (Anastatus) fulloi ; Chen et al., 2019: 115–117 View Cited Treatment , fig. 1.

Diagnosis. FEMALE. Macropterous ( Figs 10A, G View FIGURE 10 ). Fore wing with hyaline cross band behind marginal vein complete and with entirely white setae ( Fig. 10G View FIGURE 10 ); infuscate region basal of hyaline band with uniformly dark setae and at least about 3× wider than cross band; basal region with basal cell, mediocubital fold and cubital and vanal areas uniformly setose, though at least basal cell with comparatively inconspicuous white setae. Head ( Fig. 10C View FIGURE 10 ) with scrobal depression distinctly separated from anterior ocellus, by distance at least similar to that of longitudinal diameter of ocellus. Antenna ( Fig. 10D View FIGURE 10 ) with fl2 longer than pedicel but not all funiculars longer than wide, with at least apical funicular quadrate to slightly transverse ( Fig. 10D View FIGURE 10 , insert). Mesosoma, including procoxa ( Fig. 10F View FIGURE 10 ), dark except prepectus and lateral surface of pronotum entirely or mostly pale; mesotibial apical spur pale to rarely partly infuscate ( Fig. 10H View FIGURE 10 ); mesotarsus sometimes entirely dark and contrasting in colour with pale mesotibial apical spur, but at least basal two tarsomeres infuscate over at least dorsal and posterior surfaces, obviously darker than subsequent two tarsomeres ( Fig. 10H View FIGURE 10 ). Mesoscutum ( Fig. 10E View FIGURE 10 ) with convex anterior part of medial lobe entirely punctate-reticulate, and with posterior concave part of mesoscutum almost entirely setose with white setae; mesoscutal lateral lobe with bare, minutely mesh-like-coriaceous band anterior of posteromedian carina relative to larger-sized coriaceous-alutaceous sculpture on outer inclined surface ( Fig. 10E View FIGURE 10 ). Profemur with ventral margin evenly curved, without distinct angulation or tooth apically ( Fig. 1H View FIGURE 1 ).

MALE. Antenna ( Figs 11A, E View FIGURE 11 ) with scape extensively yellow but dark dorsoapically; pedicel dark; flagellum uniformly dark such that multiporous plate sensilla not contrasting conspicuously in colour with surrounding cuticle ( Fig. 11E View FIGURE 11 ), and consisting of clava and seven funiculars, with fl8 slightly transverse to quadrate and fl7 quadrate to slightly longer than wide, and clava at least about as long as combined length of fl6–fl8 plus about apical quarter of fl5 ( Fig. 11G View FIGURE 11 ) and sometimes as long as combined length of fl5–fl8. Head ( Fig. 11C View FIGURE 11 ) with frons mesh-like coria- ceous to pustulate. Mesopleurosternum uniformly dark ( Fig. 11D View FIGURE 11 ) or at most with transepisternal and femoral lines only slightly, obscurely paler. Front leg with trochanter and trochantellus infuscate to pale, and tibia and tarsus pale, but femur mostly dark except narrowly apically; middle leg with similar colour pattern as front leg except femur with dorsal and ventral surfaces anteriorly more extensively pale, sometimes brownish ( Fig. 11A View FIGURE 11 ) to yellow along entire length; hind leg with trochanter, trochantellus and tarsus pale, femur entirely dark, and tibia mostly dark but pale basally, often more extensively ventrally than dorsally (pale dorsally over at most about one-third length and ventrally over at most half length) ( Fig. 11A View FIGURE 11 ). Fore wing ( Fig. 11F View FIGURE 11 ) with costal cell dorsally setose along entire leading margin ( Fig. 11H View FIGURE 11 ); basal cell uniformly setose with dark setae ( Figs 11F, H View FIGURE 11 ); disc with distinct, oblique-slender ( Fig. 11H View FIGURE 11 : spc) to quadrangular speculum only obscurely closed posteriorly by line of white setae.

Species concept. Our concept of A. fulloi is based on examination of the female holotype, male allotype, and 28 female and six male paratypes (FAFU) from Jiangxi province as detailed by Peng et al. (2017).

Regional records. Non-type material examined. Fujian: campus of FAFU, Cangshan, Fuzhou City, 1.V.2014, F. Jiang (5♀ FAFU), 30.IX.2014, L. Peng (4♀, 1♂ FAFU), VI.2017, J. Liu (2♀ FAFU). Xihu Park, Zhangpu, Zhang- zhou City, 25.IV.2017, reared from egg of Tessaratoma papillosa, J. Liu (1♀ FAFU). Gansu: Kang County, Longnan City, 23.I.2018, Y. Chen (23♀, 17♂ CNC). Guangdong: Guangzhou City, 31.V.1972, D. Liao (1♀ IZCAS), 22.V.2017 (7♀, 4♂ FAFU). Huidong county, 60 m, 16.IV.2017, reared from egg of Tessaratoma papillosa, L. Peng (1♀ FAFU). Xinyi City, 90 m, 13.IV.2017, reared from egg of Tessaratoma papillosa, L. Peng (1♀ FAFU). Xuwen County, Zhanjiang City, 40 m, 11.IV.2017, reared from egg of Tessaratoma papillosa, L. Peng (1♀ FAFU). Yangc- hun County, 28.IV.2014, reared from egg of Tessaratoma papillosa, Y. Xiao (1♀ FAFU). Guangxi: Xishan, Guiping, Guigang City, 232 m, 15.IV.2017, reared from egg of Tessaratoma papillosa, J. Liu (1♀ FAFU). Jiangxi: Meiling, 5.VII.1980 (6♀, 1♂ FAFU), 10.VII.1980 (3♀ FAFU), 19.VII.1980 (2♀ FAFU), J. Sheng. Xinjian, 30.IX.1991, F. Zhao (1♀ FAFU). Liaoning: Tai Shan Forest Farm, Manchu Autonomous County, Benxi City, 23.IV.2017, Y. Chen (29♀, 21♂ CNC). Taiwan: Campus of National Taiwan University, Taipei, 26.X.2016, Y.-H. Wu, ex. Tessaratoma papillosa (1♀, 1♂ CNC).

Distribution. ORIENTAL: China (* Fujian, * Guangdong, * Guangxi, Jiangxi, * Taiwan). PALAEARCTIC: China (Gansu, Liaoning) ( Chen et al. 2019).

Hosts. HEMIPTERA . Pentatomidae : Erthesina fullo ( Sheng et al. 1997) . Tessaratomidae : * Tessaratoma papillosa on Dimocarpus longan and Litchi Sonnerat ( Sapindaceae ). LEPIDOPTERA . Lasiocampidae : Dendrolimus punctatus ( Sheng et al. 1997) . Saturniidae : Antheraea pernyi (factitious host) and Caligula japonica Moore, 1862 ( Chen et al. 2019).

Anastatus fulloi is widely distributed throughout southern China where it appears to be a common parasitoid of T. papillosa . For a long time, a species of Anastatus has been mass-reared for inundative biological control of this pest in southern China and this species was thought to be A. japonicus ( Li et al. 2014) . However, in 2017 we collect- ed egg masses of T. papillosa from Longan and Litchi orchards in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, and Fujian provinces, and reared mostly A. fulloi . Furthermore, in 2018, Dr. Bao-Xin Zhang (Plant Protection Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences) sent to L. Peng six egg cards of Antherea pernyi , which are used as the factitious host to mass-rear Anastatus for inundative release ( Li et al. 2014), and all emerged parasitoids were A. fulloi . Therefore, rather than A. japonicus , A. fulloi is indicated as the species that has been used for biocontrol of T. papillosa in southern China, which brings into question the extensive biological research published under the name of A. japonicus (see Li et al. 2014 and references therein). However, parasitoids reared from field-collected eggs of T. papillosa in Taiwan that were sent to G. Gibson for identification indicate that A. japonicus , A. formosanus and A. shichengensis are the most common biocontrol agents of this pest in Taiwan. Only a single female and male reared from T. papillosa in Taiwan was identified as A. fulloi .

Remarks. Females of A. fulloi resemble those of A. formosanus and A. orientalis because all share a dark mesonotum and a uniformly dark acropleuron (e.g., Fig. 10F View FIGURE 10 ). Females differ from those of A. formosanus by lacking a profemoral tooth, having the lateral surface of the pronotum and prepectus contrastingly pale relative to the dark acropleuron ( Figs 10B, F View FIGURE 10 ), and having at least the basal two tarsomeres of the mesotarsus at least partly infuscate ( Fig. 10H View FIGURE 10 ). This latter feature and dark procoxae differentiate them from A. orientalis females. We cannot reliably distinguish males of A. fulloi from those of A. japonicus , and females of these two species are also very similar except those of A. fulloi have an entirely, uniformly dark acropleuron ( Fig. 10F View FIGURE 10 ). The acropleuron of A. japonicus females is noticeably paler at least posteriorly, typically orange to yellow ( Figs 16D, E View FIGURE 16 ), though rarely brown ( Fig. 16C View FIGURE 16 ) to reddish-brown. However, even when comparatively dark brown so as not to be conspicuously pale, the region is non-metallic so as to contrast with metallic luster anteriorly below the tegula (see further under A. japonicus ).

As noted by Chen et al. (2019), type series males of A. fulloi have a clava that is as long as the preceding four flagellomeres, but non-type males we identify as A. fulloi have a clava that is only slightly longer than the preceding three flagellomeres ( Fig. 11G View FIGURE 11 ). Type ( Fig. 17H View FIGURE 17 ) and non-type ( Fig. 17G View FIGURE 17 ) males of A. japonicus also differ in relative length of the clava, which suggests that further study is necessary to resolve whether the observed variation represents normal intraspecific variation or indicates more than one cryptic species is included under our present concept of the species.














Anastatus (Anastatus) fulloi Sheng and Wang, 1997

Peng, Lingfei, Gibson, Gary A. P., Tang, Lu & Xiang, Jiawei 2020

Anastatus fulloi Sheng and Wang, in Sheng et al. 1997: 61–62

Sheng, J. K. & Wang, G. H. & Yu, Y. X. & Yu, J. C. 1997: 62