Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz, 1829

Vari, Richard P., Ferraris Jr, Carl J. & de Pinna, Mário C. C., 2005, The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae), a revisionary study, Neotropical Ichthyology 3 (2), pp. 127-238: 159-161

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1590/S1679-62252005000200001

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E56BC71F-0E17-FF82-3E44-FDD4FA80E5EF

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Carolina

scientific name

Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz, 1829
status

 

Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz, 1829   Figs. 12 View Fig , 16 View Fig , 17 View Fig , Tables 9 -15

Silurus candira   .– Cuvier, 1829: 292 [nomen nudum].

Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz, 1829: 13   , pl. 10, fig. 1 [type locality: Brasiliae aequatorialis fluvis (=rivers of Equatorial Brazil)].– Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888: 157 [ Brazil: Tabatinga, Jutahy (=Jutaí), Tonantins, Iça]; 1890: 319 [redescription,Amazon basin]; 1891: 36 [in listing of Cetopsis species   ].– Boulenger, 1898a: 422 [ Brazil, rio Jurua].– Pearson, 1924: 16 [ Bolivia, Rurrenbaque]; 1937b: 111 [ Bolivia, río Beni-Mamoré basin].– Magalhães, 1931: 106 [ Brazil, feeding habits, distribution].– Fowler, 1940b: 97 [ Bolivia].– Kottelat, 1984: 149 [syntype depository]; 1988: 84 [authorship of species name; syntype depositories].– Weber, 1998: 9 [syntype depository].

Cetopsis spixii   .– Swainson, 1839: 308 [unnecessary replacement for Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz, 1829   ].

Cetopsis candira   .–Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840: 386 [redescription].– Bleeker, 1858: 258 [ Brazil].– Cope, 1878: 678 [Peruvian Amazon].

Hemicetopsis candira   .– Bleeker, 1862a: 403 [assignment to Hemicetopsis   and designated as type species of genus, brief description]; 1862b: 16 [brief description]; 1863: 111 [brief description].

Hemicetopsis candiru   .–Eigenmann & Bean, 1907: 664 [Amazon River between Para (=Belém) and Manaos (=Manaus)].– Eigenmann, 1910: 398 [distribution].– Miranda-Ribeiro, 1912: 381 [ Brazil; redescription; common name]; 1914: 11 [ Brazil, Manáos (=Manaus)]; 1920: 15 [ Brazil, rio Madeira].– Fowler, 1915: 238 [Peruvian Amazon]; 1940a: 232 [ Peru, Ucayali River]; 1941: 472, fig. 29 [ Peru]; 1945: 68, fig. 29 [ Peru]; 1954: 3 [literature compilation].– Eigenmann & Allen, 1942: 148 [ Peru: río Ucayali near Cashiboya, río Puinagua at Bretaña; diet; common name].– Gosline, 1945: 54 [distribution].– Ovchynnyk, 1967: 35 [ Ecuador, río Panayuca]; 1968: 255 [ Ecuador, río Panayuca].– Terrazas-Urquidi, 1970: 21 [ Bolivia, río Beni; based on literature].– Baskin et al., 1980: 183 [feeding on offal and blood].– Ortega & Vari, 1986: 15 [ Peru:Amazon basin; common name].– Stewart et al., 1987: 33 [ Ecuador, río Napo].– Burgess, 1989: 292 [in list of species in Hemicetopsis   ].– Lauzanne et al., 1991: 69 [ Bolivia, Trinidad].– Barriga, 1991: 56 [eastern Ecuador]; 1994a: 31 [ Ecuador, Parque Nacional Yasuni].– Ferraris, 1996: 164 [form of adductor mandibulae].– Chang, 1998: 26 [ Peru, río Madre de Dios basin, Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone].– Silvano et al., 2001: 34, unnumbered fig.on page 35 [ Brazil, rio Jurua].– Vari & Ferraris, 2003: 258 [in check list; synonymy, distribution, common names].

Diagnosis. Cetopsis candiru   can be distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of its relatively shallow body at the origin of the dorsal fin (0.20 of SL or less versus 0.22 of SL or more, respectively) and the form of the teeth on the vomer and dentary (incisiform versus conical, respectively).

Description. Body relatively elongate, rounded in cross-section anteriorly, becoming increasingly laterally compressed posteriorly. Body depth at dorsal-fin origin approximately 0.17- 0.20 of SL and approximately equal to HL. Lateral line on body complete, unbranched, and midlateral; extending from vertical through pectoral-fin base onto, and straight or slightly upturned on, hypural plate and terminating slightly anterior to posterior margin of hypural plate. Dorsal profile of body slightly convex from nape to dorsal-fin origin and straight from dorsal-fin origin to caudal-fin base. Ventral profile of body variably convex along abdomen, approximately straight, but posteriorly slanted, along base of anal fin. Caudal-peduncle depth approximately equal to caudal-peduncle length.

Head triangular overall in lateral view and broadly rounded anteriorly. Dorsal profile of head convex from tip of snout to vertical through eye, straight from that point to nape. Profile of head from dorsal view broadly rounded anteriorly, with margins of head posterior of orbit running approximately in parallel. Jaw musculature not noticeably enlarged on dorsal surface of postorbital portion of head.

Opercular membrane attaching to isthmus posteriorly as far as vertical through pectoral-fin insertion. Opercular opening relatively small; extending dorsally only to pectoral-fin insertion, and extending ventral of pectoral-fin insertion by distance equal to snout length.

Eye situated on dorsolateral surface of head; located entirely dorsal of horizontal extending through pectoral-fin insertion. Middle of orbit at approximately anterior one-fifth of HL. Eye diameter approximately equal to width of anterior nares. Interorbital width approximately equal to two-fifths of HL. Anterior narial opening circular, surrounded by short, anteriorly-directed, tubular rim of skin. Opening of anterior nares located slightly ventral of both horizontal extending through tip of snout and of horizontal running through maxillary-barbel origin. Distance between anterior nares approximately equal to distance between anterior and posterior nares. Posterior narial opening on dorsal surface of head, situated at horizontal extending through anterior margin of orbit; opening ovoid and with long axis of aperture oriented perpendicular to body axis. Entire posterior narial opening bordered by tube of skin, distal margin of tube higher anteriorly. Distance between posterior nares slightly less than distance between contralateral anterior nares.

Mouth inferior; width approximately one-half of HL. Margin of lower jaw distinctly truncate, its posterior extent reaching to vertical through middle of orbit. Premaxillary teeth incisiform and arranged in single elongate row continuous across midline; tooth row in form of gently curved arch.Vomerine teeth incisiform and arranged in single gently curved, continuous row. Dentary with single row of incisiform teeth much larger than those on both premaxilla and vomer.

Maxillary barbel slender, its length approximately equal to one-third of HL; barbel origin located ventral to anterior margin of orbit. Mental barbels approximately equal in size and length to maxillary barbel. Origin of medial-mental barbel situated along vertical through rictus of jaw. Lateral mental-barbel origin located slightly posterior of vertical through rictus of jaw. Tips of adpressed mental barbels falling far short of opercular opening.

Dorsal fin small overall, with length of dorsal-fin base approximately one-fourth of HL. Longest dorsal-fin ray, excluding distal filament on first ray present in mature males, approximately equal in length to one-third of HL. Dorsal-fin spinelet absent. First dorsal-fin ray not spinous; with at least short, distal filament in females and immature males and with elongate, distal, filament in mature males. Distal margin of dorsal fin slightly convex, with first branched ray longest.

Tip of adpressed dorsal fin falling short of pelvic-fin insertion by distance equal to length of pectoral fin. Posterior most dorsal-fin ray without posterior, membranous attachment to body.

Caudal fin shallowly-forked, symmetrical; lobes broadly rounded. Length of longest caudal-fin ray approximately 1.5- 1.6 times length of middle fin rays.

Base of anal fin approximately 0.29-0.31 of SL. Anal-fin origin located distinctly posterior of middle of SL and slightly posterior of middle of TL. Anal-fin margin gently convex for entire length in all individuals. Posterior most unbranched anal-fin ray longest, with subsequent rays becoming gradually shorter in females and immature males, but with fin margin distinctly convex in mature males. Posterior most anal-fin ray without posterior, membranous attachment to body.

Pelvic fin very short, paddle-shaped, with margin symmetrically rounded and middle fin-rays longest. Pelvic-fin insertion situated slightly anterior to middle of SL. Tip of adpressed pelvic fin reaching posteriorly to middle of SL. Medial most pelvic-fin ray without membranous attachment to body.

Pectoral-fin length approximately one-half of HL. Pectoral-fin margin rounded with second branched fin ray longest. First pectoral-fin ray not spinous and without distal filament in females and immature males, but with moderately-developed, distal filament in mature males.

Coloration in alcohol. Body and head with indistinct duskiness dorsally and pale ventrally.

Dorsal and pectoral fins with subterminal, dark, band curving across fin approximately three-fourths of distance from base, with remainder of both fins dusky. Anal, caudal, and pelvic fins unpigmented.

Barbels unpigmented.

Sexual dimorphism. The first ray of the dorsal fin of mature males of Cetopsis candiru   is prolonged to varying degrees beyond the condition present in both females and immature males. Mature males also have a moderately-developed, distal filament on the first pectoral-fin ray, whereas such extensions of that fin ray are absent in both females and immature males. The convexity of the anal-fin margin in mature males is distinctly more pronounced than is the form of the fin margin that characterizes both females and immature males of the species. The smallest obviously sexually mature male of C. candiru   examined in this study (MZUSP 24602) is 145 mm SL. A slightly smaller 137 mm SL specimen of C. candiru   (MZUSP 55634) demonstrated the beginnings of the male sexuallydimorphic features characteristic of the species.

Distribution. Examined specimens of Cetopsis candiru   originated across a broad reach of the Amazon basin in Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru ( Fig. 12 View Fig ) and the species has been reported from eastern Ecuador by Ovchynnk (1967: 35), Stewart et al. (1987: 33), and Barriga (1991: 56; 1994a: 31).

Common Name. Bolivia: “Candiru,” “Canero” (Terrazas- Urquidi, 1970: 21); Peru: “Canero” ( Ortega & Vari, 1986: 15).

Remarks. Kottelat (1984: 149; 1988: 84) and Weber (1998: 9) reported that four syntypes for Cetopsis candiru   are extant. We have examined one of the syntypes (MHNG 210.5) that in combination with the original description, make it clear that the material identified herein as Cetopsis candiru   is indeed that species. We herein designate that syntype as the lectotype of Cetopsis candiru   .

Material examined. 220 specimens (18-263 mm SL). Bolivia. Beni: río Beni at Rurrenbaque, 1500 ft (= 457 m) elevation (14 o 28’S, 67 o 34’W), CAS 77024 View Materials , 1 View Materials (232). Río Mamoré, Boca río Ibare (14 o 37’S, 64 o 57’W), MNHN 1988-1997 View Materials , 5 View Materials (105-141). Brazil. “Equatorial Rivers of Brazil,” MHNG 210.5 View Materials , 1 View Materials (135; lectotype of Cetopsis candiru   ; designated herein). Rio Amazonas , between Pará and Manaus, USNM 52546 View Materials , 1 View Materials (158, mature male). Rio Araguaia , LIRP 581 View Materials , 2 View Materials (116-132). Acre: Reserva Extrativista doAlto rio Juruá , MZUSP 53015 View Materials , 1 View Materials (150). Amazonas: rio Solimões approximately 0.5 km from mouth of Paraná de Januacá, on south bank (3 o 25’S, 61 o 21’W), MCZ 56018 View Materials , 1 View Materials (131). Lago Jacaretinga, near Manaus , MCZ 78099 View Materials , 2 View Materials (18-25). Rio Madeira , Borba (4 o 24’S, 59 o 35’W), MNRJ 4819 View Materials , 2 View Materials (102-197); MZUSP 28350 View Materials , 1 View Materials (74). Município de Borba , Borba, MZUSP 28349 View Materials , 5 View Materials . Rio Juruá , Eirunepé (6 o 40’S, 69 o 52’W), MNRJ 5878 View Materials , 20 View Materials (80-180). Rio Solimões , 6.5 km below Solimões (2°55’25"S, 67°51’23), MZUSP 56822 View Materials , 1 View Materials (92). Rio Solimões , Ilha dos Corós , above Codajás (3 o 50’S, 62 o 05’W), MZUSP 23249 View Materials , 12 View Materials (93-205). Rio Jauaperi , from mouth to 100 km upstream, MZUSP 23287 View Materials , 1 View Materials (140). Rio Solimões , near Tefé (approximately 3 o 22’S, 64 o 42’W), MZUSP 23319 View Materials , 3 View Materials (87-185, 178 mm specimen mature male). Igarapé em Jacaré, Fonte Boa (2 o 32’S, 66 o 01’W), MZUSP 23355 View Materials , 4 View Materials (95-125). Mouth of rio Içá , Santo Antonio do Içá (3 o 05’S, 67 o 57’W), MZUSP 23521 View Materials , 11 View Materials (5, 80-173, largest specimen mature male). Rio Amazonas , Ilha Beiju-Açu (2 o 25’S, 57 o 31’W), MZUSP 23753 View Materials , 2 View Materials (92-205). Mouth of rio Pauini (7 o 12’S, 69 o 36’W), MZUSP 24595 View Materials , 1 View Materials (190). Pauini (7 o 40’S, 66 o 58’W), MZUSP 24602 View Materials , 1 View Materials (145, mature male). Canutama, MZUSP 24615 View Materials , 1 View Materials (187). Rio Purus , Mapixi (5 o 40’S, 63 o 53’W), MZUSP 24683 View Materials , 6 View Materials (108- 179, 138 mm specimen mature male); ROM 37966 View Materials , 5 View Materials (121-146). Rio Purus , Tapuru (4 o 18’S, 61 o 47’W), MZUSP 24688 View Materials , 4 View Materials (116-185; 1 specimen, 185 mm, cleared and stained). Rio Purus , Caitaú, MZUSP 30693 View Materials , 1 View Materials (93). Rio Purus , at mouth, MZUSP 5969 View Materials , 1 View Materials (134). Rio Madeira , Humaitá (7 o 31’S, 63 o 02’W), MZUSP 35421 View Materials , 8 View Materials (197-229); MZUSP 28732 View Materials , 8 View Materials (147-226). Carauari (4 o 52’S, 66 o 54’W), MZUSP 30696 View Materials , 1 View Materials (96). Rio Negro , Anavilhanas, along bank of lagoon, MZUSP 31331 View Materials , 1 View Materials (86). Rio Solimões , Marchantaria, above Manaus (approximately 3 o 08’S, 60 o 00’W), MZUSP 38827 View Materials , 2 View Materials (168-190, smaller specimen mature male). Rio Amazonas , Ilha do Beijú-Açu (2 o 25’S, 57 o 31’W), MZUSP 52898 View Materials , 1 View Materials (217). Rio Amazonas , Nova Olinda (3 o 45’S, 59 o 03’W), MZUSP 52899 View Materials , 1 View Materials (215). Rio Solimões , mouth of lago Preto (approximately 4 o 00’S, 63 o 05’W), MZUSP 5874 View Materials , 1 View Materials (214). Rio Solimões , between lago Jacaré and rio Purus , MZUSP 5935 View Materials , 7 View Materials (58-225, 182 mm specimen mature male). Rio Solimões , above Ilha Iauara (approximately 3 o 38’S, 61 o 22’W), MZUSP 6272 View Materials , 3 View Materials (54- approximately 120; largest specimen cleared and stained). Mouth of lago Panaquequara, MZUSP 6913 View Materials , 1 View Materials (121). Rio Solimões , paraná do Moreru (3 o 50’S, 69 o 47’W), MZUSP 9599 View Materials , 5 View Materials (63-83). Rio Negro , 9.3 km below lago da Cotia (1°45’15"S 62°25’08"W), MZUSP 55643 View Materials , 15 View Materials (95-158, 137 mm specimen demonstrates indications of male sexually-dimorphic features). Goiás: Município de Minaçu / Cavalcante, rio Tocantins , at site of future dam of Usina Hidroeléctrica Serra da Mesa (13 o 50’S, 48 o 19’W), MNRJ 13250 View Materials , 2 View Materials (94-103). Serra da Mesa , MZUSP 54086 View Materials , 2 View Materials (104-108). Pará : Boa Fé, Furo de Tajapuru (4 o 36’S, 56 o 12’W), MZUSP 24228 View Materials , 1 View Materials (154). Ilha Redonda , near Gurupá (1 o 25’S, 51 o 39’W), MZUSP 24229 View Materials , 2 View Materials (110-143). Rio Amazonas , Taperinha (2 o 32’S, 54 o 17’W), MZUSP 24232 View Materials , 1 View Materials (116). Rio Trombetas , at mouth of lago Paui, Oriximiná (1 o 45’S, 55 o 22’W), MZUSP 5684 View Materials , 4 View Materials (42-133). Rio Amazonas , Itamarati, exit from Furo de Tajapuru (1 o 08’S, 51 o 11’W), MZUSP 9140 View Materials , 2 View Materials (117-130). Rio Amazonas , Óbidos (1 o 55’S, 55 o 31’W), MZUSP 9543 View Materials , 1 View Materials (120). Rondônia: rio Madeira , Foz do Jamarí (8 o 45’S, 63 o 27’W), MZUSP 28371 View Materials , 1 View Materials (173). Rio Madeira , Porto Velho (8°45’S, 63°54’W), MZUSP 36764 View Materials , 2 View Materials (174-179). Tocantins: rio Tocantins at Porto Nacional (10 o 42’N, 48 o 25’W), CAS 6610 View Materials , 1 View Materials (210); CAS 77023 View Materials , 1 View Materials (203). Indefinite locality: MZUSP 48102 View Materials , 15 View Materials (94-186; 3 specimens, 82-130 mm, cleared and stained). Peru. Río Cucaya , at its mouth, CAS 16024 View Materials , 1 View Materials (116; co-ordinates of location unknown). Amazonas: río Santiago , 1.5 km upstream of La Poza (latter locality at: 4 o 01’S, 77 o 45’W), LACM 39864-2 View Materials , 4 View Materials (244-263). Loreto: rio Amazonas , between Iquitos and mouth of rio Marañon , along E bank, AMNH 78109 View Materials SW, 2 (~123-175; specimens cleared and stained). Rio Amazonas , at Ramón Castilla (4 o 14’S, 69 o 57’W), CAS 65902 View Materials , 12 View Materials (67-118). Río Yaguas at Puerto Armondito, from inside a Brachyplatystoma, CAS   65904, 1 (142). Pebas (approximately 3 o 20’S, 71 o 49’W), ANSP 21502 View Materials , 3 View Materials (183-220; locality originally reported as being in Ecuador). RíoAmazonas, near Pebas (approximately 3 o 20’S, 71 o 49’W), CAS SU 17205, 1 View Materials (192). Río Ambiyacu , near Pebas (approximately 3 o 20’S, 71 o 49’W), CAS SU 36190, 1 View Materials (238). Contamana, río Ucayali basin (7°30’S, 75°01’W), ANSP 88079 View Materials , 2 View Materials (140-165). Río Pastaza basin, caño tributary to laguna Rimachi, near río Rimachi , at Rimachi (4°26.91’S, 76°39.48’W), FMNH 112635 View Materials , 1 View Materials (194); FMNH 112634 View Materials , 1 View Materials (136). Madre de Dios : río Madre de Dios , Albergue Cuzco- Amazonico, CAS 59458 View Materials , 1 View Materials (144). Río Tambopata , Tambopata, Departamento Tres Chimbadas (12 o 47’29"S, 69 o 19’13"W), MUSM 9851, 3 (206-210). Ucayali: río Ucayali near lago Cashiboya (7 o 33’S, 74 o 53’W), CAS 16023 View Materials , 8 View Materials (97-139). Río Ucayali , Pucallpa (8 o 23’S, 74 o 32’W), MZUSP 26419 View Materials , 1 View Materials (123); MUSM 13257, 1 (104). Río Ucayali , Masisea (8 o 36’S, 74 o 19’W), MZUSP 35934 View Materials , 1 View Materials (128). Río Ucayali , Pucallpa (8 o 23’S, 74 o 32’W), MZUSP 35935 View Materials , 1 View Materials (117). Río Ucayali , Nueva Ytalia, near Cashiboya (7 o 33’S, 74 o 53’W), USNM 167854 View Materials , 6 View Materials (130-152; 2 specimens cleared and stained) GoogleMaps   .

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

ROM

Royal Ontario Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Siluriformes

Family

Cetopsidae

Genus

Cetopsis

Loc

Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz, 1829

Vari, Richard P., Ferraris Jr, Carl J. & de Pinna, Mário C. C. 2005
2005
Loc

Cetopsis candiru

Weber, C 1998: 9
Kottelat, M 1984: 149
Fowler, H 1940: 97
Magalhaes, A 1931: 106
Pearson, N 1924: 16
Boulenger, G 1898: 422
Eigenmann, C 1888: 157
1888
Loc

Hemicetopsis candira

Bleeker, P 1862: 403
1862
Loc

Cetopsis candira

Cope, E 1878: 678
Bleeker, P 1858: 258
1858
Loc

Cetopsis spixii

Swainson, W 1839: 308
1839
Loc

Silurus candira

Cuvier, G 1829: 292
1829