Cetopsis coecutiens ( Lichtenstein, 1819 )

Vari, Richard P., Ferraris Jr, Carl J. & de Pinna, Mário C. C., 2005, The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae), a revisionary study, Neotropical Ichthyology 3 (2), pp. 127-238: 162-164

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1590/S1679-62252005000200001

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E56BC71F-0E14-FF86-3FB4-FF74FBC1E40A

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Cetopsis coecutiens ( Lichtenstein, 1819 )
status

 

Cetopsis coecutiens ( Lichtenstein, 1819)   Figs. 18 View Fig , 19 View Fig , Tables 9 -15

Silurus coecutiens Lichtenstein, 1819: 61   [type locality: Brazil]; 1823: 112 [ Brazil].– Cuvier, 1829: 292 [reference].

Cetopsis coecutiens   .– Spix & Agassiz, 1829: 12, pl. 10, fig. 2 [rivers of equatorial Brazil].– Swainson, 1839: 308 [based on Spix &Agassiz, 1829].– Bleeker, 1858:258 [ Brazil]; 1862a: 403 [brief description]; 1862b: 16 [brief description, designation as type species of Cetopsis   ]; 1863: 111 [brief description].– Cope, 1872: 292 [between mouth of the rio Negro and the Peruvian Amazon or Ucayale River (=río Ucayali)].– Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888: 157 [ Brazil: Gurupa]; 1890: 320 [redescription; lower Amazon basin]; 1891: 36 [in listing of Cetopsis species   ].– Goeldi, 1898: 479 [Amazon].– Boulenger, 1897: 297 [ Brazil, Island of Marajo].– Regan, 1905: 190 [rio Negro].– Eigenmann, 1909: 322 [distribution]; 1910: 398 [distribution, not Irisanga citation].– Fowler, 1915: 228 [Ambiyacu River, andAmazon between mouth of rio Negro and Peru]; 1941: 472, fig. 30 [ Peru].– Schultz, 1944: 252 [literature records for Venezuela].– Fowler, 1945: 20, fig. 30 [ Peru].– Gosline, 1945: 54 [distribution, not Irisinga citation].– Van der Stigchel, 1947: 112 [ Brazil, Gurupá; redescription].– Fowler, 1954: 3 [literature compilation].– Dahl, 1960a: 306 [ Colombia, río Guayabero].– Ovchynnyk, 1967: 35 [ Ecuador, río Panayuca]; 1968: 255 [ Ecuador, río Panayuca].–Mago- Leccia, 1967: 255 [llanos of Venezuela]; 1970: 82 [ Venezuela, common name].– Cala, 1977: 11 [Colombian Orinoco; common name].– Ortega & Vari, 1986: 15 [Peruvian Amazon; common name].– Burgess, 1989: 292 [in listing of species].– Barriga, 1991: 56 [eastern Ecuador]; 1994a: 31 [ Ecuador, Parque Nacional Yasuni].–Lasso & Castroviejo, 1992: 74 [ Venezuela, río Guaritico; relative abundance].– Lasso et al., 1995: 18 [ Venezuela, río Guaritico; prey items].– Ferraris, 1996: 164 [form of adductor mandibulae muscle].– Taphorn et al., 1997: 85 [ Venezuela].– Chang, 1998: 26 [ Peru, río Madre de Dios basin, Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone].–Mojica-C., 1999: 565 [ Colombia, río Guaviare, río Meta].– Wallace, 2002: 312, fig. 125 [upper rio Negro; common name].–Evers & Seidel, 2002: 741 [listing].–Vari & Ferraris, 2003: 257 [in check list; synonymy, distribution, and common names].–[not Ringuelet & Arámburu, 1961: 46; Ringuelet et al., 1967: 348].

Cetopsis caecutiens   .–Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840: 384 [redescription].– Günther, 1864: 199 [ Brazil, rio Cupai].– Pellegrin, 1899: 158 [ Venezuela, río Apure].–Miranda- Ribeiro, 1912: 380 [ Brazil: Amazon to Cupay, rio Branco; redescription].– Starks, 1913: 34 [ Brazil: Pará and rio Madeira].– Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920: 15 [ Brazil, rio Madeira, mouth of rio Aripuanã].– Delsman, 1941: 80 [ Brazil, rio Trombetas and rio Óbidos].–[not Pozzi, 1945: 262; López et al., 2003: 37].

Cetopsis sp.   – Goulding, 1981: 29, fig. 3.4 [ Brazil, rio Madeira, Teotônio rapids, feeding habits].–Castro &Arboleda, 1988: 12 [ Colombia, río Caqueta].– Ferreira et al., 1988: 346 [ Brazil, Roraima, rio Mucajai].– Goulding et al., 1988: 123 [ Brazil, rio Negro].– Lauzanne et al., 1991: 69 [ Bolivia, Trinidad].–Machado-Allison & Moreno, 1993: 86 [ Venezuela, río Orituco].

Cetopsis cf. caecutiens   .– Mendes dos Santos et al., 1984: 78 [ Brazil, lower rio Tocantins; common names].

Diagnosis. Cetopsis coecutiens   can be distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the presence of an eye, the conical teeth on the vomer and dentary, a body depth greater than 0.22 of SL, the elongated filaments on the distal portions of the first rays of the dorsal and pectoral fins in all specimens, and the presence of transversely-aligned, slit-like posterior nares.

Description. Body relatively stout, slightly-compressed anteriorly, becoming increasingly compressed posteriorly. Body depth at dorsal-fin origin approximately 0.23-0.27 of SL, and approximately equal to HL. Lateral line on body complete, unbranched, and midlateral; extending from vertical through pectoral-fin base onto hypural plate and terminating at, or slightly anterior to, posterior margin of hypural plate. Dorsal profile of body straight to slightly convex from nape to dorsal-fin origin, very slightly convex from dorsal-fin origin to caudal-fin base. Ventral profile of body convex along abdomen, approximately straight, but posterodorsally-slanted, along base of anal fin. Caudal-peduncle depth approximately equal to caudal-peduncle length.

Head triangular overall in lateral view and tapering to blunt point anteriorly. Dorsal profile of head slightly concave from tip of snout to nape. Ventral profile of head concave from margin of lower lip to slightly anterior of insertion of barbels and straight from that point to rear of isthmus. Snout obtusely pointed in dorsal view, with margins of head posterior to orbit slightly convex from dorsal view. Dorsal surface of postorbital part of head smooth, with minimal indication of underlying enlarged jaw musculature.

Opercular membrane attaching to isthmus posteriorly as far as vertical through pectoral-fin insertion. Opercular opening moderate; extending dorsal and ventral of pectoral-fin insertion by distance approximately equal to snout length.

Eye situated on lateral surface of head; located entirely dorsal to horizontal extending through pectoral-fin insertion; eye visible in dorsal view, but not in ventral view, of head. Middle of orbit located at approximately anterior one-fifth of HL. Eye diameter only slightly larger than width of anterior nares. Interorbital width approximately 0.40-0.42 of HL.Anterior narial opening circular, surrounded by very short, anteriorly-directed, tubular rim of skin. Opening of anterior nares located ventral of horizontal extending through tip of snout and approximately at horizontal running through maxillarybarbel origin. Distance between anterior nares equal to snout length. Posterior narial opening located on dorsal surface of snout and at horizontal extending through anterior margin of orbit; opening ovoid, with long axis of aperture aligned oblique to long axis of body. Anterior margin of posterior narial opening with low flap of skin. Distance between contralateral posterior nares only slightly larger than diameter of eye.

Mouth distinctly inferior; its width approximately equal to distance from tip of snout to posterior margin of orbit. Margin of lower jaw distinctly truncate, its posterior limit reaching to vertical through anterior margin of orbit. Premaxillary tooth patch elongate and continuous across midline; anterior margin convex and posterior margin concave. Premaxillary teeth relatively small, conical, sharply-pointed, and arranged in three irregular rows. Vomerine teeth very large, bluntly conical, and arranged in single, slightly-arched, transverse row. Dentary with single row of large, conical teeth approximately equal in number to, but 1.5 to 2.0 times size of, vomerine teeth.

Maxillary barbel very slender and short, its length approximately equal to distance from tip of snout to posterior margin of orbit; barbel origin located slightly anterior of vertical through anterior margin of orbit. Mental barbels approximately equal in size and length to maxillary barbel and to each other. Medial mental-barbel origin located just posterior of vertical through posterior margin of orbit. Lateral mental-barbel origin situated along vertical extending approximately one orbital diameter posterior of orbital margin. Tips of adpressed mental barbels falling distinctly short of posterior margin of opercle.

Dorsal fin relatively large overall with length of base of dorsal fin slightly less than one-half of HL. Length of longest branched dorsal-fin ray approximately two-thirds of HL. Dorsal-fin spinelet absent. First dorsal-fin ray not spinous, but with distal filament becoming progressively longer ontogenetically in both sexes; filament very well developed in largest specimens. Distal margin of dorsal fin slightly concave, with first ray longest. Dorsal-fin origin located at anterior one-third of SL and along vertical through middle of adpressed pectoral fin. Tip of adpressed dorsal fin, excluding distal filament on first fin ray, reaching to vertical through pelvic-fin insertion. Tip of distal filament of adpressed dorsal fin reaching to vertical through anal-fin origin. Posterior most dorsal-fin ray without posterior, membranous attachment to body.

Caudal fin deeply-forked, symmetrical; tips of lobes acutely pointed. Length of longest caudal-fin ray approximately two times length of middle fin rays.

Base of anal fin comparatively short, approximately onefourth of SL.Anal-fin origin located posterior of middle of TL. Anal-fin margin straight in females and immature males, with posterior most unbranched ray longest and lengths of subsequent rays becoming gradually shorter. Anal-fin margin in mature males slightly convex along anterior three-fourths of fin and then slightly concave along posterior five or six rays thereby giving appearance of slight lobe in anterior portion of fin. Posterior most anal-fin ray without posterior, membranous attachment to body.

Pelvic fin short, truncate, with distal margin nearly straight and first ray longest. Pelvic-fin insertion located approximately at middle of SL and entirely posterior to vertical through posterior terminus of base of dorsal fin. Tip of adpressed pelvic fin falling short of vent by distance approximately equal to length of first pelvic-fin ray. Medial most pelvic-fin ray with membranous attachment to body for basal one-half of its length.

Pectoral-fin length approximately two-thirds of HL. Pectoral-fin margin concave anteriorly and convex along posterior four rays. First pectoral-fin ray not spinous, but with distal filament; filament proportionally much longer in larger specimens. Tip of filament in adpressed dorsal fin reaching beyond vertical through pelvic-fin insertion in large individuals.

Coloration in alcohol. Head in medium to larger-sized specimens dusky dorsally with darker pigmentation becoming progressively diffuse ventrally. Smaller specimens with indistinct dusky band extending across interorbital region and with snout very pale. Body dusky dorsally, lighter ventrally, with relatively distinct ventral limit to field of dusky body pigmentation. Demarcation between dark and light pigmentation located dorsal to lateral line in examined specimens of all sizes.

Dorsal fin with dark pigmentation present on interradial membrane between first and second branched rays and with remainder of fin pale. Pectoral fin pale other than for dark pigmentation on interradial membrane between first and second rays. Pattern of darker pigmentation on dorsal and pectoral fins more pronounced in larger specimens. Caudal, anal, and pelvic fins without pronounced dark pigmentation.

Barbels pale to dusky.

Coloration in life. Overall coloration as in preserved specimens, but with light silvery-blue sheen on head and body.

Sexual dimorphism. The first rays of the dorsal- and pectoral-fin rays of both sexes of Cetopsis coecutiens   have elongate, distal filaments that do not appear to demonstrate sexual dimorphism in relative length. The females and immature males have a straight anal-fin margin, whereas mature males have a largely convex fin, albeit with a slightly concave margin along its posterior portion (see description of form of anal fin above).

Distribution. Cetopsis coecutiens   is broadly distributed through the Amazon basin in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, and also inhabits the rio Tocantins basin in Brazil, and the río Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela ( Fig. 19 View Fig ).

Common name. Brazil, rio Tocantins: “Candiru,” “Piracatinga” (Mendez dos Santos et al., 1984: 78), rio Madeira: “Candiruaçú ( Goulding, 1981: 31); Colombia:“Bagre ciego” ( Cala, 1977: 11); Peru:“Canero” ( Ortega & Vari, 1986: 15); Venezuela: “Bagre ciego” ( Mago-Leccia, 1970: 82).

Remarks. Lichtenstein (1819: 61) based his description of Silurus coecutiens   on two specimens. One of the two syntypes of the species was listed in both the original catalogue of ZMB and also in the second catalogue of that museum (that was started around 1860) wherein it was cataloged as ZMB 3093 (H.-J. Paepke, ZMB; pers. commun., 1998). Recent searches through the ZMB collections failed to yield the syntype and that specimen is apparently no longer extant (H.-J. Paepke, ZMB; pers. commun., 1998). The second syntype was offered for sale by Lichtenstein (1823: 112) and there is no record of the disposition of that specimen.

The material that served as the basis of the description of Silurus coecutiens   originated in Brazil ( Lichtenstein, 1823: 112). According to the ZMB catalogues the syntypes were collected by an individual named Sieber, whose collecting efforts were limited to the area of Belém, Pará, Brazil (H.-J. Paepke, ZMB; pers. commun., 1998), a region within the general known distributional range of Cetopsis coecutiens   . Despite the apparent loss of both of the syntypes of the species, the distinctive features of Silurus coecutiens   (the Cetopsis coecutiens   of this study) detailed by Lichtenstein (1819: 61) make it clear that the name is appropriately applied to the material herein identified as that species.

The distributional range of Cetopsis coecutiens   is by far the greatest of any species within the Cetopsinae   and it is the only species in the subfamily with a broad distribution across both the rio Amazonas and río Orinoco basins. Despite this broad geographic distribution, detailed comparisons failed to reveal any meristic or coloration differences between the samples from those two drainage systems that would justify the subdivision of the C. coecutiens   of this study into more than one species.

Mendez dos Santos et al. (1984: 78) cited Cetopsis cf. caecutiens   from the lower portions of the rio Tocantins basin. Our results indicate that C. coecutiens   is the only species that both occurs in that portion of the river basin and is likely to be cited as C. cf. caecutiens   and we consider this citation to represent a record of the latter species.

Pozzi (1945: 262) followed by Ringuelet &Arámburu (1961: 46), Ringuelet et al. (1967: 348) and López et al. (2003: 37) cited Cetopsis coecutiens   from northwestern Argentina The original Pozzi report (1945, map on page 251) indicated two localities in the Provinces of Salta and Jujuy from which species of the Cetopsinae   originated, with both of those sites within the río Bermejo basin in the northwestern portion of the río de La Plata drainage system. None of the specimens of Cetopsis coecutiens   examined in this study originated in the río de La Plata basin and the only species of the Cetopsinae   that we examined that originated in the río Bermejo system was C. starnesi   . Because of this evidence, we consider the citations of Cetopsis coecutiens   from Argentina to be based on misidentifications of another species, most likely C. starnesi   .

Material examined. 268 specimens (23-264 mm SL). Indefinite locality: Between the mouth of the rio Negro and the Peruvian Amazon or Ucayali River ,” ANSP 8384 View Materials , 1 View Materials (135)   . Bolivia. Riberalta, lago Tumi Chacua , near río Beni (approximately 10°59’S, 66°06’W), ANSP 121606 View Materials , 1 View Materials (90) GoogleMaps   . Beni: río Mamoré, 5 km SW Buena Hora (= Boa Hora : 11 o 41’S, 65 o 05’W), Brazil, AMNH 55423 View Materials , 1 View Materials (127) GoogleMaps   . Río Mamoré , Trinidad (14 o 47’S, 64 o 47’W), MNHN 1988-1996 View Materials , 1 View Materials (193) GoogleMaps   . Brazil. Acre: Município de Artdira , rio Acre and marginal lagoons, LIRP 589 View Materials , 3 View Materials (128- 188)   . Amapá: Fazendinha, rio Amazonas, near to Macapá (0 o 02’N, 51 o 03’W), MNRJ 16933 View Materials , 3 View Materials (57-99) GoogleMaps   . Amazonas: rio Madeira , AMNH 3870 View Materials , 1 View Materials (218)   . At mouth of rio Putomayo (= rio Içá ; approximately 3 o 05’S, 67 o 57’W), CAS 65903 View Materials , 1 View Materials (147) GoogleMaps   . Paraná de Janauaca (3 o 28’S, 60 o 17’W), USNM 217362 View Materials , 5 View Materials (175-195) GoogleMaps   ; MCZ 99231 View Materials , 9 View Materials (166-264) GoogleMaps   . Lago Januacá (3 o 25’S, 61 o 21’W), MZUSP 24915 View Materials , 1 View Materials (139) GoogleMaps   . Rio Amazonas, Itacoatiara (3°08’S, 58°25’W), MHNG 2582.75 View Materials , 1 View Materials (195) GoogleMaps   . Fonte Boa, igarapé Jacaré, near Fonte Boa, MZUSP 23354 View Materials , 1 View Materials (113; specimen cleared and stained)   . Mouth of lago Mamiá, below Coari (4 o 15’S, 63 o 03’W), MZUSP 23252 View Materials , 4 View Materials (132-168) GoogleMaps   . Rio Madeira, Borba (4 o 24’S, 59 o 35’W), MZUSP 28248 View Materials , 1 View Materials (154) GoogleMaps   . Rio Juruá, Carauari (4 o 52’S, 66 o 54’W), MZUSP 30697 View Materials , 1 View Materials (127) GoogleMaps   ; MZUSP 30692 View Materials , 1 View Materials (86) GoogleMaps   . Rio Madeira, Aripuanã (= Nova Aripuanã ) (5 o 06’S, 60 o 22’W), MZUSP 30695 View Materials , 1 View Materials (115) GoogleMaps   . Near Furo do Auozal , MZUSP 7401 View Materials , 1 View Materials (190)   . Rio Içá at Cuiabá (2 o 57’S, 68 o 14’W), NRM 16534 View Materials , 2 View Materials (128-160) GoogleMaps   . Rio Uaupés at Taracuá (= Taraquá ; 0 o 06’N, 68 o 28’W), NRM 17132 View Materials , 1 View Materials (173) GoogleMaps   ; NRM 25551 View Materials , 1 View Materials (195) GoogleMaps   ; NRM 25552 View Materials , 1 View Materials (218)   . Rio Uaupés at Jauareté (= Iaureté ) (0 o 36’N, 69 o 12’W), NRM 25554 View Materials , 1 View Materials (183) GoogleMaps   . Matupiri (5 o 33’S, 61 o 15’W), NRM 23948 View Materials , 1 View Materials (62) GoogleMaps   . Rio Negro drainage (locality information questionable), NRM 25555 View Materials , 1 View Materials (190)   . Rio Negro, 10.4 km below rio Demimi (1°13’01"S, 62°14’29"W), MZUSP 55687 View Materials , 1 View Materials (37) GoogleMaps   . Rio Negro, 6.5 km below Jufari (1°17’37"S 61°56’57"W), MZUSP 55647 View Materials , 8 View Materials (48-78) GoogleMaps   . Rio Negro, near Baia do Cuieirus , MZUSP 38765 View Materials , 6 View Materials (2 specimens, 107-128 mm, cleared and stained)   . Rio Purus , 24.3 km below paraná de Ananás, MZUSP 55697 View Materials , 4 View Materials (122-163)   . Rio Solimões, 60 km above paraná do Barrosa (3°11’59"S, 59°54’27"W), MZUSP 57770 View Materials , 2 View Materials (31-76) GoogleMaps   . Rio Solimões, lago above Purus (3°49’56"S, 61°39’05"W), MZUSP 57340 View Materials , 1 View Materials (46) GoogleMaps   . Rio Purus , Caitaú, MZUSP 30443 View Materials , 1 View Materials (97)   . Rio Solimões , 25 km below paraná de Amaturá (3°10’48"S, 67°55’40"W), MZUSP 55682 View Materials , 1 View Materials (28) GoogleMaps   . Rio Solimões , 20 km below Içá (3°00’45"S, 67°52’42"W), MZUSP 55684 View Materials , 1 View Materials (25) GoogleMaps   . Rio Solimões, 15 km below paraná Iranduba (3°14’22"S, 59°53’53"W), MZUSP 55646 View Materials , 2 View Materials (23-30) GoogleMaps   . Goiás: rio Tocantins between Porto de Garimpo and Foz do rio Preto , MHNG   uncataloged (field number BR 954), 1 (215). Rio Tocantins between site of future dam of Usina Hidroeléctrica Cana Brava and Ilha, MNRJ 12907 View Materials , 1 View Materials (198)   . Município de Minaçu / Cavalcante, rio Tocantins , at site of future dam of Usina Hidroeléctrica Serra da Mesa (13 o 50’S, 48 o 19’W), MNRJ 13235 View Materials , 2 View Materials (200-264) GoogleMaps   . Rio Vermelho, above Aruanã (approximately 14 o 54’S, 51 o 05’W), MZUSP 38826 View Materials , 1 View Materials (220) GoogleMaps   . Rio Araguaia, Aruanã (approximately 14 o 54’S, 51 o 05’W), MZUSP 4863 View Materials , 1 View Materials (240) GoogleMaps   . Matto Grosso: rio Araguaia , lago Dumbá Grande, MZUSP 24819 View Materials , 3 View Materials (168-197)   . Rio Araguaia , lago Montario, MZUSP 54176 View Materials , 1 View Materials (202)   . Rio Araguaia , near Ilha do Biratã, MZUSP 62518 View Materials , 1 View Materials (162)   . Pará: no specific locality, CAS-SU 22197 View Materials , 1 View Materials (182)   . Rio Tocantins, in front of Tucuruí (3 o 42’S, 49 o 27’W), MZUSP 24177 View Materials , 2 View Materials (183, other specimen cleared and stained and disarticulated) GoogleMaps   . Rio Tocantins , from immediately below to 3 km below Tucuruí reservoir (3°42’S, 49°27’W), MZUSP 61996 View Materials , 1 View Materials (179) GoogleMaps   . Rio Xingu, Belo Monte (3°10’S, 51°50’W), MZUSP 59092 View Materials , 4 View Materials (173-237) GoogleMaps   . Rio Amazonas, Maiacuru (2 o 14’S, 54 o 17’W), MNRJ 9395 View Materials , 15 View Materials (73-120) GoogleMaps   . Santarém (2 o 26’S, 54 o 42’W), FMNH 69823 View Materials , 1 View Materials (191) GoogleMaps   . Rio Trombetas, mouth of lago Jacaré, Reserva Biologica de Trombetas , MZUSP 15511 View Materials , 1 View Materials (170)   . Mouth of lago Jacaré, Reserva Biologica de Trombetas , MZUSP 15533-34 View Materials , 2 View Materials (177-180)   . Praia do lago near mouth of lago Jacaré, Reserva Biologica de rio Trombetas , MZUSP 15826 View Materials , 1 View Materials (195)   . Rio Trombetas, Oriximiná (1 o 45’S, 55 o 52’W), MZUSP 5466 View Materials , 1 View Materials (170) GoogleMaps   . Rio Trombetas, mouth of lago Paru (1 o 57’S, 55 o 52’W), MZUSP 5685 View Materials , 1 View Materials (97) GoogleMaps   . Rio Tapajós, Ilha Tapaiúna (2 o 54’S, 55 o 05’W), MZUSP 21985 View Materials , 5 View Materials (179-192) GoogleMaps   . Santana, Furo dos Macacos, MZUSP 23653 View Materials , 1 View Materials (172)   . Abaetetuba, rio Tocantins (1 o 42’S, 48 o 54’W), MZUSP 23945 View Materials , 3 View Materials (109-130) GoogleMaps   . Rio Tapajós , Maloquinha, MZUSP 24308 View Materials , 2 View Materials (157-162)   . Rio Amazonas, Furo Ituquara below Gurupá (approximately 1 o 25’S, 51 o 39’W), MZUSP 43228 View Materials , 12 View Materials (97-153) GoogleMaps   ; MZUSP 43288 View Materials , 4 View Materials (143- 186) GoogleMaps   . Ilha Urutaí, Município de Gurupá (approximately 1 o 25’S, 51 o 39’W), MZUSP 9419 View Materials , 1 View Materials (146) GoogleMaps   . Rio Pará, Ilha do Camaleão (approximately 1 o 30’S, 48 o 05’W), MZUSP 9474 View Materials , 4 View Materials (113-153) GoogleMaps   . Corcorado (1 o 51’S, 49 o 02’W), MZUSP 9475 View Materials , 2 View Materials (144-158) GoogleMaps   . Rio Amazonas, mouth of Furo do Aququi (1 o 35’S, 52 o 35’W), MZUSP 9491 View Materials , 2 View Materials (107-123) GoogleMaps   . Probably in vicinity of Belém, NRM 7102 View Materials , 1 View Materials (137)   . Engenho Santo Antonio, Furo de Panaquera , MZUSP 23975 View Materials , 8 View Materials (143-165; 1 specimen, 145 mm, cleared and stained)   ; ROM 37970 View Materials , 3 View Materials (134-142)   . Rondônia: rio Madeira, Foz do Jamarí (8 o 45’S, 63 o 27’W), MZUSP 28370 View Materials , 11 View Materials (154-205) GoogleMaps   . Tocantins: rio Tocantins at Porto Nacional (10 o 42’S, 48 o 25’W), CAS 6609 View Materials , 1 View Materials (218) GoogleMaps   . Rio Tocantins, Município de Peixoto , MZUSP 45102 View Materials , 2 View Materials (136-145)   . Colombia. Amazonas: Leticia, río Amazonas , ANSP 119877 View Materials , 1 View Materials (93)   . Caqueta: río Orteguaza , MHNG 2526.66 View Materials , 22 View Materials (106-120)   . Río Amazonas , Isla de Santa Sofia II, approximately 20 mi (= 32 km) NW of Leticia, CAS 40714 View Materials , 1 View Materials (117)   . Peru. Amazonas: río Santiago , 1.5 km upstream of La Poza (latter locality at 4 o 01’S, 77 o 45’W), LACM 39864-1 View Materials , 1 View Materials (197) GoogleMaps   . Río Marañon, Bagua, Ciro-Cenepa (4 o 42’S, 78 o 10’W), MUSM 12494, 1 (195) GoogleMaps   . Loreto: río Ambiyacu , ANSP 21533 View Materials , 1 View Materials (135; originally cited in literature as from Ecuador)   . Río Ambiyacu, near Pebas (approximately 3 o 20’S, 71 o 49’W), CAS SU 34225, 1 View Materials (101) GoogleMaps   ; CAS SU 36191, 1 View Materials (38) GoogleMaps   . Rio Amazonas , INHS 38932 View Materials , 1 View Materials (118)   . Río Napo, Puesto de Vigilancia Arcadia (0 o 59’S, 75 o 18’W), MUSM 6023, 1 (210) GoogleMaps   . Río Aguarico, Puesto de Vigilancia Castana (0 o 48’S, 75 o 14’W), MUSM 6024, 1 (220) GoogleMaps   . Madre de Dios: río Madre de Dios , Albergue Cuzco-Amazonico, CAS 59457 View Materials , 2 View Materials (110-119)   . Río Madre de Dios , 2 km W of Puerto Maldonado (approximately 12 o 36’S, 69 o 11’W), CAS 78929 View Materials , 2 View Materials (121-176) GoogleMaps   . Ucayali: río Ucayali, Pucallpa (8 o 23’S, 74 o 32’W), MZUSP 26418 View Materials , 1 View Materials (100) GoogleMaps   . Venezuela. Río Orinoco, Puerto Cabrian   to Puerto Morocota, 149-150 nautical mi (=276-277.8 km) from sea buoy, ANSP 152873 View Materials , 1 View Materials (68)   . Amazonas: río Negro at San Carlos de río Negro (1 o 58’N, 67 o 04’W), AMNH 74450 View Materials , 1 View Materials (185) GoogleMaps   . Anzoátegui: Caño tributary to río La Pena, left bank tributary of río Orinoco , opposite Ciudad Bolivar (approximately 8°10’N, 63°33’W), ANSP 152872 View Materials , 1 View Materials (31) GoogleMaps   . Río Orinoco at Soledad boat launch just below Puente Angostura (approximately 8°10’N, 63°34’W), ANSP 160997 View Materials , 1 View Materials (51) GoogleMaps   . Apure: río Apure, between mouth of río Portuguesa and San Fernando de Apure airport, ANSP 165235 View Materials , 1 View Materials (137)   . Río Apure, above Apurito (7 o 56’20"N, 68 o 28’50"W), MCNG 11234 View Materials , 1 View Materials (123) GoogleMaps   . Río Sarare , between Las Bocas and Guasdualito (7 o 11’50"N, 71 o 48’10"W), MCNG 5262 View Materials , 2 View Materials (183-216) GoogleMaps   . Río Apure, just W of Apurito, on S bank (7 o 56’N, 68 o 27’W), TNHC 13855 View Materials , 2 View Materials (199-210) GoogleMaps   . Delta Amacuro: río Orinoco , between Puerto Ordaz and Barrancas, AMNH 58156 View Materials , 3 View Materials (56-104)   ; AMNH 58156 View Materials   SW, 1 (24.6, cleared and stained). Río Orinoco, near downstream end of Isla Muasimoina , 44 nautical mi (=81.5 km) from sea buoy (8 o 36’36"N, 60 o 45’W), USNM 265631 View Materials , 1 View Materials (157) GoogleMaps   . Río Orinoco channel, N of Isla Tres Caños , 128 nautical mi (=237.1 km) from sea buoy (8 o 39’N, 61 o 58’W), USNM 265660 View Materials , 1 View Materials (28) GoogleMaps   . Río Orinoco channel, at Puerto Ordaz , N of Islote Fajardo, 180 nautical mi (=333.4 km) from sea buoy (8 o 23’33"N, 62 o 39’54"W), USNM 265673 View Materials , 1 View Materials (34) GoogleMaps   ; LACM 43102-3 View Materials , 2 View Materials (15-21, larger specimen cleared and stained) GoogleMaps   . Río Orinoco tributary across from Isla Tres Caños , on N side of river, 131.8 nautical mi (=224.1 km) from sea buoy (8 o 39’48"N, 62 o 01’W), USNM 265707 View Materials , 1 View Materials (19) GoogleMaps   . Río Orinoco , in deep channel (8°23’N, 61°02’W), CAS 58079 View Materials , 6 View Materials (102-170) GoogleMaps   . Río Orinoco , in deep channel (8°22’N, 62°40’W), CAS 58161 View Materials , 1 View Materials (33) GoogleMaps   . Guarico: río Orinoco, at Laguna Isla Isabella , cross outlet of lagoon, 201 nautical mi (=372.3 km) from sea buoy (8 o 18’N, 63 o 56’W), USNM 265628 View Materials , 30 View Materials (112-225; 1 specimen cleared and stained) GoogleMaps   . Río Orinoco channel, between Puerto Ordaz and Ciudad Bolivar, 202 nautical mi (=374.1 km) from sea buoy (8 o 18’N, 63 o 56’W), USNM 265657 View Materials , 2 View Materials (37-54) GoogleMaps   . Portuguesa: río Portuguesa (9 o 04’00"N, 69 o 30’00"W), MCNG 15775 View Materials , 3 View Materials GoogleMaps   (185-192).

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

NRM

Swedish Museum of Natural History - Zoological Collections

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

ROM

Royal Ontario Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Siluriformes

Family

Cetopsidae

Genus

Cetopsis

Loc

Cetopsis coecutiens ( Lichtenstein, 1819 )

Vari, Richard P., Ferraris Jr, Carl J. & de Pinna, Mário C. C. 2005
2005
Loc

Cetopsis cf. caecutiens

Mendes dos Santos, G 1984: 78
1984
Loc

Cetopsis sp.

Lauzanne, L 1991: 69
Ferreira, E 1988: 346
Goulding, M 1988: 123
Goulding, M 1981: 29
1981
Loc

Cetopsis caecutiens

Lopez, H 2003: 37
Pozzi, A 1945: 262
Delsman, H 1941: 80
Miranda-Ribeiro, A 1920: 15
Starks, E 1913: 34
Pellegrin, J 1899: 158
Gunther, A 1864: 199
1864
Loc

Cetopsis coecutiens

Wallace, A 2002: 312
Chang, F 1998: 26
Taphorn, D & Royero, A 1997: 85
Ferraris, C 1996: 164
Lasso, C & Senaris, O 1995: 18
Barriga, R 1991: 56
Burgess, W 1989: 292
Ortega, H 1986: 15
Cala, P 1977: 11
Ovchynnyk, M 1967: 35
Ringuelet, R 1967: 348
Dahl, G 1960: 306
Fowler, H 1954: 3
Van der Stigchel, J 1947: 112
Fowler, H 1945: 20
Gosline, W 1945: 54
Schultz, L 1944: 252
Fowler, H 1915: 228
Eigenmann, C 1909: 322
Regan, C 1905: 190
Goeldi, E 1898: 479
Boulenger, G 1897: 297
Eigenmann, C 1888: 157
Cope, E 1872: 292
Bleeker, P 1858: 258
Swainson, W 1839: 308
1839
Loc

Silurus coecutiens

Cuvier, G 1829: 292
Lichtenstein, M 1819: 61
1819