Harmonicon cerberus, Pedroso, Denis Rafael & Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira, 2014

Pedroso, Denis Rafael & Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira, 2014, A new troglomorphic species of Harmonicon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Dipluridae) from Para, Brazil, with notes on the genus, ZooKeys 389, pp. 77-88 : 78-82

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scientific name

Harmonicon cerberus

sp. n.

Harmonicon cerberus View in CoL sp. n. Figs 1-11, Map 1, Table 1


This species may be easily recognized by the fusion of the PME and all lateral eyes (Figs 1-3), elongated chelicerae, and pale coloration (Figs 1-2). Another diagnostic trait is the strongly thickened setae near the lyra (Fig. 6). In other Harmonicon , similar setae are found, but they are never so thickened. In prolateral view, the globose bulb, with a strong constriction around the basis of the embolus, resembles Harmonicon oiapoqueae , in contrast to the piriform bulb, regularly tapering toward the embolus, in Harmonicon audeae . The embolus is slightly longer than the bulb itself (ratio 1.3), similar to Harmonicon audeae (1.2), but shorter than in Harmonicon oiapoqueae (1.6).

Type material.

Male holotype from Brazil: Pará: Parauapebas, Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pequiá Cave, near entrance, September 2003, Bittencourt, R. (MNRJ 04319).


The specific epithet “cerberus” is an apposition noun and a reference to the three-headed watchdog that guards the entrance to the underworld, the Hades, in Greek mythology.


Male (holotype, Figs 1-11). Measurements: carapace 10.7 long, 9.3 wide, chelicerae 4.4. Abdomen 14.5 long, 6.6 wide. Spinnerets: PMS 2.1 long, 2.0 apart; PLS, total length 18.1, basal article 4.9, middle 6.2, distal 7.0, 2.0. apart; respectively. Legs: see Table 1.

Carapace (Figs 1, 2) length/width 1.15; flat, cephalic area slightly raised, thoracic furrows shallow and wide. Fovea: 1.0 wide; deep, straight. Carapace with many short, thin setae, interspersed with some longer and thicker setae; border with abundant long and thick setae pointing out, increasing in number towards posterior angles. Clypeus 0.3, frontal margin bearing 9 thick, long, erect setae (Fig. 3). Eye tubercle (Fig. 3) length 0.9, width 1.9, with sparse thin setae separating eyes of both sides and thicker, longer setae at the anterior and posterior borders. AME elliptical, with a milky lens, yellowish brown background, no retina or eye pigments visible. Left AME larger than right one. All other eyes (ALE, PME and PLE) fused in an asymmetrical, crescent shaped, lateral eye mass, with irregular borders, covered by a thin lens, with uniform white background. Right lateral eye mass thinner, shorter and with a more pronounced notch than the left one. Eye row curvature not definable, but AME anterior border a little advanced in relation to anterior border of lateral eye mass (Fig. 3). Right AME 0.3, AME–AME 0.3, right lateral eye mass 0.6 long. Chelicerae (Fig. 2) length/carapace length 0.41, 11 and 12 teeth on promargin, on the left and right chelicera, respectively. Maxillae (Figs 5, 6) length\width: 2.1. Cuspules: 36 spread over ventral inner heel. Lyra at the ventral side of the maxilla, asymmetrical, formed by 4-5 modified thick, long setae, increasing in size from basal to distal one, strongly curved at apical portion, apex just tapering to a point. Right lyra with just 4 setae, left lyra with 5 large setae and a very small, thinner basal one. Thick, erect, regularly curved setae (Fig. 6, arrow) placed distally and a bit internally in relation to lyra, in number of 4 at the right maxilla and 3 at the left one. Labium: length/width 0.8, no cuspules. Labio-sternal groove deep, with elongated sigilla. Sternum (Fig. 5) length (up to labium border) 5.3, width 4.7. Posterior angle in a blunt point, not separating coxae IV. Sigilla: three pairs, elliptical, increasing in size backwards, all far from margin by its own size. Palp long, without spines at retrolateral side, one prolateral spine at distal third of femur, 2 prolateral spines at tibia, distal one longer and thicker. Tibia: length 6.3, thin and long, with similar diameter throughout, length/width 9.1. Leg formula 4123. Legs covered with more abundant short, thin, horizontal black setae and with many longer, thicker, erect black setae. Leg I with modified tibia and metatarsus, forming a retrolateral clasping mechanism (Figs 10-11). Tibia I with a retrolateral distal spur (or apophysis) relatively long, somewhat curved, blunt, bearing a curved, pointed spine at tip. Metatarsus I with small retrolateral tubercle, situated distally to basis of first ventral spine. Tarsal trichobothria much longer than covering setae, placed in a row along the midline of dorsal face. Scopula undivided, covering distal half of metatarsus I and distal third of metatarsi II-III; all tarsi covered with scopula throughout length. All tarsi flexible, with abundant cracks. Spines: leg I: femur d2-2-0 left, d2-1-0 right, pld0-2-1 left, pld1-1-1 right, rld1-2-1 left, rld1-1-2 right; patella 0; tibia p1-0-1, r1-0-1 left, r1-0-0 right, v1-1-1ap (apophysis) left, v2-1-1ap (apophysis) right; metatarsus p0-1-0, v1-2-0 left, v1-2-1ap right; leg II: femur d2-2-0 left, d3-1-0 right, pld1-3-1 left, pld1-2-1 right; patella 0; tibia p1-1-1 left, p1-0-1 right, v2-1-1ap left, v1-1-1ap right; metatarsus pld0-1-0, v1-2-2ap; leg III: femur d2-1-0 left, d3-1-0 right, pld0-2-1, rld1-1-1 left, rld1-2-1 right; patella 0, tibia plv0-1-0 right, pld1-0-1 right, rld1-2-1, v2-2-2ap; metatarsus d2-1-1 left, d1-1-1 right, pld2-2-1 left, pld1-2-0 right, rld1-3-0 left, rld1-3-1 right, v2-1-3ap left, v1-1-2ap right; leg IV: femur d2-1-0, pld1-2-1 left, pld0-2-1 right, rld2-3-1 left, rld2-1-2 right; patella 0, tibia pld1-1-0 left, pld1-2-0 right, rld1-2-2(1ap) left, rld1-2-1 right, v2-2-2ap; metatarsus d1-1-1 left, d2-1-0 right, pld2-1-1 left, pld2-2-1 right, rld2-3-2 left, rld1-2-1 right, v2-1-2ap. Claws: ITC without teeth. Teeth at STC: leg I inner row 4-5, outer row 10-13; leg II inner row 4-5, outer row 10-12; leg III inner row 3, outer row 9-11; leg IV inner row 2-3, outer row 7-10. Bulb (Figs 7-9) globose, with moderately long embolus, a little longer than basis (ratio 1,3). Bulb with prolateral face convex, gently and uniformly curved, retrolateral face convex at basis and concave at end portion, due to an abrupt curve, forming a strong constriction of bulb near basis of embolus. Embolus with a broad basis, regularly tapering to tip, both in prolateral and retrolateral views. In frontal view, embolus placed at prolateral margin of bulb, slightly curved initially, straight through most of its length, with apex bent retrolaterally (Fig. 9). Also, there is a strong bulge of bulb near embolus basis at same view.

Color pattern (in 75% ethanol). Carapace pale yellow, with thoracic furrows and cephalic area just a little darker, with orange hue, chelicerae light reddish brown, labium, sternum and leg coxae grayish yellow, sigillae darker, with orange hue, other leg articles brownish yellow. Abdomen grayish yellow, with abundant long, thick black hairs.


(Map 1). know only from type locality, in southern Pará state, Brazil.