Cassida troglodytes Boheman, 1854
Borowiec, Lech & Świętojańska, Jolanta, 2022, A monograph of the Afrotropical Cassidinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Part 6. Revision of the tribe Cassidini 3, the genus Cassida L., Zootaxa 5171 (1), pp. 1-250 : 166-168
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|Cassida troglodytes Boheman, 1854|
Cassida troglodytes Boheman, 1854
( figs. 48 View FIGURE 48 , 226–231 View FIGURES 226–231 )
Cassida troglodytes Boheman, 1854: 396 , 1856: 129, 1862: 309; Gemminger & Harold, 1876: 3659; Borowiec, 1999 a: 289. Cassida (Cassida) troglodytes: Spaeth, 1914 b: 119 .
Cassida impompalis Spaeth, 1924: 356 ; Borowiec, 1999 a: 257, n. syn.
Cassida lueboensis Spaeth, 1932: 235 ; Shaw, 1961: 31, 1972: 75; Borowiec, 1999 a: 262; Rice, 2003: 81 View Cited Treatment , n. syn.
Cassida purpuraria Spaeth, 1932: 240 ; Borowiec, 1999 a: 262 (as syn. of lueboensis ).
Cassida pronuba Spaeth, 1943: 59 ; Borowiec, 1999 a: 262 (as syn. of lueboensis ).
Description. L: 4.25–4.55 mm, W: 3.55–3.85 mm, Lp: 1.50–1.70 mm, Wp: 2.85–3.05 mm, L/W: 1.13–1.20, Wp/Lp: 1.84–2.00. Body almost circular, in male slightly stouter than in female ( figs. 226, 227, 229–231 View FIGURES 226–231 ).
Very variable species. In typically coloured specimens pronotum yellow and scutellum yellow, elytral disc yellow with several brown spots: round on postscutellar tubercle, small on humerus, on small on elevated interval surrounding postscutellar impression, two elongate on second interval, and sometimes two very small on fourth and sixth intervals, explanate margin uniformly yellow ( fig. 227 View FIGURES 226–231 ). In intermediate form pronotum on sides with irregular reddish brown spot, elytral disc except typical maculation with reddish band surrounding disc, explanate margin yellow ( fig. 229 View FIGURES 226–231 ). In the darkest form pronotal disc purple–brown, explanate margin of pronotum from base to margin gradually from reddish to yellow, elytral disc purple–brown, explanate margin of elytra from reddish to gradually yellowish externally to deep purple–brown with only extreme margin yellowish ( fig. 231 View FIGURES 226–231 . In the palest form dorsum yellow only elytral disc with brown stripe on postscutellar elevation and one small spot on 2/3 length elevated second interval. Various intermediate forms are observed ( fig. 230 View FIGURES 226–231 ). Head yellow, in most forms with at least basal corners infuscate, or with infuscate sides, in darkest forms mostly infuscate with paler central part. Thorax in all forms black. Abdomen in pale and intermediate forms in the middle brown to black surrounded by yellow to almost completely black but in the darkest form uniformly yellow. Legs mostly yellow with more or less infuscate coxa and trochanters. Antennal segments 1–6 yellow, segment 7 from yellow to slightly infuscate, apical four segments gradually infuscate to mostly black.
Pronotum elliptical, with maximum width in the middle, anterior margin regularly convex, sides angulate, no basal corners. Disc strongly convex, indistinctly bordered from explanate margin except well marked, short but deep lateral impression, area above head distinctly impressed. Surface of disc from slightly alutaceous to shiny, basal and lateral parts with moderately coarse and moderately dense punctation. Distance between punctures from as wide as to twice wider than puncture diameter, area above head with fine and sparse punctation. Explanate margin broad, impunctate, transparent with well visible honeycomb structure, its surface from slightly alutaceous to shiny.
Base of elytra moderately wider than base of pronotum, humeral angles moderately protruding anterad, subangulate. Disc irregularly convex in profile, with distinct postscutellar and principal impressions, with well marked H–shaped elevation, usually forming low tubercle ( fig. 228 View FIGURES 226–231 ), interval 2 on entire length and interval 4 in the middle slightly convex. In various populations the H–shaped elevation varies from very low to high. Punctation coarse and dense, arranged in completely regular rows, punctures in rows almost touching each other. Marginal row distinct, its punctures as coarse as in central rows. Intervals mostly linear, elevated second and partly fourth intervals from as wide as to slightly narrower than rows, marginal interval as wide as submarginal row and interval combined, humeral fold usually absent, lateral fold short but distinct. Explanate margin moderately broad, moderately declivous, in the widest part four times narrower than disc, surface from slightly alutaceous to shiny, slightly irregular, in pale forms transparent with well visible honeycomb structure.
Eyes very large, gena obsolete. Clypeus moderately broad, from as wide as long to slightly wider than long, in male slightly narrower than in female. Clypeal grooves fine but well marked, runs close to margin of eye, on top converging in angle, surface of clypeus flat or with shallow apical impression, its surface shiny with several very small, setose punctures. Labrum narrowly emarginate to 1/4–1/3 length. Antennae stout, segments 9–10 approximately as long as wide. Length ratio of antennal segments: 100:62:88:77:62:50:54:54:54:62:111. Segment 3 approximately 1.4 times as long as segment 2 and approximately 1.2 times as long as segment 4.
Prosternum moderately broad in the middle, strongly expanded apically, area between coxa convex, shiny, along sides with few coarse punctures, central part often with elongate groove, expanded apex in the middle strongly convex, shiny with few moderately coarse, setose punctures, sides deeply impressed, with coarse, dense, setose punctures, surface appears irregular.
Distribution. West and Central Africa south to Zimbabwe, east to Ethiopia ( fig. 48 View FIGURE 48 ).
Remarks. A member of the Cassida troglodytes species–group. From C. satanas , the only relatives, differs in dorsum never mostly black. From other species with almost an circular body, this species differs in the presence of a black postscutellar spot ( figs. 226–231 View FIGURES 226–231 ) and an angulate postscutellare hump ( fig. 228 View FIGURES 226–231 ). At first glance Cassida pernix (fig. 105) is similar to the purple form of C. troglodytes ( fig. 231 View FIGURES 226–231 ) but differs in the absence of a postscutellar angulation (fig. 106).
Types examined. Holotype of Cassida troglodytes Boheman, 1854 : [ SIERRA LEONE]: Sier. Leo. (ZMHU); holotype of Cassida impompalis Spaeth, 1924 : [ TANZANIA] Usambara, Nguelo, H. Rolle (MM); syntype of Cassida lueboensis Spaeth, 1932 : [ DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO ( ZAIRE)]: Luebo, VIII 1921, Lt Ghesquière (MRAC); two syntypes of Cassida lueboensis Spaeth, 1932 : [ DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO ( ZAIRE)]: Luebo, 20 VIII 1921, H. Schouteden (MRAC); holotype of Cassida purpuraria Spaeth, 1932 : [ DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO ( ZAIRE)]: Kapiri, IX 1912, Miss. Agric. (MRAC); paratype of Cassida purpuraria Spaeth, 1932 : [ DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO ( ZAIRE)]: Katanga, Elisabethiville (MM); holotype of Cassida pronuba Spaeth, 1943 : [ DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO ( ZAIRE)]: Rutshuru, V 1937, J. Ghesquière (MRAC).
Other specimens examined. CAMEROON: Uamgeb., Bosum , 21–31 V 1914, 1, Tessmann ( ZMHU) .
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO ( ZAIRE): Garamba Nat. Park, 21 XII 1951, 1, 19 I 1952, 1, 4 II 1952, 1, 13 II 1952, 1, De Saeger (MRAC, IRSN, MNHW); Katanga, Kipopo, 20 VIII 1961, 1, R. Maréchal (MNHW); Kivu, Mulungu, 1939, 1, L. Hendricx (MRAC); Kivu, Tshampu, rég. Ngweshe, 22 VI 1938, 1, L. Hendricx (MRAC); Luebo, 20 VIII 1921, 1 ab. purpuraria, H. Schouteden (MRAC) ; Rutshuru, I 1937, 1 ab. purpuraria + 1 ab. typica, V 1937, 1 ab. pronuba + 1 ab. typica, J. Ghesquière (MRAC); Lulua, Sandoa, X 1930, 1, G.F. Overlaet (MRAC); Nizi, Blukwa, 30 XII 1928, 4, A. Collart (IRSN, MNHW); Tshuapa, Bamanya, 1–14 IX 1963, 1, XI 1964, 1, 1 VI 1965, 1, 1968, 1, P. Hulstaert (MRAC, MNHW); Upemba Nat. Park, Mudi aff. Lupiala, aff. Lufira, 890 m, 6–15 VI 1948, 1, de Witte (MRAC).
ETHIOPIA: Illubabor, Bedele , 1900 m, 27 X 1975, 1, P. Brignoli ( DS) ; Kaffa, Badabuna Forest , 1700 m, 23 X 1973, 1, P. Brignoli ( DS) ; Shawa pr., Ambo , 125 km W Adis Ababa, 2250 m, 21 XI 1994, 2, Medvedev & Samodrzhenkov ( LM, MNHW) .
GHANA: Northern Region, Nyankpala , 9.25 N / 1.00 W, 183 m, 10 V 1970, 1, S. Endrödy – Younga ( MNHW) GoogleMaps .
KENYA: Git–Git , 1, Gotsch ( NMW); Mt. Elgon , Salt Lake Estate , 2100 m, 17 XII 1937, 1, A. Holm ( NRS) .
MALAWI: Dedza env., 85 km se Lilongwe, 7–13 I 2002, 1, F. & L. Kantner ( FK) .
NIGERIA: Ibadan , 5 VII 1962, 1, D. Eidt ( MZSNV); N.C. Stat., Kagoro Forest, 29–30 VIII 1973, 1, R. Linnavuori ( MNHW) .
TANZANIA: Kilimandjaro, 3000 m, 1, Ch. Schröder ( MNHW) ; Songea, Litembo, 1500 m, 19 IX 1952, 2, Lindemann & Pavlitzki ( MNHW) ; Ukerewe I., 1 (LS).
TOGO: Bismarckburg , 20–27 X 1893, 1, L. Conradt ( MNHW) .
UGANDA: Kalinzu Forest , Mpungu, 31.4 E / 0.20 S, 1200–1350 m, I 1972, 1, H. Gønget ( MNHW) GoogleMaps .
URUNDI: Bufumbira , IV 1939, 2, G. Taylor ( MM) .
ZAMBIA: Hillwood , Ikelenge, 1400 m, 30 IV–11 V 2014, 1, R. Smith, H. Takano, L. Chmurova & L. Smith ( BMNH) .
ZIMBABWE: 43 km N Harare, 17°28’55” S, 30°59’12”E, 7 XI 1998, 1, M. Rice ( MER); GoogleMaps Mazowe, Dam, 17°31’06’’S / 30°59’13’’E, 11 VI 1998, 1, M. Rice ( MER) GoogleMaps .
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Cassida troglodytes Boheman, 1854
|Borowiec, Lech & Świętojańska, Jolanta 2022|
|Spaeth, F. 1943: 59|
|Rice, M. E. 2003: 81|
|Shaw, S. 1972: 75|
|Shaw, S. 1961: 31|
|Spaeth, F. 1932: 235|
|Spaeth, F. 1932: 240|
|Spaeth, F. 1924: 356|
Cassida (Cassida) troglodytes: Spaeth, 1914 b: 119
|Spaeth, F. 1914: 119|
|Gemminger, M. & Harold, E. B. von 1876: 3659|
|Boheman, C. H. 1862: 309|
|Boheman, C. H. 1856: 129|
|Boheman, C. H. 1854: 396|