Holmesina cryptae Moura, Góis, Galliari & Fernandes,

Moura, Jorge Felipe, Góis, Flávio, Galliari, Fernando Carlos & Fernandes, Marcelo Adorna, 2019, A new and most complete pampathere (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata) from the Quaternary of Bahia, Brazil, Zootaxa 4661 (3), pp. 401-444: 405-406

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http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.4661.3.1

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Holmesina cryptae Moura, Góis, Galliari & Fernandes

sp. nov.

Holmesina cryptae Moura, Góis, Galliari & Fernandes  sp. nov.

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Type locality. Two specimens (holotype and paratypes) associated to three juvenile individuals of Glyptodontinae  were found in the inferior level of the cave Gruta da Lapinha in Iramaia Municipality, Bahia state, Brazil.

Etimology. “ Gruta ” (cave/grotto in Portuguese) comes from the Latin “ crypta ” (crypt). At the entrance of Lapinha Cave, there is an altar that is used by Catholic believers, and the skeletons of the pampatheres were found in a chamber below which is analogous to a crypt, reinforcing the choice of this name.

Holotype. LPP-PV-001: Skull. Maxillary teeth (15 – right and left: Mf3, Mf4, Mf5, Mf6, Mf7, Mf8 and Mf9; and left: Mf2). Mandibles (fragmented). Hyoid bones (right stilohyal and epihyal). Cervical vertebrae (C1–C7). Thoracic vertebrae (T1–T10). Lumbar vertebra (L1). Synsacral vertebrae (S1–S11). Caudal vertebrae (Cd1–Cd22). Chevron bones (5). Scapulae (incomplete). Clavicles (right and left). Manubrium. Ribs (10 – vertebral portion). Humeri (right and left). Radii (right and left). Ulnae (right and left). Right trapezoid bone. Hamate bones (right and left), Triquetral bones (right and left). Lunate bones (right and left). Pisiform bones (right and left). Anterior distal phalanges (right and left: I, II, III, IV, V). Anterior medial phalanges ( II, III and IV). Anterior proximal phalanges (right: I, II, III, IV and V; left: I, II, III, IV and V). Metacarpi (right and left: I, II, III and IV). Sesamoid bones in right manus (3), and right and left palmar bones. Pelvis. Femora (right and left). Patellae (right and left). Tibiofibulas (right one is complete; distal and proximal epiphyses of the left one). Calcanei (right and left). Astragali (right and left). Naviculars (right and left). Cuboids (right and left). Metatarsi (right and left: II, III, IV and V). Posterior distal phalanges (right: I, II, IV and V; left: II, III, IV and V). Posterior medial phalanges (right: II, IV and V; left: II, III, IV and V). Posterior proximal phalanges (right: III; left: I, II, III, IV and V). Right and left plantar bones. Osteoderms (more than 1000 and fragments). 

Paratype. LPP-PV-002: Skull almost complete. Maxilary teeth (right and left M1–M9). Mandible (complete in right side with nine teeth; the left one is fragmented). Hyoid bones (basithyrohyal). Cervical vertebrae (C1–C7). Thoracic vertebrae (T1–T10). Lumbar vertebra (L1). Synsacral vertebrae (S1–S11). Caudal vertebrae (Cd1–Cd4). Chevron bones (4). Manubrium. Ribs (fragments). Incomplete humeri. Radii (right and left). Ulnae (right and left). Pelvis. Femora (distal and proximal epiphyses). Patellae (right and left). Tibiofibulas (fragments). Calcaneus (left). Astragalus (left). Cuboids. Anterior distal phalanges (right and left I, II, III, IV and V). Osteoderms (more than 200 and fragments)  .

Age: SALMA Lujanian (Late Pleistocene).

Diagnosis. Holmesina cryptae  sp. nov. differs from other species of pampatheres in having: a less elevated frontal crests in frontal bones; a less robust, thin and low sagittal crest; a nuchal crest narrower in the lateral borders; a robust and pointed mastoid process in the petrosal bones; a C-shaped notch anteriorly in lateral view of premaxillas; a larger infraorbital foramen in maxillas; very robust postorbital apophyses (postorbital process of jugal). The shape of the H. cryptae  sp. nov. skull is more triangular than the other species and possesses robust zygomatic arches with an orthogonal process zygomatic of squamosal. The skull also shows the most robust parietal region, and the widest and more robust snout. The molariforms are farthest from the sagittal line than any of the compared species. Holmesina cryptae  sp. nov. presents osteodermal ornamentations less marked than in Scirrotherium carinatum  , Kraglievichia  , H. paulacoutoi  and H. occidentalis  , however more defined and punctured than in Pampatherium  . Anteriorly to the first lower molariform (mf1) in the dentary, there is a toothless pointed region longer than in any other species of Holmesina  , however it is less developed than in P. typum  and P. humboldtii  . The first three anterior upper molariforms (Mf1–Mf3) show an oval morphology as in the rest of the species. The morphology of the other molariforms is more similar to other Holmesina  species (short and wide, eight-shaped), with reduced interdental spaces, in contrast to Pampatherium  . The mandible is much less robust than in P. humboldtii  , horizontal and ascending rami narrower than in P. humboldtii  . In the ulna, the lateral and medial fossae are superficial and the styloid apophysis is rounded. The femur shows a deeper and more delimited trochanteric fossa than other species of Holmesina  . The patella has a longer and straighter apex in comparison to H. floridana  .