Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

Lonsdale, Owen, 2011, The Liriomyza (Agromyzidae: Schizophora: Diptera) of California 2850, Zootaxa 2850 (1), pp. 1-123 : 106-108

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2850.1.1

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Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)


Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

Figs 232–235 View FIGURES 232–239

Oscinis trifolii Burgess 1880: 201 .

Agromyza trifolii . Coquillett 1898: 78; Malloch 1913: 278.

Liriomyza trifolii . de Meijere 1925: 282; Hendel 1931: 213; Frick 1952a: 405, 1959: 410; Spencer 1965: 37 [neotype designation], 1973a: 226, 1983: 59, 1984: 25; Spencer & Steyskal 1986: 296; Stegmaier 1966: 75; Scheffer & Lewis 2006: 991; Deeming 2006: 412 Gil-Ortiz et al. 2008: 573, Palacios et al. 2008: 16.

Liriomyza phaseolunata Frost 1943: 256 . Frick 1952a: 404, 1959: 408. Syn. Spencer & Steyskal (1986).

Liriomyza alliovora Frick 1955: 88 . Frick 1959: 401. Syn. Spencer (1973a).

Description. Wing length 1.2–1.7mm (♂), 1.5–1.9mm (♀). Length of ultimate section of vein CuA 1 divided by penultimate section: 1.7–3.1. Eye height divided by gena height: 2.1–3.0. Scutum with light greyish pruinosity, rarely subshining.

Chaetotaxy: Two ori, two ors. Acrostichal setulae in two to four scattered rows.

Colouration: Calypter margin and hairs brownish. Head yellow with back of head above foramen, ocellar tubercle, clypeus, and posterolateral margin of frons lateral to base of outer vertical bristle brown. Scutum with complete lateral yellow stripe; laterotergites brown with sclerites lateral to scutellum lighter, sometimes with katatergite entirely yellow. Pleuron yellow with large ventral spots on katepisternum and meron, and anepisternum and anepimeron with small anteroventral spots. Legs yellow with base of fore coxa sometimes brown, fore femur sometimes with dorsal mottling, base of mid and hind femora sometimes partially brown dorsally, and tibiae and tarsi brown (lighter on fore legs). Abdomen brown with lateral margin broadly yellow and posterior margin of tergites(1)2–4 yellow; tergites 2–5 sometimes with yellow posteromedial emargination (sometimes entirely dividing brown band on tergite 5); epandrium brown, often with dorsum light brown to yellow; tergite 2 sometimes yellow along midline in females.

Genitalia: Figs 232–235 View FIGURES 232–239 . Surstylus with small inner-distal spine. Basiphallus largely recessed distally where swollen section of ejaculatory duct dominates. Paraphallus membranous. Hypophallus small, thin, and slightly curved upwards. Distiphallus small and cup-shaped, fused to mesophallus and inner-distal margin with minute triangular sclerotizations. Ejaculatory apodeme small with base curved and apex relatively narrow and clear.

Range. Widespread in North, Central and South America. Introduced into some European countries, Africa, the Near East, and the Oriental and eastern Palaearctic Regions, most likely the result of dispersal on Chrysanthemum cuttings ( Dempewolf, 2004). Largely restricted to greenhouses in colder temperate regions, with some evidence of overwintering ( Dempewolf, 2004). More detailed distributions are given in Minkenberg and vanLenteren (1986).

Known hosts. L. trifolii is a highly polyphagous species, currently known from dozens of families. See Table 1.

Type material. Liriomyza trifolii : Neotype [ trifolii ]: USA. Indiana: Lafayette, from Alfalfa, 3.ix.1913, J.M. Aldrich (1♂, USNM). Liriomyza phaseolunata : Holotype, USA. New Jersey: Bridgeton, 24.viii.1942, B.B. Pepper (1♂, Lost). Liriomyza alliovora : Holotype, USA. Indiana: Ames,, H.M. Harris, ex. leaf of onion (1♂, USNM).

Additional material examined. USA. California: Imperial Co., Calexico , 4.x.1979, ex. fruit fly trap, Pineda & Katz (5♂ 61♀, CSCA) , Algodonoes Dunes, 10.4km SE, Glamis, 1.1km W road, 32°55’N, 114°59’W, 24– 28.iii.2008, K. Lorenzen & T. Zavortink, YPT in microphyll forest (1♂, UCD) GoogleMaps , Kern Co., 2km SW Lebec , 12.ix.1992, S.L. Heydon (1♂ 2♀, UCD) , Los Angeles Co., Angeles Nat. Forest, Islip Canyon ,, D.D. Wilder (1♂, CASC) , Lakewood , xi.1990, R.W. Miles, host: believed to be bell pepper (1♂, UCR) , Monterey Co., Salinas, 14.ix.1977, greenhouse Chrysanthemum, W.W. Allen (1♂ 3♀, EMEC) , Orange Co., Irvine, 19.x.1961, Bumgardner collecter (4♂ 5♀, CSCA), Anaheim , Crawmer collector, ex. bean, em. 1.xi. 1961 (1♂ 2♀, CSCA), Anaheim, Crawmer collector, ex. chili pepper, em. 27.xi.1961 (1♂ 2♀, CSCA) , Riverside Co., UCR campus, 11.ii.1983, “NP culture” (1♂ 2♀, UCR), UC Riverside , 6.viii.1983, “FL: celery” (3♂, UCR) , main celery (1♀, UCR) , Riverside, UCR Lab, culture, S. Reitz , 10.x.1998, on pepper, orig. from: CA, San Benito Co., 1996, on Capsicum anuum (1♂ 4♀, UCR) , 26.xii.1998, on celery, orig. from: CA, Orange Co., 1986–1996, on celery & tomato (1♂ 1♀, UCR) , Riverside, UCR Lab , culture, 10.x.1998, S. Reitz, on pepper, orig. from: CA, San Benito Co., 1996, on Capsicum anuum (4♂, CSCA) , on celery, orig. from: CA, Orange Co., Irvine, 1986–1996, on celery and tomato (3♂ 1♀, CSCA) , San Diego Co., Escondido , 13.x.1963, E. R. Oatman (2♂, UCR) , Santa Barbara Co., Los Prietos ,, J. Powell (1♂ 2♀, EMEC) , Santa Cruz Co., Watsonville , vi.1980, Chrysanthemum (1♂, EMEC) , Watsonville, “5-7-80” (1♂, EMEC) , Sonoma Co., Atascadero Creek, NW Graton, Williams property ca. 30m, 21.viii.1966, P.H. Arnaud, Jr. (1♀, CASC) , Nevada: Clark Co., Charleston Peak, Kyle Canyon , ca 2200m, 14.vii.1966, P.H. Arnaud, Jr. (1♀, CASC) .

Comments. Of those Liriomyza known to be pests on agricultural crops, L. trifolii is one of the easiest to identify, having a light grey pruinosity on the scutum, a more extensively yellow abdomen, pleuron and legs, and vertical bristles that are entirely surrounded by yellow basally. Liriomyza trifolii is more widely polyphagous than other pest Liriomyza and considered one of the most dangerous species of Agromyzidae worldwide, largely because of its increasing resistance to pesticides ( Dempewolf 2004) and the apparent ease by which it has been introduced into countries throughout the World. A Capsicum (pepper) restricted host race is present within L. trifolii in California and other New World locations ( Morgan et al. 2000; Reitz & Trumble 2002; Scheffer & Lewis 2006); additional mitochondrial clades are present as well ( Scheffer & Lewis 2006).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


California State Collection of Arthropods


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


University of California, Davis


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


University of California


Essig Museum of Entomology


Upjohn Culture Collection


Chicago Academy of Sciences














Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

Lonsdale, Owen 2011

Liriomyza alliovora

Frick, K. E. 1959: 401
Frick, K. E. 1955: 88

Liriomyza phaseolunata

Frick, K. E. 1959: 408
Frick, K. E. 1952: 404
Frost, S. W. 1943: 256

Liriomyza trifolii

Gil-Ortiz, R. & Falco-Gari, J. V. & Oltra-Moscardo, M. T. & Martinez, M. & Moreno-Mari, J. & Jimenez-Peydro, R. 2008: 573
Palacios, T. R. E. & Romero N. & Etienne., J. & Koch., S. D. & Teran V., A. P. 2008: 16
Scheffer, S. J. & Lewis, M. L. 2006: 991
Spencer, K. A. & Steyskal, G. C. 1986: 296
Stegmaier, C. E. 1966: 75
Spencer, K. A. 1965: 37
Frick, K. E. 1959: 410
Frick, K. E. 1952: 405
Hendel, F. 1931: 213
Meijere, J. C. H. 1925: 282

Agromyza trifolii

Malloch, J. R. 1913: 278
Coquillett, D. W. 1898: 78

Oscinis trifolii

Burgess, E. 1880: 201