Costarina plena, : Platnick and Duperre, 2011

Platnick, Norman I., Dupérré, Nadine, Ubick, Darrell & Fannes, Wouter, 2012, The Goblin Spider Genus Costarina (Araneae, Oonopidae), Part 1, American Museum Novitates 2012 (3730), pp. 1-64: 12-30

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/3756.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:529E724A-D047-473A-871C-76FADAE136BE

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/DF491870-3B71-FFAB-FE3E-27A0FD91EF85

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Costarina plena
status

 

Costarina plena   (O. P.-Cambridge)

Figures 1–75 View FIGS View FIGS View FIGS View FIGS View FIGS

Dysderina plena   O. P.- Cambridge, 1894: 143, pl. 17, figs. 7, 7a–d (female holotype from Teapa, Tabasco, Mexico, in BMNH; examined), 1896: 192, pl. 24, figs. 4, 4a–e (male). – F.O. P.- Cambridge, 1899: 44, pl. 3, fig. 5, 5a (female). – Chickering, 1968: 23, figs. 46–49 (male, female).

Costarina plena: Platnick and Dupérré, 2011a: 50   .

NOTE: In the original description, which included only the female, the type locality was cited only as Mexico, but it was specified as Teapa when O. P.- Cambridge (1896) described the male as well.

DIAGNOSIS: This species closely resembles C. subplena   , but males have the anterior margin of the proximal prong of the embolus convex rather than concave (figs. 14, 15, 68, 69) and females have the anterior genitalic process set on a much longer, transverse, posteriorly W-shaped base, as well as a thicker anterior margin on the genital atrium (figs. 73–75).

MALE (PBI_OON 1419, figs. 1–30, 61–69): Total length 1.78. ALE separated by less than their radius. Sternum anterior margin with continuous transverse groove. Endites with ventral process narrow, sharply pointed, dorsal process wider. Dorsal scutum covering full length of abdomen, postepigastric scutum reaching to nearly full length of abdomen. Leg spination: femur I p0-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-1p; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-2-1p; II v2-2-0. Embolus with distal prong short, tip directed ventrally, proximal prong with convexly curved base and long projection.

FEMALE (PBI_OON 1419, figs. 31–60, 70–75): Total length 2.11. Dorsal scutum covering more than 3/4 of abdomen length, more than 1/2 to most of abdomen width, postepigastric scutum reaching to about 2/3 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora: I p0-1-1, r1-1-1; II p0-0-1, r1-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi I, II v2-2- 1p. Genital atrium oval, with rounded lateral margins, posterior margin with short median sclerotization extending forward less than one-fourth of atrium length.

VARIATION: As would be expected of such an anomalously widespread and abundant species, there is some variation in genitalic details (see figs. 14, 15, 68, 69). Most obviously, some males have emboli that at first glance look notably simpler. However, scanning electron microscopy suggests that these palps have simply lost the proximal embolar prong, possibly during copulation (fig. 67), and other males have been found which have a normal palp on one side and a damaged one on the other side.

MATERIAL EXAMINED: Mexico: Campeche: Chicanna , 10 km W Xpujil, July 13, 1983, Berlese, mixed tropical forest litter, elev. 300 m (S., J. Peck, AMNH PBI_ OON 27510 View Materials ), 1♂   . Chiapas: Bazóm , 16°44′19″N, 92°29′18.3″W, July 9, 2003, oak forest litter, elev. 2450 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 695, 46508), 1♂, 3♀ GoogleMaps   , 16.7443°N, 92.49279°W, May 31, 2008, wet oak-magnolia forest litter, elev. 2460 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 80157 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38085 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; Benito Juárez , 15°22′01″N, 92°19′07″W, July 28, 2005, oak-pine forest litter, elev. 2050 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 691), 3♂ GoogleMaps   ; 5.9 km E Bochil, Sept.   19, 1991, riparian mesophyllic forest litter, elev. 1500 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 711), 1♂, 1♀   , Sept. 15, 1992, riparian mesophyllic forest litter, elev. 1300 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 710), 1♂   ; 15.1 km NW Bochil, Sept.   24, 1992, pine/oak/liquidambar litter, elev. 1930 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 712), 3♂, 1♀   ; 17.3 km NW Bochil, Sept.   24, 1992, rotten treehouse litter, elev. 1800 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 713), 21♂, 4♀   ; Cerro de Tapalapa , 17.18786°N, 93.12308°W, May 28, 2008, cloud forest litter, elev. 2260 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 80145 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38105 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   , 17.19159°N, 93.11772°W, May 27, 2008, oak-pine forest litter, elev. 2240 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 80274 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38104 View Materials ), 3♂ GoogleMaps   ; Cerro El Calvario, near Tapalapa , 17°10′28.5″N, 93°07′52.2″W, July 25, 2003, oak-pine forest litter, elev. 2000 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 692), 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; Cerro El Calvario, near Tapalapa , 17°11′11.9″N, 93°07′21″W, July 23, 2003, wet cloud forest litter, elev. 2200 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 694), 8♂, 8♀ GoogleMaps   ; Cerro Huitepec , ca. 5 km W San Cristóbal, Sept.   14, 1992, wet oak forest litter, elev. 2700 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 680), 2♂, 3♀   ; Cerro Huitepec ( Pico ), ca. 5 km W San Cristóbal, Sept.   18, 1991, cloud forest litter, elev. 2750 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 715), 6♂, 4♀   ; Cerros de Chalchihuitán , 16°59′20.8″N, 92°37′13.0″W, July 24, 2003, wet cloud forest litter, elev. 2050 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 688), 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; 5 km NE Coapilla , 17.17565°N, 93.13221°W, May 25, 2008, leaf litter, secondary mesophyll forest, elev. 1990 m ( MCZ PBI_ OON 38097 View Materials ), 2♂, 4♀ GoogleMaps   ; 5 km NNW Coapilla , 17.18273°N, 93.15168°W, May 25, 2008, leaf litter, secondary mesophyll forest, elev. 1915 m ( MCZ 79902 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38123 View Materials ), 2♂, 5♀ GoogleMaps   ; Cruz Quemada, near Amatenango , July 24, 1950 (C., M. Goodnight, AMNH PBI_OON 1090), 1♂ (teneral)   ; Cueva del Tempisque , 8 mi W Ocozocoautla, Aug. 17, 1967 (J. Reddell, T. Evans, AMNH PBI_ OON 37908 View Materials ), 1♂   ; 2 km SE Custepec , 15.72077°N, 92.95081°W, May 17, 2008, mesophyll forest litter, elev. 1520 m ( MCZ PBI_ OON 38099 View Materials , 46499), 8♂, 10♀ GoogleMaps   ; 3 km SE Custepec , 15.71566°N, 92.93817°W, May 17, 2008, secondary mesophyll forest litter, elev. 1700 m ( MCZ 79793 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38087 View Materials ), 2♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   ; 4 km SE Custepec , 15.70673°N, 92.93127°W, May 20, 2008, cloud forest litter, elev. 2125 m ( MCZ 80392 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38084 View Materials ), 1♂, 5♀ GoogleMaps   ; 15.71018°N, 92.92887°W, May 20, 2008, cloud forest litter, elev. 2140 m ( MCZ 79893 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38086 View Materials ), 2♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; 6.6 mi W El Bosque , Aug. 29, 1973, Berlese, litter, cloud forest with pines, elev. 4800 ft (A. Newton, FMNH 44466 View Materials , PBI_ OON 10700 View Materials , 46498), 2♂   ; 10 km W El Bosque , Sept. 15, 1992, pine cloud forest litter, elev. 1475 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 716, 719), 13♂, 4♀   ; El Real , July 1, 1950 (C., M. Goodnight, AMNH PBI_ OON 37883 View Materials ), 1♀   , July 3, 1950 (C., M. Goodnight, AMNH PBI_ OON 37888 View Materials ), 1♀   , July 3, 1950, on hill (C., M. Goodnight, L. Stannard, AMNH PBI_ OON 37890 View Materials ), 1♂   , July 6–7, 1950 (C., M. Goodnight, L. Stannard, AMNH PBI_ OON 37889 View Materials , 37891), 3♀   ; Finca Cuauhtemoc, near Cacahoatán , Aug. 12, 1950 (C., M. Goodnight, AMNH PBI_ OON 37886 View Materials ), 1♂ (teneral, possibly misidentified)   ; Huitepec , San Cristóbal   , 16.75070°N, 92.68270°W, cloud forest leaf litter, elev. 2480 m ( MCZ 79766 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38122 View Materials ), 5♂ GoogleMaps   ; Lago Metzabok , 17.12659°N, 91.63035°W, 2007, lowland wet forest litter, elev. 570 m ( MCZ 80393 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38082 View Materials ), 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; Lagos de Montebello, Cinco Lagos , Sept. 22, 1992, oak pine forest litter, elev. 1500 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 686), 4♂   ; Laguna Montebello , Aug. 14–17, 1969, carrion trap, tropical montane forest, elev. 4500 ft (S., J. Peck, AMNH PBI_OON 721), 1♀   ; 2.8 km NW Las Piedracitas , Sept. 20, 1991, oak-pine forest litter, elev. 2400 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 722), 1♂   ; 13.7 km NW Metzabok , 17.19051667°N, 91.73748333°W, 2007, Winkler, leaf litter, wet forest fragment, elev. 540 m (J. Longino, MCZ 81373 View Materials , PBI_ OON 36967 View Materials ), 2♂ GoogleMaps   ; Monte Libano , 20 km E El Real, July 4–5, 1950 (C., M. Goodnight, L. Stannard, AMNH PBI_ OON 37884 View Materials ), 1♀   ; 7.4 km SSW Motozintla , Sept. 21, 1992, cut over cloud forest litter, elev. 2000 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 37907 View Materials ), 1♀   ; Municipio Coapilla, 1.8 km NE junction roads Tapalapa / Ocotepec , 17.17314°N, 93.14607°W, May 26, 2008, oak forest litter, elev. 1810 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 80297 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38120 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   , 2.0 km NE junction roads Tapalapa / Ocotepec , 17.17536°N, 93.14939°W, May 26, 2008, oak-pine forest litter, elev. 1775 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 80179 View Materials , PBI_ OON 26340 View Materials ), 1♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   , 2.5 km NW junction roads Tapalapa / Ocotepec , 17.17602°N, 93.13293°W, May 26, 2008, dry oak forest litter, elev. 1960 m ( MCZ PBI_ OON 38098 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   , 4.5 km NW junction roads Tapalapa / Ocotepec , 17.18263°N, 93.11807°W, May 27, 2008, shrubby cloud forest litter, elev. 2180 m ( MCZ 80275 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38093 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; Naja , 16.96291°N, 91.59335°W, June 10, 2008, mesophyll forest litter, elev. 950 m ( MCZ 80132 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38118 View Materials ), 2♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   , 16.96385°N, 91.59313°W, June 8, 2008, mesophyll forest litter, elev. 985 m ( MCZ 79634 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38088 View Materials ), 2♂ GoogleMaps   , 16.97416667°N, 91.58991667°W, July 14, 2007, montane wet forest litter, elev. 950 m ( MCZ 79060 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38100 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; 6 km SW Ocosingo , Sept. 16, 1992, wet oak-pine forest litter, elev. 1400 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 717, 718), 5♂, 1♀   ; 6.3 km SW Ocosingo , July 29, 1983, oak-pine forest litter, elev. 1070 m (S., J. Peck, R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 176), 1♀   ; 12.5 km NW Ocosingo , Sept. 16, 1992, oak-pine forest litter (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 720), 1♂   ; Palenque ruins, July 18, 1949 (C. Goodnight, AMNH PBI_ OON 37911 View Materials ), 1♀   , Mar. 28, 1974, litter (C. Alteri, AMNH PBI_ OON 37905 View Materials ), 2♂ (1 with damaged right palp)   , Jan. 1984, dense jungle (B., V. Roth, CAS 26314 View Materials , PBI_OON 2746), 1♂   ; Parque Laguna Belgica , 16 km NW Ocozocoautla, June 14, 1990, flight intercept trap (H. Howden, AMNH PBI_ OON 27511 View Materials ), 1♂   ; Parque Nacional Lagunas de Montebello, Grutas de San Rafael   , 16°07.993′N, 91°43.752′W, July 24, 2005, valley bottom forest litter, elev. 1500 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 689), 2♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   ; Pichucalco , July 18, 1947 (C., M. Goodnight, AMNH PBI_OON 175), 1♀   ; Pico El Triunfo, Reserva El Triunfo, 15°40.16′N, 92°48.70′W, Nov. 16–21, 2001, cloud forest litter, elev. 2300 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 696), 10♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; Playón de La Gloria , 16.14774°N, 90.89548°W, June 24, 2008, secondary wet forest litter, elev. 170 m ( MCZ 79889 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38090 View Materials ), 3♂ GoogleMaps   ; 8.9 km E Rayón , Sept. 19, 1991, cloud forest litter, elev. 1500 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 723, 46501), 7♂, 2♀   ; Reserva El Triunfo, 15°39.428′N, 92°48.537′W, Nov. 16–21, 2001, oak forest litter, elev. 2050 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 697), 3♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   , 15.72141°N, 92.93936°W, May 17, 2008, oak-pine forest litter, elev. 1860 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 80277 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38110 View Materials , 46482), 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   , May 18, 2008, mixed oak forest litter, elev. 1849 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 80271 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38112 View Materials ), 1♀   , 15.72170°N, 92.94044°W, May 17, 2008, shrubby hardwood forest litter, elev. 1860 m ( MCZ 80272 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38091 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   , 15.72173°N, 92.94059°W, May 20, 2008, mixed oak forest litter, elev. 1850 m ( MCZ 80276 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38113 View Materials ), 3♀ GoogleMaps   , 15.72188°N, 92.93677°W, May 19, 2008, oak-pine forest litter, elev. 1600 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 80105 View Materials , PBI_ OON 40134 View Materials ), 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; 15.72193°N, 92.94122°W, May 20, 2008, oak forest litter, elev. 1850 m ( MCZ 80315 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38114 View Materials , 46496), 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   , 15.72216°N, 92.94298°W, 2008, oak forest litter, elev. 1820 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 80053 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38111 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; Reserva Huitepec, San Cristóbal   de las Casas , July 11, 2003, cloud forest litter, elev. 2450 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 46510 View Materials ), 1♂   , 16°45′N, 92°41′W, July 9, 2007, elev. 2600 m (M. Branstetter, MCZ 79197 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38095 View Materials ), 2♂ GoogleMaps   , 16°45.09′N, 92°40.96′W, Nov. 13, 2001, lower cloud forest litter, elev. 250 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 682, 46509), 4♂, 8♀ GoogleMaps   , Nov. 22, 2001, cloud forest floor, elev. 2800 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 679), 2♂, 2♀   , 16°45.84′N, 92°40.70′W, Nov. 13, 2001, oak forest litter, elev. 2220 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 684), 1♀ GoogleMaps   , July 7, 2003, oak forest litter, elev. 2200 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 690), 2♂   , July 11, 2003, cloud forest litter, elev. 2450 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 687), 4♂, 7♀   , July 15, 2005, mixed oak forest litter, elev. 2300 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 693), 1♀   , 16.74476667°N, 92.68853333°W, July 11, 2007, Winkler, leaf litter under pines, cloud forest edge, elev. 2600 m (J. Longino, MCZ 79055 View Materials , 79058 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38096 View Materials , 38121, 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; 8 km SE Salto de Agua , 17.51592°N, 92.30231°W, June 14, 2008, leaf litter, secondary wet forest, elev. 100 m ( MCZ 82070 View Materials , PBI_ OON 36964 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; San Cristóbal   , July 11, 1950 (C., M. Goodnight, L. Stannard, AMNH PBI_ OON 37885 View Materials ), 1♂   , July 12, 1950 (C., M. Goodnight, L. Stannard, AMNH PBI_ OON 37881 View Materials ), 1♀   , July 14, 1950 (C., M. Goodnight, L. Stannard, AMNH PBI_ OON 37882 View Materials , 37887), 2♂   , July 21, 1950 (C., M. Goodnight, L. Stannard, AMNH PBI_ OON 37910 View Materials ), 1♀   ; 4 mi SE San Cristóbal   , 16°42′N, 92°36′W, Aug. 23, 1966 (J., W. Ivie, AMNH PBI_OON 1362, 37906, 46507), 3♂, 5♀ GoogleMaps   , same, Aug. 25, 1966 (PBI_ OON 37903 View Materials ), 2♂, 2♀   ; 5 km W San Cristóbal, Aug.   13–16, 1969, carrion traps, pine-oak forest, elev. 8000 ft (S., J. Peck, AMNH PBI_ OON 37898 View Materials ), 2♀   ; 5 mi W San Cristóbal   , 16°45′N, 92°41′W, Aug. 24, 1966, pine-oak forest (J., W. Ivie, AMNH PBI_ OON 37897 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; 7 km WSW San Cristóbal   , 16°43′N, 92°42′W, July 9, 2007, elev. 2550 m (M. Branstetter, MCZ 79196 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38094 View Materials ), 2♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; 15 km E San Cristóbal   , 16.74683°N, 92.49008°W, May 29, 2008 ( MCZ 79690 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38115 View Materials , 1♀ GoogleMaps   , 16.74689°N, 92.48985°W, May 29, 2008 ( MCZ 80050 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38116 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; San Cristóbal   de las Casas , July 22, 1947 (C., M. Goodnight, AMNH PBI_ OON 37900 View Materials ), 1♂   ; Sierra Morena , 16.15342°N, 93.60078°W, May 12, 2008, secondary mesophyll forest litter, elev. 1330 m ( MCZ 80376 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38092 View Materials ), 1♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   ; Tenejapa , July 22, 1950 (C. Goodnight, AMNH PBI_ OON 37878 View Materials ), 1♂, 1♀   ; Volcán Tacaná, lower slopes, ca. 4 km N Unión Juárez, Sept. 18, 1992, cloud forest litter, elev. 1800 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 724), 1♂   , same, elev. 1950 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 683), 2♂   , Sept. 20, 1992, cloud forest litter, elev. 2000 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 681, 725), 8♂   ; Yerbabuena Reserve , 2.1 km NW Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacan, Sept. 19, 1991, oak-pine forest litter, elev. 1750 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 726), 1♂, 2♀   , Sept. 23, 1992, cloud forest litter, elev. 2100 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 685, 46506), 3♂, 3♀   , same, liquidambar forest litter, elev. 2070 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 727), 1♂   . Oaxaca: Mirador Grande   , 17.89844°N, 96.36253°W, Aug. 14, 2009, Winkler, leaf litter, montane tropical rainforest, elev. 990 m (M. Branstetter, MCZ PBI_OON 704), 1♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   ; 6 mi S Valle Nacional , May 19, 1971, Berlese, leaf litter, elev. 2000 ft (S. Peck, AMNH PBI_ OON 37909 View Materials ), 6♂   ; 10.8 SW Valle Nacional , 17.68102°N, 96.33026°W, Aug. 13, 2009, Winkler, leaf litter, disturbed mesophyll forest, elev. 1120 m (M. Branstetter, MCZ 95150 View Materials , PBI_OON 701), 4♂, 3♀ GoogleMaps   , same, nest under rock (L. Sáenz, MCZ 94020 View Materials , PBI_ OON 702), 2♂   ; 13.2 km SW Valle Nacional , 17.65934°N, 96.33426°W, Aug. 11, 2009, Winkler, leaf litter, tropical wet forest, elev. 1360 m (M. Branstetter, MCZ 95180 View Materials , PBI_OON 700), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; 14.8 km SSW Valle Nacional , 17.64483°N, 96.33637°W, Aug. 13, 2009, leaf litter, disturbed mesophyll forest, elev. 1370 m (M. Branstetter, MCZ 94652 View Materials , PBI_OON 703), 2♂ GoogleMaps   ; 15 m S Valle Nacional , May 21, 1971, Berlese, leaf litter, elev. 4000 ft (S. Peck, AMNH PBI_ OON 37899 View Materials ), 1♀   ; 32 m S Valle Nacional , May 22, 1971, Berlese, leaf litter, elev. 7000 ft (S. Peck, AMNH PBI_ OON 37912 View Materials ), 1♂   . Tabasco: Teapa (H. Smith, BMNH) PBI_OON 698), 1♂, 2♀ (including holotype)   , July 16, 1947 (C., M. Goodnight, AMNH PBI_OON 1419), 2♂, 1♀   ; Villa Hermosa , Aug. 14, 1945 (F. Bonet, AMNH PBI_ OON 37902 View Materials ), 2♀   . Veracruz: 3.6 mi E Catemaco , Aug. 23, 1967, elev. 1000 ft (R. Leech, REL PBI_OON 699), 1♂   ; 1.2 mi S Huatusco , July 2, 1969, Berlese, cloud forest soil, litter, elev. 1344 m (S., J. Peck, AMNH PBI_ OON 37913 View Materials ), 1♂   ; Los Tuxtlas Biological Station , 33 km NE Catemaco, Aug. 1, 1993, Berlese, ravine litter, fungi, elev. 160 m (S., J. Peck, AMNH PBI_OON 1390, 5♂, 4♀   , same, tree base litter ( AMNH PBI_ OON 37901 View Materials ), 5♂, 2♀   ; Volcán San Martín   , July 14, 1953 (C. Goodnight, AMNH PBI_ OON 37879 View Materials ), 2♂   . Guatemala: Alta Verapaz: Cacao , Mar. 26, 1906 ( USNM PBI_ OON 27884 View Materials ), 1♀   ; Gruta de Lanquín , Feb. 5, 1980 (B., V. Roth, AMNH PBI_ OON 38052 View Materials ), 1♀   . Baja Verapaz: Biotopo Quetzal , 15.21241135°N, 90.214580799°W, May 7, 2009, Winkler, oak/tree fern cloud forest litter, elev. 1750 m ( MCZ 89571 View Materials , PBI_ OON 37490 View Materials ), 2♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   ; 8.6 km W Chilascó , May 24, 1991, oak/pine/liquidambar litter, elev. 1560 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 38057 View Materials ), 1♀   ; 4.5 km S Purulhá , May 21, 1991, cloud forest litter, elev. 1630 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 765), 3♂   , May 24, 1991, same ( AMNH PBI_OON 766), 3♂   ; 7 km E Purulhá , May 23, 1991, cloud forest litter, elev. 1660 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 760, 46497), 1♂, 6♀   , May 25, 1981, cloud forest litter, elev. 1600 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 767), 3♂, 1♀   , pine/cloud forest litter, elev. 1600 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 768), 2♂   ; 7.3 km E Purulhá , May 19, 1991, cloud forest litter, elev. 1700 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 758), 2♂, 1♀   ; 7.5 km S Purulhá , May 26, 1991, cloud forest litter, elev. 1630 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 38058 View Materials , 46502), 5♂, 1♀   ; 8 km S Purulhá , May 19, 1991, pine/cloud forest litter, elev. 1600 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 759), 1♀   , May 23–25, 1991, flight intercept, wet montane forest (H. Howden, AMNH PBI_ OON 38054 View Materials ), 3♂   , May 27–29, 1991, same ( AMNH PBI_ OON 38051 View Materials , 38053), 2♂   ; 14.5 km S Purulhá , May 26, 1991, riparian bottomland oak forest litter, elev. 1600 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 27507 View Materials ), 1♂   ; Ranchitos del Quetzal , 15.21443°N, 90.22123°W, Sept. 20, 2008, cloud forest litter, elev. 1750 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 83303 View Materials , PBI_ OON 37471 View Materials ), 2♂ GoogleMaps   , same ( INBIO PBI-OON 761), 2♂   , 15.21508°N, 90.22003°W, Sept. 20, 2008, cloud forest litter, elev. 1700 m (R. Anderson, INBIO PBI_OON 762), 3♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   . El Progresso: Cerro Pinalón , 15.0849726°N, 89.94547974°W, Apr. 30, 2009, oak/pine/tree fern litter, elev. 2560 m ( MCZ 89518 View Materials , PBI_ OON 26351 View Materials ), 5♂, 6♀ GoogleMaps   , 15.0873113°N, 89.94404961°W, Apr. 30, 2009, oak/pine/tree fern litter, elev. 2550 m ( MCZ 89490 View Materials , PBI_OON 319), 8♂, 3♀ GoogleMaps   ; Cerro Pinalón , peak, 15.08122°N, 89.92080°W, May 1–5, 2009, mixed hardwood litter, elev. 2900 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 99249 View Materials , PBI_OON 751), 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   , May 2, 2009, litter under shrubs, elev. 2900 (R. Anderson, MCZ 99290 View Materials , PBI_OON 755), 3♂   , near peak, 15.08217°N, 89.92184°W, May 1–5, 2009, mixed cloud/pine litter, elev. 2850 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 99240 View Materials , PBI_OON 752), 1♂ GoogleMaps   , near peak, 15.08280°N, 89.92320°W, May 1–5, 2009, cloud/oak litter, elev. 2820 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 99270 View Materials , PBI_OON 753), 1♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   , trail to peak, 15.08467°N, 89.93492°W, May 1–5, 2009, cloud forest litter, elev. 2680 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 99478 View Materials , PBI_OON 754), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; Cerro Pinalón, Finca Las Nubes, 15.08385°N, 89.94258°W, Sept. 20, 2008, oak cloud forest litter, elev. 2500 m (R. Anderson, INBIO PBI_OON 750), 2♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   , Sept. 21, 2008, same ( MCZ 83169 View Materials , PBI_ OON 36965 View Materials ), 1♂   ; Cerro Pinalón, trail to Peña del Ángel , 15.08405°N, 89.94991°W, May 3, 2009, mixed oak litter, elev. 2520 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 99231 View Materials , PBI_OON 756), 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; 2 km N Estancia de la Virgen , June 8, 1991, cloud forest litter, elev. 1800–1900 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 757), 1♀   . Guatemala: near Las Nubes, 14.53975°N, 90.44983°W, Sept. 18, 2008, cloud forest, elev. 2950 m (R. Anderson, INBIO PBI_OON 741), 2♀ GoogleMaps   ; Univ. del Valle , June 10, 1991, oak/ pine/mimosa forest litter, elev. 1400 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 742), 1♂, 3♀   . Huehuetenango: Huehuetenango, 15.50673°N, 91.64473°W, Sept. 14, 2008, oak cloud forest, elev. 2750 m (R. Anderson, INBIO PBI_OON 730), 5♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   ; San Miguel Chicharro   , 15.57988°N, 91.96905°W, Sept. 16, 2008, oak cloud forest, elev. 2100 m (R. Anderson, INBIO PBI_OON 731), 5♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   . Izabal: Firmeza   , 15.40708°N, 88.69612°W, Sept. 19, 2008, montane rainforest litter, elev. 590 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 83291 View Materials , PBI_ OON 37469 View Materials ), 2♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   , same ( INBIO PBI_OON 763), 1♀   ; Izabal, Dec.   14, 1986, malaise trap, elev. 350 m (M. Sharkey, CNC PBI_ OON 38124 View Materials ), 1♀   . Jalapa: 4 km E Mataquescuintla , 14.52986618°N, 90.14908234°W, June 1, 2009, oak cloud forest, elev. 2600 m ( MCZ 89382 View Materials , PBI_ OON 40800 View Materials ), 2♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   , 14.53256659°N, 90.15252622°W, June 1, 2009, oak cloud forest, elev. 2400 m ( MCZ 89467 View Materials , PBI_ OON 37491 View Materials ), 6♂, 3♀ GoogleMaps   ; Miramundo, Pino Dulce , 14.53388°N, 90.15236°W, Sept. 18, 2008, cloud forest, elev. 2300 m ( INBIO PBI_OON 743), 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   . Quetzaltenango: 12 km SW Zunil, NE face, Cerro Zunil , May 28, 1991, hardwood forest litter, elev. 2700–2760 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 38056 View Materials ), 1♂, 1♀   , same, Fuentes Georginas , May 27, 1991, cloud forest litter, elev. 2460 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 732), 2♂   ; Volcán Chicabal, Las Nubes, 14°48.1′N, 91°40.1′W, Sept. 12, 2008, oak forest litter, elev. 2280 m (L. Sáenz, MCZ 82921 View Materials , PBI_ OON 37473 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   . Quiché: 1.5 km S Chichicastenango , 14.91852°N, 91.10458°W, Sept. 17, 2008, oak/ostrya/pine forest litter, elev. 2000 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 83277 View Materials , PBI_ OON 37470 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; 3 km S Joya Larga , 15.40538°N, 90.83805°W, Sept. 15, 2008, oak cloud forest litter, elev. 2350 m (R. Anderson, INBIO PBI_OON 734), 3♂ GoogleMaps   . Sacatepéquez: 5 km SE Antigua , 14.52779181°N, 90.68970603°W, June 10, 2009, old secondary oak forest litter, elev. 2350 m ( MCZ 89455 View Materials , PBI_ OON 40803 View Materials ), 6♂, 4♀ GoogleMaps   , 14.5357724°N, 90.69427782°W, June 6, 2009, old secondary hardwood forest, litter from clearing near road with occasional pine, cypress, elev. 2150 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 89414 View Materials , PBI_ OON 40802 View Materials ), 3♂, 6♀ GoogleMaps   , 14.53862°N, 90.70488°W, June 9, 2009, hardwood forest litter, elev. 1875 m ( MCZ 99191 View Materials , PBI_OON 735), 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; Cerro Alux , June 9, 1991, wet oak forest litter, elev. 2260 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 38055 View Materials ), 1♂, 1♀   , 14.61033°N, 90.64191°W, Sept. 9, 2008, oak forest, elev. 2170 m (R. Anderson, INBIO PBI_OON 737), 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; Cerro Carmona , 6 km SE Antigua, 14°32.1′N, 90°41.7′W, Sept. 9, 2008, mesic oak forest litter, elev. 2180 m (L. Sáenz, MCZ 82951 View Materials , PBI_ OON 36966 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; Cerro Carmona, Finca El Pilar, 14.53452°N, 90.69446°W, Sept. 9, 2008, oak/ostrya forest litter, elev. 2160 m ( MCZ 83159 View Materials , PBI_ OON 26343 View Materials ), 5♂ GoogleMaps   , same ( INBIO PBI_OON 739), 2♂, 1♀   , 14.54115°N, 90.70483°W, Sept. 9, 2008, oak forest, elev. 1980 m ( INBIO PBI_OON 738), 4♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   ; Parque Senderos de Alux , 15–20 km W Guatemala City, 14°36′39.2″N, 90°38′21.1″W, June 30, 2006, Berlese, pine forest litter, elev. 2256 m (J. Huff, C. Víquez, E. Agrada, D. Ortiz, AMNH PBI_OON 740), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; 4.5 km SW San Miguel Dueñas   , June 12, 1991, mesic hardwood forest litter, elev. 1760 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 27508 View Materials ), 1♂   . San Marcos   : road Bojonal-Fraternidad , 14.94533°N, 91.88038°W, Sept. 11, 2008, cloud forest litter, elev. 1580 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 83221 View Materials , PBI_ OON 37468 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; 9.8 km WSW San Marcos   , 14°56.7′N, 91°52.8′W, Sept. 11, 2008, cloud forest litter, elev. 1600 m (L. Sáenz, MCZ 82928 View Materials , PBI_ OON 37467 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   . Suchitepéquez: Volcán Atitlán , 9.5 km SE Santiago Atitlán, 14°33.5′N, 91°11.4′W, Sept. 10, 2008, cloud forest litter, elev. 2060 m (M. Branstetter, MCZ 83242 View Materials , PBI_ OON 37472 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; 4 km S Volcán Atitlán , 14.5491476°N, 91.19054782°W, June 15, 2009, Winkler, cloud forest litter, elev. 1625 m ( MCZ 89429 View Materials , PBI_OON 733), 3♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   . Zacapa: 2 km SE La Unión , 14.9470362°N, 89.27627275°W, June 12, 2009, Winkler, oak cloud forest litter, elev. 1550 m ( MCZ 89348 View Materials , PBI_OON 745, 46504), 3♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   , same, 14.95389983°N, 89.27638319°W, June 12, 2009, Winkler, oak cloud forest litter, elev. 1430 m ( MCZ 89502 View Materials , PBI_OON 744), 2♀ GoogleMaps   ; 3.5 km SE La Unión , June 4, 1991, cloud forest litter, elev. 1500 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 748, 749), 13♂, 8♀   , June 6, 1991, same ( AMNH PBI_OON 746, 747), 24♂, 3♀   , Sierra de Los Minas , 10 km N San Lorenzo   , Nov. 7–9, 1986, wet moss by creek in cloud forest, elev. 2200 m (E. Lindquist, CNC PBI_ OON 38131 View Materials ), 1♂   ; 5 mi N San Lorenzo   , July 13, 1986, cloud forest litter (J. Campbell, CNC PBI_ OON 38126 View Materials ), 1♀   . Honduras: Atlántida: La Ceiba, Pico Bonito Lodge   , 15.69040°N, 86.90272°W, Oct. 2, 2008, litter from property with cacao, elev. 150 m (C. Víquez. M. Branstetter, AMNH PBI_ OON 38438 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   . Cortés: Parque Nacional Cusuco   , July–Sept. 2007, elev. 1535 m (J. Nunez-Mino, MRAC PBI_ OON 40136 View Materials ), 1♂   , same, elev. 1600 m ( MRAC PBI_ OON 40135 View Materials ), 1♂   , 15.48683°N, 88.23425°W, May 30, 2010, mesophyll forest litter, elev. 1330 m ( MCZ 99071 View Materials , PBI_OON 774), 2♂, 3♀ GoogleMaps   ; 15.48940°N, 88.23681°W, May 30, 2010, mesophyll forest litter, elev. 1290 m ( MCZ 99120 View Materials , PBI_OON 773), 5♂, 3♀ GoogleMaps   . Francisco Morazán: Tegucigalpa, Parque Nacional La Tigre , trail to view point, 14.20721°N, 87.09428°W, Sept. 25, 2008, Winkler, cloud forest litter, elev. 1830 m (M. Branstetter, AMNH PBI_ OON 38440 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   , 14.21778°N, 87.09101°W, Sept. 25, 2008, Winkler, secondary mesophyll forest litter, elev. 1870 m (M. Branstetter, AMNH PBI_ OON 38349 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   . Gracias   a Dios: Las Marías, 15.70861°N, 84.86211°W, June 8, 2010, tropical rainforest litter, elev. 80 m ( MCZ 98870 View Materials , PBI_OON 769), 1♀ GoogleMaps   . Lempira: Gracias, Parque Nacional   Montaña de Celaque. Trail to Quebrada , 14.55619°N, 88.65799°W, Sept. 30, 2008, Winkler, litter, elev. 1925 m (M. Branstetter, AMNH PBI_ OON 38442 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   . Ocotepeque: 13 km E Nuevo Ocotepeque, 14.45748°N, 89.06819°W, May 25, 2010, cloud forest litter, elev. 150 m ( MCZ 98076 View Materials , PBI_ OON 764), 3♀ GoogleMaps   . Olancho   : 11 km N Catacamas , 14.95003°N, 85.91609°W, May 8, 2010, cloud forest litter, elev. 2080 m ( MCZ 98092 View Materials , PBI_OON 772), 2♂ GoogleMaps   ; 14 km N La Unión, Parque Nacional La Muralla, Sept.   1, 1994, montane forest litter (S., J. Peck, FMNH 56880 View Materials , PBI_ OON 10823 View Materials ), 1♂, 1♀   . Santa Bárbara: 15 km SE Santa Bárbara , Aug. 24, 1994, montane wet forest litter (S., J. Peck, FMNH 56882 View Materials , PBI_ OON 10825 View Materials ), 3♂   . Nicaragua: Matagalpa: Aranjunes, Cerro Arenas , road to Jinotega, 13.03361°N, 85.897°W, Winkler, elev. 1310 m (C. Víquez. J. Mata, AMNH PBI_ OON 29346 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; Reserva Natural El Musún, 3 km NNW Río Blanco, 12°57.5′N, 85°13.8′W, Oct. 12, 2008, mesic forest litter, elev. 600 m (M. Branstetter, MCZ 83253 View Materials , PBI_ OON 37476 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   ; Reserva Natural El Musún, 3.2 km NNW Río Blanco, 12°57.6′N, 85°13.9′W, Oct. 12, 2008, mesic forest litter, elev. 700 m (M. Branstetter, MCZ 83269 View Materials , PBI_OON 775), 2♂ GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico (Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Oaxaca, and Chiapas) south to northern Costa Rica.

Costarina iviei   , new species

Figures 76–84 View FIGS

TYPE: Male holotype taken 10 mi SE of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico (Aug. 14, 1966; J., W. Ivie), deposited in AMNH (PBI_ OON 37904 View Materials )   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a patronym in honor of one of the collectors, the late Wilton Ivie.

DIAGNOSIS: Males can easily be recognized by the shape of the embolus; both the proximal and distal prongs are sinuous (figs. 80–84).

MALE (PBI_ OON 37904 View Materials , figs. 76–84): Total length 1.61. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Sternum anterior margin with continuous transverse groove. Endites with ventral process short, wide, dorsal process longer. Dorsal scutum covering full length of abdomen, postepigastric scutum reaching to nearly full length of abdomen. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2; tibiae: I v4-4-1p; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-2-1p; II v2-2-0. Embolus with sinuous proximal and distal prongs.

FEMALE: Unknown.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: None.

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico (Veracruz).

Costarina llama   , new species

Figures 85–99 View FIGS

TYPE: Male holotype from Winkler sample of leaf litter taken in a montane tropical rainforest at an elevation of 990 m at Mirador Grande, 17.89844°N, 96.36253°W, Oaxaca, Mexico (Aug. 14, 2009, M. Branstetter), deposited in MCZ (93984, PBI_OON 705) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the LLAMA (Leaf Litter Arthropods of Middle America) project that produced numerous specimens for this study.

DIAGNOSIS: Males can be recognized by the shape of the embolus, which has a long, narrow proximal prong and a shorter, wider, sinuous distal prong (figs. 89–93). The single female here tentatively matched with the male has a W-shaped posterior atrial margin and a sinuous anterior genitalic process (figs. 97–99); like the male, it was taken together with specimens of C. plena   .

MALE (PBI_OON 705, figs. 85–93): Total length 1.69. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Sternum anterior margin with continuous transverse groove. Endites with ventral process short, wide, tip almost reaching tip of dorsal process. Dorsal scutum covering full length of abdomen, postepigastric scutum reaching to nearly full length of abdomen. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r0-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-1p; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-2-1p; II v2-1p-2. Embolus with proximal prong long, narrow, distal prong shorter, wider, sinuous.

FEMALE (PBI_OON 1103, figs. 94–99): Total length 1.87. Dorsal scutum covering more than 3/4 of abdomen, more than 1/2 to most of abdomen width, postepigastric scutum reaching to about 3/4 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora I, II p0-0-2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2, II v4-4-1p; metatarsi I, II v2-2- 1p. Posterior margin of genital atrium W-shaped, anterior genitalic process distinctly bent at about one-third its length.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Mexico: Oaxaca   : 6 mi S Valle Nacional , May 19, 1971, Berlese, leaf litter, elev. 2000 ft (S. Peck, AMNH PBI_OON 1103), 1♀   .

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Costarina oaxaca   , new species

Figures 100–114 View FIGS

TYPES: Male holotype, female allotype, and male paratype from Winkler sample of leaf litter taken in a tropical wet forest at an elevation of 680 m at a site 7.5 km S of Valle Nacional, 17.70752°N, 96.30516°W, Oaxaca, Mexico (Aug. 12, 2009, M. Branstetter), deposited in MCZ (94631, PBI_OON 706) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of C. llama   but both the proximal and distal prongs of the embolus are narrower (figs. 104–108); females have the median three-fifths of the posterior atrial border thickened (figs. 112–114).

MALE (PBI_OON 706, figs. 100–108): Total length 1.78. ALE separated by less than their radius. Sternum anterior margin with continuous transverse groove. Endites with ventral process short, wide, not reaching to tip of dorsal process. Dorsal scutum covering full length of abdomen, postepigastric scutum reaching to nearly full length of abdomen. Leg spination: femora: I p0-0-2, r0-1-1; II p0-0-2; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-0; metatarsi I, II v2-1p-2. Embolus with proximal prong very long, narrow, separated from slightly longer, slightly wider, sinuous distal prong by U-shaped space.

FEMALE (PBI_OON 706, figs. 109–114): Total length 2.20. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Dorsal scutum covering more than 3/4 of abdomen, more than 1/2 to most of abdomen width, postepigastric scutum reaching to about 2/3 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora I, II p0-0-2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi I, II v2-2- 1p. Genital atrium relatively wide, broadly triangular, median three-fifths of posterior margin thickened.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: None.

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Costarina mixtepec   , new species

Figures 115–129 View FIGS

TYPES: Male holotype, female allotype, and two female paratypes from Berlese sample taken in cloud forest 23.4 km N of San Gabriel Mixtepec   , Oaxaca, Mexico (July 11, 1987, R. Anderson), deposited in FMNH (61605, PBI_ OON 10891 View Materials )   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of C. plena   but have a much narrower, sharply bent proximal prong on the embolus (figs. 119–123); females have a short, wide genital atrium, with a wide transverse bar visible through the cuticle anterior of the anterior atrial margin (figs. 127–129).

MALE (PBI_ OON 10891 View Materials , figs. 115–123): Total length 2.05. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Sternum anterior margin with continuous transverse groove. Endites with ventral prong short, wide, dorsal prong greatly elongated, narrow, protruding anteriorly. Dorsal scutum covering full length of abdomen, postepigastric scutum reaching to nearly full length of abdomen. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r0-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-0; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-2-1p; II v2-2-0. Embolus with proximal prong relatively narrow, abruptly bent at about half its length, distal prong with two parallel ledges (in ventral view).

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 10891 View Materials , figs. 124–129): Total length 2.35. Dorsal scutum with no soft tissue visible from above, postepigastric scutum reaching to about 2/3 of abdominal length. Leg spination: femora I, II p0-0-2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi I, II v2-2- 1p. Genital atrium short, wide, wide transverse bar visible through cuticle anterior of anterior atrial margin.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Mexico: Oaxaca   : 30.6 km S Suchixtepec, July 12, 1987. Berlese , wet oak-pine forest, elev. 3400 ft (R. Anderson, FMNH 61609 View Materials , PBI_ OON 10895 View Materials ), 3♂   ; 40.5 km S Suchixtepec , July 25, 1992. Berlese, cloud forest leaf litter, elev. 1300 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_OON 708), 3♂, 2♀   .

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Costarina subplena   , new species

Figures 130–144 View FIGS

TYPES: Female holotype taken in oak-pine forest litter at an elevation of 1600 m in the Reserva El Triunfo, 15.72188°N, 92.93677°W, Chiapas, Mexico (May 19, 2008; R. Anderson), deposited in MCZ (80105, PBI_ OON 38109 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name refers to the similarities to C. plena   .

DIAGNOSIS: This species closely resembles C. plena   but males have the anterior margin of the proximal prong of the embolus concave rather than convex (figs. 134–138), and females have the anterior genitalic process set on a much shorter, evenly curved transverse base, along with a thinner anterior margin on the genital atrium (figs. 142–144).

MALE (PBI_ OON 46495 View Materials , figs. 130–138): Total length 1.81. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Sternum anterior margin with continuous transverse groove. Endites with ventral prong long, narrow, spiniform, dorsal prong with short extension. Dorsal scutum covering full length of abdomen, postepigastric scutum reaching to nearly full length of abdomen. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r0-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-1p; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-2-1p; II v2-2-0. Embolus proximal prong with concave anterior margin, distal prong relatively short, with rounded tip.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 46481 View Materials , figs. 139–144): Total length 1.92. Dorsal scutum covering more than 3/4 of abdomen length, more than half to most of abdomen width, postepigastric scutum reaching to about 3/4 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora: I p0-0-2, r1-1-1; II p0-0-2, r1-1-0; tibiae I, II v4-4-1p; metatarsi I, II v2-2- 1p. Anterior genitalic process relatively short, transverse bar at base short, evenly curved, genital atrium with thin anterior margins.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Mexico: Chiapas: 3 km SE Custepec , 15.71566°N, 92.93817°W, May 17, 2008, secondary mesophyll forest litter, elev. 1700 m ( MCZ PBI_ OON 46505 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   ; 10 km W El Bosque , Sept. 15, 1992, pine cloud forest litter, elev. 1475 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 46483 View Materials ), 1♀   . Guatemala: Baja Verapaz: 4.5 km S Purulhá , May 24, 1991, same ( AMNH PBI_ OON 46481 View Materials ), 1♀   ; 7 km E Purulhá , May 25, 1981, cloud forest litter, elev. 1600 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 46484 View Materials ), 2♂   ; Biotopo Quetzal , 15.21241135°N, 90.214580799°W, May 7, 2009, Winkler, oak/tree fern cloud forest litter, elev. 1750 m (ex MCZ 89571 View Materials , PBI_ OON 46495 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION: Chiapas, Mexico, to Baja Verapaz, Guatemala.

Costarina naja   , new species

Figures 145–159 View FIGS

TYPES: Male holotype and female allotype taken at an elevation of 950 m at Naja , 16°58′N, 91°35′W, Chiapas, Mexico (July 14, 2007, M. Branstetter), deposited in MCZ (79063, PBI_ OON 38117 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of C. oaxaca   but have a much more protuberant base on the proximal prong of the embolus as well as an extremely narrow projection originating from the base of the embolus (figs. 149–153); females have a distinct, anteriorly directed, broadly triangular extension of the posterior atrial margin (figs. 157–159).

MALE (PBI_ OON 38117 View Materials , figs. 145–153): Total length 2.02. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Sternum anterior margin with continuous transverse groove. Endites with ventral, dorsal processes long, narrow. Dorsal scutum covering full length of abdomen, postepigastric scutum reaching to nearly full length of abdomen. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2; tibiae: I v4-4-1p; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-2-1p; II v2-2-0. Embolus proximal prong with protuberant base accompanied by long, extremely narrow projection from embolar base, distal prong long, tapering gradually to tip.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 38117 View Materials , figs. 154–159): Total length 2.12. Dorsal scutum covering more than 3/4 of abdomen length, more than half to most of abdomen width, postepigastric scutum reaching to about 2/3 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora: I p0-1-2, r1-1-1; II p0-0-2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi I, II v2-2- 1p. Genital atrium short, wide, posterior margin W-shaped, transverse bar visible through cuticle anterior of anterior atrial margin.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Mexico: Chiapas: Naja , 16.96291°N, 91.59335°W, June 10, 2008, mesophyll forest litter, elev. 950 m ( MCZ PBI_OON 707), 2♂, 2♀ GoogleMaps   , 16.96385°N, 91.59313°W, June 8, 2008, mesophyll forest litter, elev. 985 m ( MCZ PBI_OON 728), 1♀ GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico (Chiapas).

Costarina sepultura   , new species

Figures 160–174 View FIGS

TYPES: Male holotype and female allotype from secondary mesophyll forest litter taken at an elevation of 1330 m at Sierra Morena , 16.15342°N, 93.60078°W, Chiapas, Mexico (May 12, 2008), deposited in MCZ (PBI_OON 729) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from one of the localities at which the species occurs.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of C. plena   but have the distal prong of the embolus broadly folded at its base (figs. 164–168); females have distinctive anterolateral darkenings in the genital atrium (figs. 172–174).

MALE (PBI_OON 729, figs. 160–168): Total length 1.80. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Sternum anterior margin with continuous transverse groove. Endites with ventral process short, wide, dorsal process with heavily sclerotized distal extension. Dorsal scutum covering full length of abdomen, postepigastric scutum covering nearly full length of abdomen. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2; tibiae: I v4-4-1p; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-2-1p; II v2-2-0. Embolus with proximal prong long, gradually narrowing toward tip, distal prong broadly folded near base.

FEMALE (PBI_OON 729, figs. 169–174): Total length 2.07. Dorsal scutum with no soft tissue visible from above, postepigastric scutum reaching to about 3/4 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora I, II p0-0-2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi I, II v2-2- 1p. Genital atrium ovoid, anterolateral corners darkened, transverse bar visible through cuticle just anterior of anterior atrial margin.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Mexico: Chiapas: Municipio Villa Corso: Ejido Sierra Moreno, Reserva Biosfera La Sepultura , 16°09.61′N, 93°36.343′W, May 12, 2008 GoogleMaps   , liquidambar forest litter, elev. 1322 m (R. Anderson , MCZ 80234 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38107 View Materials ), 2♀, 16°09.773′N, 93°36.211′W, May 13, 2008 GoogleMaps   , oak forest litter, elev. 1487 m ( MCZ 80221 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38083 View Materials ), 1♂, 16°09.856′N, 93°36.291′W, May 13, 2008 GoogleMaps   , mixed oak/hardwood forest litter, elev. 1497 m ( MCZ 80259 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38108 View Materials ), 1♂, 16.16121°N, 93.60024°W, May 15, 2008 GoogleMaps   , liquidambar forest litter, elev. 1367 m (R. Anderson, MCZ 80019 View Materials , PBI) OON 38106 View Materials ), 1♂; Sierra Morena, 16.16001°N   ,

93.60519°W, May 12, 2008, secondary mesophyll forest litter, elev. 1360 m ( MCZ 79704 View Materials , PBI_ OON 38089 View Materials ), 1♂, 1♀   .

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico (Chiapas).

Costarina bochil   , new species

Figures 175–189 View FIGS

TYPES: Male holotype, female allotype, six male paratypes, and five female paratypes from rotten treehouse litter taken at an elevation of 1800 m at a site 17.3 km NW of Bochil , Chiapas, Mexico (Sept. 24, 1992, R. Anderson), deposited in AMNH (PBI_OON 714)   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males have both the proximal and distal embolar prongs long and sinuous, with the distal prong abruptly narrowed near its tip (figs. 179–183); females have an extremely short genital atrium (figs. 187–189).

MALE (PBI_OON 714, figs. 175–183): Total length 2.05. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Sternum anterior margin with continuous transverse groove. Endites with ventral process long, narrow, dorsal process with long distal extension. Dorsal scutum covering more than 3/4 of abdomen length, postepigastric scutum reaching to about 3/4 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2; tibiae: I v4-4-1p; II v3-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-2-1p; II v2-2-0. Embolus with both proximal and distal embolar prongs long, sinuous, distal prong abruptly narrowed near its tip.

FEMALE (PBI_OON 714, figs. 184–189): Total length 2.73. Dorsal scutum more than half to most of abdomen width, postepigastric scutum reaching to about 2/3 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora I, II p0-0-2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-2-1p; II v2-1p-2. Genital atrium extremely short, recurved ridge visible through cuticle just anterior of anterior atrial margin.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: None.

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico (Chiapas).

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

MRAC

Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Oonopidae

Genus

Costarina

Loc

Costarina plena

Platnick, Norman I., Dupérré, Nadine, Ubick, Darrell & Fannes, Wouter 2012
2012
Loc

Costarina plena: Platnick and Dupérré, 2011a: 50

: Platnick and Duperre 2011: 50
2011
Loc

Dysderina plena

O.P.-Cambridge 1894
1894