Traumatomutilla miniata ( Gerstaecker, 1874 ), Pronotal

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Cambra, Roberto A. & Oliveira, Marcio L., 2020, Revision of the Traumatomutilla juvenilis species group (Hymenopteraı Mutillidae), Journal of Natural History 53 (43), pp. 2639-2683: 2669-2675

publication ID 10.1080/00222933.2020.1715501


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Traumatomutilla miniata ( Gerstaecker, 1874 )


Traumatomutilla miniata ( Gerstaecker, 1874)  

( Figures 8 View Figure 8 (a – c), 9(a – i))

Mutilla miniata Gerstaecker, 1874: 75   , lectotype [designated here], ♀, Argentina, Catamarca (MLUH), examined. Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) miniata André, 1902   , 55 Traumatomutilla miniata André, 1904   , 40 Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) bispiculata André, 1907: 350   , holotype [by monotypy], 3,

Argentina, Santiago del Estero, Icaño, Laguna Mamaita (MNHN), examined, syn. nov. Traumatomutilla bispiculata Nonveiller, 1990   , 201


Female. Head entirely clothed with black setae; pronotal spiracles strongly projected from lateral margins of mesosoma, subacute; mesosomal silvery-white setae stripes restricted to propodeum.

Male. Mesopleural projections sharp, acute; lateral margins of pronotum sharply angulate, projected; propodeal dorsum concave, posterolateral corners angulate; T2 conspicuously flattened, roundly angulate laterally, nearly forming distinct dorsal and lateral faces; cuspis club-like, densely setose throughout.


Body length 14 – 17 mm. Head. Posterior margin virtually straight. Vertex width 0.7 × pronotal width. Eye length in frontal view 0.6 × distance from its ventral margin to mandibular condyle. Frons and vertex densely, coarsely and confusedly areolatepunctate, more densely so on vertex; gena and malar space sparsely and coarsely foveolate-punctate, with well-defined unsculptured and smooth areas; sculpture virtually absent near base of mandibles. Mandible worn-out subapical tooth not observable. Dorsal scrobal carina present and well-defined, separated from antennal tubercles; lateral scrobal carina virtually absent. Antennal tubercle densely and confusedly rugulose. Flagellomere 1 2.4 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2 1.4 × pedicel length. Genal carina present, well defined, short, broadly separated from gular carina and hypostomal carina. Occipital carina well defined, slightly swollen and smoothly curved dorsolaterally. Mesosoma. Dorsal thoracic length 0.9 × its width. Mesosomal dorsum sharply differentiated from pleurae, lateral margins angulate; sculpture predominantly obscured by dense setation, dense confused and coarse areolate-punctate where visible. Anterior face of propodeum defined, sculpture mostly concealed by dense short setation, vestigially striated longitudinally where visible; dorsal face roundly angulate into anterior face in lateral view. Humeral carina present broadly separated from strongly pronounced rounded epaulette, anterolateral corners of pronotum subangulate in dorsal view. Pronotal spiracle strongly projected from lateral margin of pronotum, subacute. Sculpture of lateral face of pronotum sparsely punctate with interspersed micropunctures; mesopleuron densely micropunctate anteriorly, dense coarse and confused areolate-punctate to foveolate-punctate along mesopleural ridge and basally above mesocoxa; metapleuron sculpture densely micropunctate, except on dorsa third mostly impunctate with vestigial oblique rugosities anterior to propodeal spiracle. Lateral face of propodeum sparsely punctate anteriorly, with dense coarse confused horizontally oblique rugosities along posterior margin interspersed with coarse areolations. Ratios of width of humeral angles, pronotal spiracles, widest point of mesonotum, narrowest point of mesonotum and propodeum posterior to propodeal spiracles, 72:91:81:67:62. Lateral margin of mesonotum not emarginated anterior to propodeal spiracle, smoothly and slightly diverging anterad. Propodeal spiracle virtually flat against lateral margin of mesosoma; post-spiracular absent. Scutellar scale present, well-developed, slightly narrower than and separated from well-developed anterolateral carinae which are connected thus forming a single transverse carina with shallow emargination medially; scabrous intervals present on scutellar area. Posterior face of propodeum longer than and poorly distinguished from dorsal face. Metasoma. Ratios of width of T1, width of T2 and length of T2, 42:94:93. T2 slightly wider than long, with maximum width posterior to midlength; roundly angled laterally, with apparent dorsal and lateral faces. Disc of T2 dense, coarse and confused foveolate-punctate, denser and coarser mediad; sculpture of integumental spots sparse coarse shallow foveolatepunctate. Sculpture T3 – 6, except pygidial plate, dense and coarse foveolate-punctate with sparse interspersed micropunctures. S1 surface cuneiform, longitudinally elevated medially, equally high throughout. S2 sparse foveolate-punctate, foveolations sparser and smaller mediad; subapical transverse slope virtually absent medially, conspicuous laterally; anteromedial crest-fold well-developed. S3 – 6 dense foveolate-punctate with interspersed sparse micropunctures. Pygidial plate broad, subpyriform, defined by lateral carinae at apical third; surface with irregular, mostly longitudinal coarse rugosities; interstice apparently granulose.

Male. Body length 11 – 16 mm. Head. Rounded subrectangular in dorsal view, posterolateral angles rounded. Vertex width 0.7 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular. Ocelli small; OOD 5.0 × DLO, IOD 3.1 × DLO. Occipital carina distinct. Head surface densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate punctate. Gena ecarinate. Antennal scrobe concave to eye margin, with prominent transverse dorsal scrobal carina starting narrowly separated from internal eye margin. Clypeus convex medially, concave laterally immediately below antennal insertion; coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate; with a pair of short, sessile, blunt tubercles on apical margin. Scape bicarinate. Flagellomere 1 2.2 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2 5 × pedicel length. Mandible obliquely tridentate apically, inner tooth slightly larger than middle tooth; lacking dorsal or ventral projections. Mesosoma. Epaulettes well defined, strongly projected from anterior margin of pronotum, rounded, broadly disconnected from humeral carina; humeral carina projected dorsally, anterolateral angles of pronotum sharp. Anterior face of propodeum coarsely and densely areolatepunctate laterally, impunctate medially, with a conspicuous longitudinal concave medial area. Tegula convex, mostly glabrous and impunctate except for dense punctures anterointernally. Mesoscutum densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate, intervals aligned so as to form vestigial longitudinal carinae; notaulus and parapsis indistinguishable. Scutellum convex, densely and coarsely areolate-punctate; with longitudinal irregular carina medially. Axilla produced posterolaterally as truncate projection, with conspicuous flat posterior face, coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate dorsally; posterior face of axillar projection arched. Metanotum slightly wider laterally, its surface obscured by dense setation. Propodeum dorsum concave, predominantly concealed by dense setation, densely areolate where visible; lateral face predominantly densely areolate, areolations vestigial anterad; posterolateral margins sharply angulate, posterodorsal corners in a straight angle in lateral view; dorsal and posterior faces indistinguishable. Lateral face of pronotum with dense coarse and confused longitudinally oblique rugosities; mesopleura with strongly projected sharply acute tubercle on dorsal half, tubercle slightly curved posteriorly in dorsal view; mesopleural sculpture densely and coarsely areolate-punctate to foveolate-punctate. Metapleuron densely and coarsely areolate punctate on ventral fourth, virtually unsculptured and smooth on dorsal fourth, micropunctate elsewhere. Wings. Forewing with elongate sclerotised pterostigma; marginal cell elongated, truncate apically; three submarginal cells. Legs. Simply setose, no strong spines discernible dorsally; spurs finely serrate on margins. Metasoma. T1 0.5 × as wide as T2. T2 length 0.8 × its width. Dorsal metasomal sculpture partially concealed by dense setation, densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate to simply punctate where visible, except pygidial plate on T7 irregularly rugose and weakly defined by parallel carinae apicolaterally. S1 longitudinally elevated medially, forming pronounced carina slightly higher posteriorly. S2 sparsely foveolate-punctate, foveolations conspicuously sparser and smaller mediad; with well-developed longitudinal anteromedial crest-fold ending on small and narrow longitudinal pit densely filled with setae. S3 – 7 sparsely and shallowly foveolate-punctate to punctate. S7 longer than broad, with a single subacute tooth-like projection on posterior margin. Genitalia. Parapenial lobe slightly pronounced apically. Ratios of free length of paramere, cuspis and digitus, 119:98:16; paramere slightly sinuous in dorsal view, upcurved apically in lateral view; with dense long setae ventrally except at apical third; cuspis thick, club-like, at its widest point slightly narrower than paramere in dorsal view, virtually straight throughout, slightly narrower apically and basally, densely covered in thick setae throughout; paracuspis welldeveloped, not sessile, roundly subtriangular, densely setose, setae as long as paracuspis; digitus short, curved inward in dorsal view and upcurved in lateral view, setose dorsally; penis valve strongly concave on internal surface, with very closely spaced pair of teeth apicoventrally; apical tooth more acute and longer; subapical tooth subrounded, externolateral pocket present, very reduced; apical distance between teeth 0.05 × length of valve; dense setae present along apical margin and at base of teeth on external surface.

Colouration and variations

Female. Body and appendages predominantly black, except mandibles and most flagellomeres partially reddish-brown, and T2 with four usually subrounded reddish spots, varying in size in certain specimens; certain specimens might have very large spots which cause the anterior pair to be conspicuously or narrowly converging with the posterior pair. Body setae predominantly black except for the following areas with silverywhite setae varying in density: propodeal dorsum along lateral margins; coxae and ventral surface of meso and metafemora; T1 laterally; lateral areas of T2, lateral magins of T2, lateral felt lines of T2, and over posterior integumental spots of T2; fringes of T2 – 4 medially and laterally; fringe of T5 medially; T6, except pygidial plate, medially; S1 – 3.

Male. Body and appendages black, at most mandibles and most flagellomeres partially reddish-brown. Body setae predominantly black except the following areas with silverywhite setae varying in density: metanotum and propodeum dorsum; legs partially; T1, anterior third of T2, lateral felt lines of T2, lateral margins of T2, and fringes of T2 – 5 laterally; S1 – 5 except fringe of S5. No conspicuous variations were observed in the specimens examined.


Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina

Material examined

(113♀ 323) Type material. Lectotype: Traumatomutilla miniata   , ♀, ARGENTINA, Catamarca ( MLUH); Holotype: Traumatomutilla bispiculata   , 3 (nec ♀), ARGENTINA, Santiago del Estero, La Balisa del Bracho , 20 km N.N.O. d ’ Icaño [kilometres northnorthwest of Icaño], Laguna Mamaita, E.R. Wagner, 1904 ( MNHN)   . Additional material. BOLIVIA: Chugulasca [sic], 30 km SE [kilometres southeast of] Carandaity , 1♀, 25.I.1957, Stephen C. Bremley ( EMUS);   Cordillera, Aimiri , 1♀, 16.II.1971, Fritz ( AMNH); GoogleMaps   PARAGUAY: Presidente Hayes, Yaragui , 23°06 ’ S 59°38 ʹ W, 1♀, 05.III.2003, U. Dreschel ( FSCA); GoogleMaps   Cruce Los Pioneros , 4♀, 20 – 21.I.1996, B. Garcete ( MIUP); GoogleMaps   Chaco, Loma Plata , 2♀, I.1956, Gerlach ( AMNH); GoogleMaps   Filadelfia , 1♀ 13, I.1995, Arriagada ( EMUS, AMNH); GoogleMaps   Agua Dulce , 2♀, X.1979, Fritz ( AMNH); GoogleMaps   ARGENTINA: La Rioja: La Riojas, 13, XI.1967 ( DGMC); GoogleMaps   Patquia , 13, XII.1933, K.J. Hayward ( BMNH); GoogleMaps   Mascasin , 7♀, I.1962, F. Walz ( MIUP) Mendoza, Mendoza, 13, 4. I.1908, Jorgensen ( ZMUC); GoogleMaps   Estancia Pedregal , 4♀, 04.I.1907, Jorgensen ( ZMUC); GoogleMaps   Estación Santa Rosa, 3♀, Jensen-Haarup ( ZMUC); GoogleMaps   Desaguadero , 1♀, 13.II.2005, F. Stipo ( EMUS); GoogleMaps   Salta: La Viña, 13, 22 – 25.XII.1983, M. Wasbauer ( UCDC); GoogleMaps   Pocitos, 1♀, Martinez ( AMNH); GoogleMaps   Campo de Cuervo , 1♀, II.1968, O.H. Casal ( AMNH); GoogleMaps   Cobos , 1♀, I.1993, Fritz ( EMUS); GoogleMaps   Tartagal , 13, XI.1971, Fritz ( AMNH); Santiago del Estero: GoogleMaps   Icaño: bords du [banks of the] Rio Salado, environs d ’ Icaño , 13, XI.1909, E.R. Wagner ( MNHN); GoogleMaps   Rio Salado, 15♀, 1916 ( MNCN); bañados du [marshes of] Rio Dulce, 60 km O d ’ Icaño [west of Icaño], 1♀, 1909, E.R. Wagner ( MNHN); GoogleMaps   Guarda Esolta, environs d ’ Icaño [outskirts of Icaño], 1♀, 1909, E.R. Wagner ( MNHN); Ruta 9, 70 km S Sgo. del Estero [70 km south of Santiago del Estero], 1♀, 20.I.2002, F. & P. Cassola ( DGMC); Sumampa , 1♀, IV.1955, Duret ( MNHN); GoogleMaps   Los Telares , 13, 15.VII – 13.VIII.1976, J.S. Noyes ( BMNH); 37 – 47 k. s.e. [37 to 47 km southeast of] Añatuya , 1♀, 20.XI.1979, C. & M. Vardy ( BMNH); GoogleMaps   Thermas de Rio Hondo , 1♀, 27 – 28.XI.1979, C. & M. Vardy ( BMNH); 13 k s.e. [kilometres southeast of] Colonia Dora , 1♀, 17 – 19. XI.1979, C. & M. Vardy ( BMNH); GoogleMaps   Chaco: El Cabure, 1♀, XII.1983, Fritz ( AMNH); Miraflores , 1♀, II.1992, González ( AMNH); GoogleMaps   Fuerte Esperanza , 2♀, XI.1978, Fritz ( AMNH); GoogleMaps   Rio Tapenago, 1♀, fevrier [february] ( MNCN); GoogleMaps   Cordoba: Cordoba , 3♀, III GoogleMaps   .1971, Fritz y Martinez ( AMNH);   Copacabana , 3♀, II.1980, Fritz ( AMNH);   Guanaco Muerto , 4♀, II.1971, Fritz ( AMNH);   Jujuy: San Pedro, 1♀, 25.XI.1947, Duret ( MNHN);   La Rioja: Iliar , 1♀, 1929, M. Gomez ( MNCN);   Olta , 1♀, 08.XII.1959, Libof [sic] ( LACM);   Patquia , 2♀, 04.XII.1960, Yivoff ( USNM);   Villa Mazan , 13, 15.I.2005, L.A. Stange ( FSCA); Santa Fé:   Las Garzas , 1♀, E. Le Moult ( MNCN);   San Luis, San Jeronimo , 2♀, I.1979, Williner ( AMNH); Tucuman: 4 km S [kilometres south of] Capitan Caceres , 23, 24.X.2003, Irwin & Parker ( EMUS);   Formosa, Monte Cindo [sic], 16.XII.1948 ( MNHN);   Catamarca: Coneta , 16 km S Catamarca, 113, 25.X.2003, Irwin & Parker ( EMUS);   Palo Labrado, 23 km S [kilometres south of] La Merced , 23, 24.X.2003, Irwin & Parker ( EMUS);   Trampasacha, 8 km W [kilometres west of] Chumbicha , 33, 25.X.2003, Irwin & Parker ( EMUS)   . An additional 37 females and six males from Argentina as well as four females from Paraguay were also examined ( AMNH, DEI, EMUS, FSCA, MNHN, ZMUC)   .


There are conspicuous structural parallels between males previously known as T. bispiculata   and females of T. miniata   that permitted these species to be associated. Females of T. miniata   have various body segments remarkably angulate, especially the limits between the mesosomal dorsum and mesosomal sides, to the extent that the sides of the mesosoma are virtually flat to concave in some specimens. Additionally, T2 is angulate to the point of having a somewhat distinct lateral face. The T2 character can also be observed in males of T. bispiculata   , which have a sharply angulate propodeum that can be viewed as parallel to the overall angulate female mesosoma. Certain male specimens may have the propodeum almost flat, but never convex, and in these cases they are also slightly depressed sublaterally on the dorsal face. Females can have the frons with an inconspicuous longitudinal carina or conspicuous smooth unsculptured medial area. Additionally, females can have a variably conspicuous anteroventral (in relation to the pronotal spiracles) tubercle on the lateral face of the pronotum.


Martin Luther Universitaet


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


American Museum of Natural History


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales


Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut














Traumatomutilla miniata ( Gerstaecker, 1874 )

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Cambra, Roberto A. & Oliveira, Marcio L. 2020

Mutilla miniata

Gerstaecker A 1874: 75