Traumatomutilla bivittata (Gerstaeckerı 1874), Lateral

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Cambra, Roberto A. & Oliveira, Marcio L., 2020, Revision of the Traumatomutilla juvenilis species group (Hymenopteraı Mutillidae), Journal of Natural History 53 (43), pp. 2639-2683: 2646-2655

publication ID 10.1080/00222933.2020.1715501

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scientific name

Traumatomutilla bivittata (Gerstaeckerı 1874)


Traumatomutilla bivittata (Gerstaeckerı 1874)  

( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (a – j), 2(a – f), 3(a – l))

Mutilla obsoleta Burmeister, 1854: 24   , ♀, Brazil, [Goiás], Lagoa Santa, nom. praeocc., nec Klug, 1821.

Mutilla americana Burmeister, 1854: 24   , ♀, Brazil, Pará [sic], misidentification.

Mutilla bivittata Gerstaecker, 1874: 72   , syntype, ♀, Brazil, [Goiás], Lagoa Santa (ZMB) examined.

Mutilla duplicata Gerstaecker, 1874: 72   , lectotype [designated here], ♀, Brazil, [Rio Grande do Sul], Alegrete (ZMB) examined, syn. nov.

Mutilla cristata Gerstaecker, 1874: 317   , holotype [by monotypy], 3, Brazil, [Rio Grande do Sul], Santa Cruz [do Sul] (ZMB) examined, syn. nov.

Mutilla aterrima Gerstaecker, 1874: 318   , lectotype [designated here], 3, Brazil, [São Paulo], Salto Grande (ZMB) examined, syn. nov.

Mutilla duplicata Burmeister, 1875, p. 469   (sex association)

Mutilla (Traumatomutilla) bivittata bivittata André, 1901, p. 257  

Mutilla lorena Cresson, 1902: 72   , holotype [by monotypy], 3, Brazil, [Mato Grosso do Sul], Chapada [dos Guimarães] (CMNH), examined, syn. nov.

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) aterrima André, 1902   , 54

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) bivittata André, 1902   , 54

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) cristata André, 1902   , 55

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) duplicata André, 1902   , 55

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) lorena André, 1902   , 56

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) miniata André, 1902   , 55

Traumatomutilla aterrima André, 1904   , 40

Traumatomutilla bivittata André, 1904   , 40

Traumatomutilla cristata André, 1904   , 40

Traumatomutilla duplicata André, 1904   , 40

Traumatomutilla lorena André, 1904   , 40

Traumatomutilla miniata André, 1904   , 40

Traumatomutilla bruchi André, 1908a: 230   , lectotype [designated here], ♀, Argentina, Catamarca (MNHN) examined, syn. nov.

Traumatomutilla bispiculata André, 1908b   , 201 (female description)

Traumatomutilla duplicata André, 1908b   , 206 (sex disassociation)

Traumatomutilla duplicata feia Casal, 1969: 291   , holotype ♀, Brazil, São Paulo, Barueri (AMNH) examined, syn. nov.


Female. Mesosoma strongly constricted anterior to propodeal spiracles, lateral face of propodeum with vestigial longitudinally oblique rugosities posteriorly; setae of lateral face of propodeum mostly black.

Male. Cuspis slender, predominantly asetose; setae on lateral face of propodeum and mesopleuron mostly or completely black.


Female. Body length 9 – 19 mm. Head. Posterior margin virtually straight. Occipital carina conspicuously swollen and smoothly curved dorsolaterally. Vertex width 0.75 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular, its length in frontal view virtually equal to the distance from its ventral margin to mandibular condyle. Head densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate to areolate-punctate, slightly sparser on gena and malar space. Mandible with small subapical tooth. Dorsal scrobal carina present and well-defined, separated from antennal tubercles; lateral scrobal carina virtually absent. Antennal tubercle finely and irregularly rugose. Flagellomere 1 2.25 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2 1.7 × pedicel length. Mesosoma. Dorsal thoracic length slightly shorter than width. Mesosomal dorsum well differentiated from pleurae, lateral margins rounded, not sharp or angulate; sculpture predominantly obscured by dense setation, dense and coarse areolate-punctate to foveolate-punctate where visible, denser and smaller mediad. Anterior face of propodeum defined, coarsely striated longitudinally ventrad, confusedly punctured dorsad; dorsal face roundly angulate into anterior face in lateral view. Humeral carina present broadly separated from well-defined low rounded epaulette, anterolateral corners of pronotum rounded in dorsal view. Pronotal spiracle virtually flat against lateral margin of pronotum, subacute. Sculpture of lateral face of pronotum sparsely punctate with dense micropunctures; mesopleuron densely micropunctate anteriorly, dense coarse and confused areolate-punctate to foveolate-punctate along mesopleural ridge, concealed by dense setation elsewhere; metapleuron sculpture predominantly concealed by dense setation, except dorsal half unsculptured and asetose, smooth. Lateral face of propodeum sparsely foveolate-punctate anteriorly, densely coarsely and confusedly areolate-punctate to foveolate punctae posteriorly. Ratios of width of humeral angles, pronotal spiracles, widest point of mesonotum, narrowest point of mesonotum and propodeum posterior to propodeal spiracles, 69:99:97:70:71. Lateral margin of mesonotum strongly emarginated anterior to propodeal spiracle, strongly diverging anterad. Propodeal spiracle strongly projected from lateral margin of mesosoma; post-spiracular absent. Scutellar scale present, well developed, slightly narrower than and separated from well-developed anterolateral carinae which are connected thus forming a single transverse carina with shallow emargination medially; scabrous intervals present on scutellar area. Posterior face of propodeum longer than and poorly distinguished from dorsal face. Metasoma. Ratios of width of T1, width of T2 and length of T2, 39:89:86. Disc of T2 densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate to punctate, denser and smaller mediad; punctures sparser and shallower over integumental spots. T3 – 6, except pygidial plate, predominantly concealed by dense setation, densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate with interspersed micropunctures were visible. S1 sparsely punctured, surface cuneiform, ending in a rounded longitudinal carina, equally high throughout. S2 sparsely foveolate-punctate, punctures conspicuously sparser and smaller posteromedially, denser and smaller anteromedially and with a conspicuous anteromedial longitudinal-unsculptured area; anteromedial crestfold present, well defined. S3 – 6 densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate. Pygidial plate broadly subpyriform, defined by lateral carinae at apical half of plate; surface mostly irregularly longitudinally rugose, rugae vestigial laterally.

Male. Body length 11 – 18 mm. Head. Rounded subrectangular in dorsal view, posterolateral angles rounded. Vertex width 0.8 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular. Ocelli small; OOD 5.6 × DLO, IOD 1.4 × DLO. Occipital carina distinct. Head surface densely and finely foveolate-punctate to punctate. Gena ecarinate. Antennal scrobe concave to eye margin, with prominent transverse dorsal scrobal carina narrowly separated from internal eye margin. Clypeus slightly concave laterally immediately below antennal insertion, virtually flat elsewhere; coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate to punctate; with a pair of short, sessile, blunt tubercles on apical margin. Scape bicarinate. Flagellomere 1 2 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2.6 × pedicel length. Mandible obliquely tridentate apically, inner tooth slightly larger than middle tooth; lacking dorsal or ventral projections. Mesosoma. Epaulettes well defined, virtually flat against anterior margin of pronotum, rounded, broadly separated from humeral carina, anterolateral angles of pronotum rounded. Anterior face of propodeum vestigially and longitudinally striate mesoventrad, coarsely punctate laterodorsad, with a conspicuous longitudinal slightly concave medial area. Tegula convex, mostly glabrous and impunctate except for dense coarse punctures anteriorly and along inner margin. Mesoscutum densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate to punctate, notaulus and parapsis indistinguishable. Scutellum convex, densely and coarsely areolate-punctate; with longitudinal irregular carina medially formed by aligned intervals. Axilla produced posterolaterally as truncate projection, with conspicuous flat posterior face, coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate dorsally; posterior face of axillar projection arched. Metanotum slightly wider laterally, its surface obscured by dense setation. Propodeum dorsum convex, partially concealed by dense setation, densely areolate where visible; lateral face predominantly densely areolate, areolations less defined anterad; posterolateral margins rounded, posterodorsal corners rounded in lateral view; dorsal and posterior faces indistinguishable. Lateral face of pronotum densely coarsely and confusedly foveolate-punctate to punctate with interspersed micropunctures; mesopleura with strong subacute tubercle on dorsal half; mesopleural sculpture densely and coarsely areolate-punctate to foveolate-punctate with interspersed micropunctures anteriorly. Metapleuron densely and coarsely areolate punctate on ventral fourth, coarsely and confusedly rugose to punctate on dorsal fourth, micropunctate to unsculptured elsewhere. Wings. Forewing with elongate sclerotised pterostigma; marginal cell elongated, truncate apically; three submarginal cells. Legs. Simply setose, no strong spines discernible dorsally; spurs finely serrate on margins. Metasoma. T1 0.45 × as wide as T2. T2 length 0.9 × its width. Dorsal metasomal sculpture partially concealed by dense setation, densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate to simply punctate where visible, except pygidial plate on T7 irregularly rugose and weakly defined by parallel carinae apicolaterally, rugosities predominantly transverse. S1 longitudinally elevated medially, forming pronounced carina slightly higher posteriorly. S2 foveolate-punctate, foveolations conspicuously sparser and smaller mediad; with well-developed longitudinal anteromedial crest-fold ending on elongate and narrow longitudinal pit densely filled with setae. S3 – 7 sparsely foveolate-punctate to punctate. S7 slightly broader than long, with a pair of subacute closely spaced tooth-like projections on posterior margin. Genitalia. Parapenial lobe slightly pronounced apically. Ratios of free length of paramere, cuspis and digitus, 70:63:8; paramere slightly sinuous in dorsal view, upcurved apically in lateral view; with dense long setae ventrally except at apically with setae conspicuously reduced; cuspis narrow, slender, in dorsal view slightly curved inward at basal half and curved outward in apical half; conspicuously and smoothly widened apically; predominantly asetose with sparse conspicuous setae ventrally at apex; paracuspis well-developed, not sessile, slightly elongate vertically, roundly subtriangular at apical margin, densely setose, setae predominantly shorter than paracuspis; digitus short, curved inward in dorsal view and upcurved in lateral view, setose dorsally; penis valve strongly concave on internal surface, with very closely spaced pair of teeth apicoventrally; apical tooth more acute and longer; subapical tooth acute, externolateral vestigial; apical distance between teeth 0.03 × length of valve; dense setae present along apical margin and at base of teeth on external surface.

Colouration and variations

Female. Head integument always black, at most brownish-black, setation can be completely black or with a pair of longitudinal silvery-white stripes along inner eye margin starting at posterior margin of vertex and ending at antennal tubercles; stripes sometimes reduced to a small longitudinal spot dorsally on inner eye margin. Mesosoma integument is always completely black, at most brownish-black; setation can be completely black or with longitudinal silvery-white stripes along lateral margins that can be restricted to propodeal dorsum or extend as far as into anterior margin of pronotum; stripes that extend beyond propodeum can be complete or interrupted near scutellar area. Integument of metasoma is always predominantly black, at most brownish-black, except for disc of T2 which is always marked with integumental spots that can be reddish, orange, or yellowish; integumental spots vary greatly in size and can be subquadrate to subrectangular, the anterior pair can be fused with the posterior pair thus forming a pair of large longitudinal integumental spots. Metasomal setae predominantly black, except for silvery-white setae varying in density on the following: T1 laterally, T2 lateral margins and T2 lateral felt lines, T2 fringe laterally, T3 – 5 medially and laterally, T6 medially, S1 – 5 (except fringe of S5), and over integumental spots of T2. Appendages colour predominantly black, except mandibles and flagellomeres partially reddish-brown.

Male. Integument always completely black, at most brownish-black, with mandibles partially reddish-brown. Body setae is predominantly black with silvery-white setae varying in density and extension in the following: metanotum, dorsum of propodeum, T1, base of T2, lateral margins of T2, lateral felt line of T2, fringes of T2 – 4 laterally, and S1 – 4; tibiae and tarsomeres.


Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay

Material examined

(399 ♀, 1513) Type material. Syntype: Traumatomutilla bivittata   , ♀, BRAZIL, [Goiás], Lagoa Santa, Burm. S. ( ZMB);   Lectotype: Traumatomutilla duplicata   , ♀, BRAZIL, [Rio Grande do Sul], Allegrette [Alegrete], Sello S. ( ZMB);   Holotype: Traumatomutilla cristata   , 3, BRAZIL, [Rio Grande do Sul], Santa Cruz [do Sul], Hensel S. ( ZMB);   Lectotype: Traumatomutilla aterrima   , 3, BRAZIL, [São Paulo], Salto Grande, Sello S. ( ZMB);   Holotype: Traumatomutilla lorena   , 3, BRAZIL, [Mato Grosso do Sul], Chapada [dos Guimarães] ( CMNH);   Lectotype: Traumatomutilla bruchi   , ♀, ARGENTINA, Catamarca ( MNHN);   Holotype: Traumatomutilla duplicata feia   , ♀, São Paulo, Barueri, III.1958, K. Lenko ( AMNH).   Additional material. BRAZIL: Mato Grosso: 1♀, XII.1947, De Castelnau ( MNHN);   Utiariti, 5♀ ( MZSP);   Tapirape Indian Village, at confluence of Rio Tapirape and Rio Araguaia, 1♀, 01 – 11.XII.1960, B. Malkin ( FMNH);   Parque Nacional Chapada dos Guimarães, 3♀, 12.XI.2013, Melo G.A.R., Luz D.R., Williams K.A. ( DZUP);   Rio Caraguatá, 13, III.1953, F. Plaumann ( DJBC);   Goiás: Jataí: 15♀ ( MZSP); Faz. [Fazenda] Cachoeirinha, 1♀, X.1962, Exp. [Expedição] Dep. [Departamento] Zool. [Zoologia] ( MNCN);   Distrito Federal, Brasília, 1♀ ( ZMUC);   Minas Gerais: Lavras, 1♀, XII.2002, A. Foucart ( EMUS);   P. [Parque] N. [Nacional] da Serra do Cipó, 1♀, 09 – 13.XII.2011, Cavichioli R.R. ( DZUP);   Ouro Preto, Cachoeira do Abacaxi, 1♀, 07.XI.2001, Paprocki, Blahnik & Amarante ( UMSP);   Uberlândia, 1♀, X.1962, EXp. [Expedição] Dep. [Departamento] Zool. [Zoologia] ( MNCN);   Lassance, 1♀, 09 – 19.XI.1919, Cornell Univ. [University] Expedition ( CUIC);   Uberaba, 1♀ ( RBINS); Sete Lagoas, 1♀, XII.1962, A. Martinez ( AMNH);   nr. Timoteo, 13, 13 – 20.X.1997, Eurico R De Paula ( EMUS);   Mato Grosso do Sul: [Porto] Murtinho, 1♀, XI.1929, R. Spitz ( MZSP);   Campo Grande, 1♀, X.1953, Bastos Filho ( DZUP);   Três Lagôas, 5♀, ( MZSP);   São Paulo: Barueri, 3♀ ( MNRJ);   1♀, III.1958, K. Lenko ( AMNH);   Jundiaí, 1♀, 13. XII.1960 ( MNRJ);   Pompéia, urban área, 1♀, 09.IV.1993, Silva R. ( EMUS);   Pereira Barreto, 1♀, 09.VI.1993, Lima M.A. ( EMUS);   São José dos Campos, 1♀, 01 – 04.XI.1960, D.L. Tiemann ( EMUS);   Ribeirão Preto, 1♀, 21.X.1962, Exp. [Expedição] Dep. [Departamento] Zool. [Zoologia] ( MNCN);   Campinas, 1♀, XI.1962, Himri Gridi-Papp ( MZSP);   Ibitinga, Faz.[enda] Itaquerê, 2♀, 25.I.1964, K. Lenko ( MZSP);   Nova Europa, Faz.[enda] Itaquerê, 1♀, XI.1963, K. Lenko ( MZSP);   Franca, 1♀, I.1911, E. Gazbe ( MZSP);   Rio Claro, Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade, 13, 14.xi.1988, R.P. Martins ( UFMG);   Rio de Janeiro, [Rio de Janeiro]: Corcovado, 1♀, 3.IV.1955, Gruman ( DZUP);   13, II.1912, E.P. Reed ( CASC);   Paraná: Ponta Grossa, 13, II.1948, Justus ( DZUP);   1♀, II.1945, Justus ( DZUP);   Vila Velha, 13, 09.XI.1974, Moure J.S. ( DZUP);   13, 03.II.1974, Rozen, Thomson & Moure ( AMNH);   Santa Catarina, [Florianópolis], Morro das Pedras, 1♀, Pe.[Padre] Buck ( CESC);   9 km E de Aranaguá, área de dunas, 13, 20. XI.2007, Melo, G.A.R., Parizotto, D. ( DZUP);   Nova Teutonia, 13, XII.1969, F. Plaumann ( DJBC);   Rio Grande do Sul: Alegrete, 1♀, 19.I.2009, P. Bartholomay ( CESC);   Arroio do Sal: 2♀, 29.I.2008, J.T. Klein ( CESC);   1♀ 13, 29.I.2008, P. Bartholomay ( CESC);   Pelotas: 1♀, XII.1954 ( DEI);   13, 23.XII.1962, C.M. Biezanko ( PMNH);   1♀, 20.III.1962 ( DEI);   1♀, 02.III.1956 ( DEI);   Porto Alegre: 1♀, 27.XII.1928, Pe. [Padre] ( CESC);   1♀, I.1942 ( CESC);   1♀, I.1968, Pio [sic!] Buck ( MNCN);   São Leopoldo: 3♀, J.W. Stahl ( NHRM);   2♀, J.W. Stahl ( MNCN);   Xangri-lá: 2♀, 28.I.2008, J.T. Klein ( CESC);   1♀, 28.I.2008, P. Bartholomay ( CESC);   São João do M. [Monte] N. [Negro], 1♀ ( CMNH);   BOLIVIA: La Paz, La Paz, 1♀, 20.XII.1908, Jorgensen ( ZMUC);   Santa Cruz: Cordillera, Rio Seco, 1♀, I.1959, A. Martinez ( AMNH);   Buena Vista, 17°27.68 ’ S 63°39.63 ʹ W, 23, 23.II.1999, F.D. Parker ( EMUS);   Potrerillos de Guenda, Pres. Nat. 40 km w. Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 370 m, 17°40 ’ S 63°27 ʹ W, 13, 04. X.2007, Wappes & Morris ( UCDC);   ARGENTINA: Cordoba: Cordoba: 3♀, L. Bahamondes ( USNM);   43, 1945, L Bahamondes ( CISC);   Dep.[Departamiento] de Calamuchita: 13, I.1974, Martinez ( AMNH);   El Sauce 3♀, XII.1938, M.J. Viana ( USNM);   Miramar, 1♀, III.1992 Fritz ( EMUS);   Dolores, ca.[circa] La Cumbre, 1♀, 14.III-07.IV.1996, C. Porter ( FSCA);   Balnearia, 2♀, II.1971, Fritz ( AMNH);   Tanti, 4♀, Fritz ( AMNH);   Quilpo, 2♀, II.1980, Fritz ( AMNH);   Punilla, Valle Hermoso, 1♀, I.1943, M.J. Viana ( MNCN);   Alta Garcia, 23, 28.II.1922, C. Bruch ( UMSP);   Cosquin, Sierra de Cordoba, 13, 1.III.1920, Cornell Expedition ( CUIC);   Corrientes, Ytuzaingo, 1♀, X.1979, Fritz ( EMUS);   Entre Rios: Lazo, 1♀, XII.1940 ( LACM); 1♀, XII.1940 ( EMUS); [   Pueblo] Liebig: 1♀, III.1999 ( FSCA);   13, II.1997, Zelich ( AMNH);   53, 7♀, II.1997, L. Caire ( MIUP);   Dpto.[Departamientio] Colon, Parque Nacional, 2♀ ( AMNH);   1♀, 1974, Fritz ( AMNH);   Mercedes, 2♀, XII.1974 ( AMNH);   Palmar Colon: 13, Fritz ( AMNH);   23, XII.1974, Fritz ( EMUS);   Santa Fé: Las Garzas: Rio Las Garzas, 25 km [kilometres] O. [West] d ’ Ocampo [of Ocampo], Chaco, 2♀, 1903, E.R. Wagner ( MNHN);   Bord du R.[io] Las Garzas, 25 km O d ’ Ocampo [of Ocampo], Chaco, 23, 1903, E.R. Wagner ( MHNH);   Huerta Gr.[ande], 93, I.1910 ( UMSP);   Estancia La Noria, Rio San Javier, 73, 22.XII.1911, G.E. Bryant ( BMNH);   Catamarca: Coneta, 16 km [kilometres] S [South] Catamarca, 554 m [metres], 28°34.07 ’ S 65°52.74 ʹ W, 8♀, 25.X – 12.XI.2003, M.E. Irwin F.D. Parker ( EMUS);   Palo Labrado, 23 km [kilometres] S [South] La Merced, 734 m [metres], 28°19.94 ’ S 65°37.13 ʹ W, 1♀, 24.X – 12. XI.2003, M.E. Irwin F.D. Parker ( EMUS);   Trampasacha, 8 km [kilometres] W [west], Chumbicha, 3♀, 25.XI – 12.XII.2003, M.E. Irwin F.D. Parker ( EMUS);   Punta [de] Balasto, 1♀, I.1994, Fritz ( EMUS);   1♀, 03.I.1991, Fritz ( FSCA); Santa Maria:   1♀, 19.I.1991, Scaramozzino ( EMUS);   13, 4.I.1991, Fritz ( AMNH);   1♀, I.1993, M.A. Fritz ( AMNH);   Villa Vil, 1♀, 24.I.1972, JCS ( CASC);   Londres, 1♀, 06.XII.2002, L.A. Stange ( FSCA);   Capillitas, 1♀, II.1986, Fritz ( AMNH);   Punto Esperanza, 333, I.1992, Fritz ( AMNH);   Tucumán: Aimacha del Valle, 1♀, 28.XII.1965, H & M Townes ( EMUS);   4 km S Capitan Cáceres, 430 m, 27°13.54 ’ S 65°38.34 ʹ W, 1♀ 13, 24.X-12.XI.2003, M.E. Irwin F.D. Parker ( EMUS);   San Pedro de Colalao, 1♀, Foerster ( AMNH);   Trancas, Las Tacanas, 1♀, II.1951, J.M. Arnau ( MNCN);   Rt.[Ruta] 40, Ruinas Indigenas de Quilmes, 1♀, 28.III.1992, DeVries, di Lorio, Quinter, Yeates ( AMNH);   La Rioja: Iliar, 1♀, II.1934, M. Gomez ( MNCN);   Mendoza: Estancia Pedregal, 5♀, 05.I.1907, Jorgensen ( ZMUC);   Salta: Cafayate, 1♀, 19.II.1965, Hayward ( FSCA); 10 – 20 km N Amblayo, 1♀, 22.III.1990, J.G. Rozen & A. Roig ( AMNH);   La Vina, 2♀, II.1993, M.A. Fritz ( AMNH);   Alemania, 1♀, I.1983, Fritz ( EMUS);   Sumalao, 1♀, III.1995, Fritz ( EMUS);   Rosario de Lerma, 1♀, I.1983, Fritz ( EMUS);   Los Medanos, 8 km NE Cafayate, 1♀, 02 – 09.II.1972, H.E. Evans ( EMUS);   Cachi, 1♀, 20 – 22.I.1966, C.C. Porter, ( DGMC);   San Carlos, 1♀, 23.I.1950, F. Monrós & A. Willink ( MNCN);   El Maray, 13, II.1996, Fritz ( AMNH);   San Luís: Arizona, 2♀, II.1980, Fritz ( AMNH);   Alto Pencoso, 13, 20.XII.1908, Jorgensen ( ZMUC);   Santiago del Estero: Bord du R. Salado River [Banks of the Salador River], environ d ’ Icano [outskirsts of Icaño], 2♀, 1910, E.R. Wagner ( MNHN);   Misiones, Misiones, 13, 23.I.1986, L.E. Pena ( AMNH);   URUGUAY: Colônia, Colônia, 2♀, 06.III.1944, P.A. Berry ( USNM);   Rocha, Santa Teresa, 1♀, III.1965, Achaval ( EMUS);   Tacuarembó, Tacuarembó, 1♀, II.1954, Carbonell ( AMNH);   San Jose, San Jose, 1♀, Zorron ( AMNH);   Paysandu, Paysandu, 13, 28.XII.1862 – 14.II.1863, F.

Amor – Expdeción al Pacífico (1862 – 1865) ( MNCN); Rio Negro, Arroyo Negro, 15 km S Paysandu, 43, 27.XII.1962, R.G. VanGelder ( AMNH);   An additional 40♀ from Brazil, 19♀ from Paraguay and 167♀ /573 from Argentina were also examined ( ANSP AMNH, MNHN, EMUS, EMUS, CMNH, MNCN, MNRJ, CUIC, ZMUC, DEI, DZUP, USNM, LACM, MCZC, MZSP, FSCA, BMNH, CSCA)   .



The first attempted sex association for this widespread and variable species was by Burmeister (1875), who described and associated a male from Argentina with T. duplicata   females. Later, André (1908b) determined those males to be T. cristata   and, due to the lack of further data, ‘ disassociated ’ them from T. duplicata   . In the same paper, André (1908b) associated and described the female of T. bispiculata   based on their similarities in size and distribution. When PRB examined André ’ s series of T. bispiculata   in MNHN, he found that the males represented a mixed series of two structurally distinct species with identical colour patterns. The holotype of T. bispiculata   , described by André in 1907, is actually associated with females of T. miniata ( Gerstaecker, 1874)   and is discussed further below. The other males in the series are structurally identical to T. cristata   but have a colour pattern typical of Traumatomutilla species in arid regions of Argentina ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (d)). Likewise, the females associated with T. bispiculata   by André are structurally identical to T. bivittata   ( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (a), 2(a)) from more humid Atlantic areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay, but have colouration typical to arid Argentina ( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (e), 2(e)). The males and females associated by André (1908b) as T. bispiculata   are, therefore, correctly associated, but they were not correctly named. Both sexes of T. bispiculata sensu Andre 1908   are actually synonymous colour variants of T. bivittata   . The types of T. atterima   , T. cristata   , and T. lorena   , each known from males only, were examined and were found to be structurally identical to T. bispiculata sensu André 1908   , differing only in the distribution and density of whitish setae. Traumatomutilla atterima   presents one extreme, having the body setae entirely black ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (b)), while T. bispiculata sensu André 1908   with its dense white setae on the propodeum, base of T2, and lateral margins of T2 – 4 presents the other extreme ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (d)). The other species ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (a,c)), and numerous unplaceable males from across the range of T. bivittata   , fall along a continuum between these forms. Likewise, the types of T. duplicata   ( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (a), 2(a)) and T. bruchi   ( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (c), 2(c)), described from females, are identical to T. bivittata   and differ only in colour features across a geographic continuum. With these synonyms, T. bivittata   is the most widespread, abundant, and variable species in the T. juvenilis   species group.

André (1908a) described Traumatomutilla bruchi   based on ‘ multiple specimens from the La Plata museum ’. The specimen at MNHN was labelled as lectotype by the staff upon dispatching the loan to PRB and bears a handwritten label reading ‘ Museo La Plata ’. We assume that this was one of the specimens in the series used by André (1910) for describing T. bruchi   , likely donated by the museum to the author, and hereby officially designate this specimen as the lectotype for this species.

A remarkable series of four female specimens examined revealed an extreme colour variant for this species group, wherein the integument and setae of the head and mesosoma are completely black; these specimens are from high altitude xeric areas on the eastern slope of the Andes in Bolivia (1200 – 2500 m a.s.l.). Although these females have a unique colour pattern and their distribution appears to be isolated, we refrain from describing them as a distinct species based on their structural similarity with other specimens of T. bivittata   . Additionally, males formerly known as T. cristata   and T. aterrima   have been collected in the same general area as these females.

Females of T. bivittata   vary greatly in body length and certain structural characters, including a variably distinct subapical tooth on the mandibles, presence of rugosities on the metapleuron anterior to the propodeal spiracles, a scutellar scale that is sometimes wider than its anterolateral carinae, and the propodeum that can be strongly broadened behind the propodeal spiracles in dorsal view. In males slight structural variations were also observed, such as the parapsis and notaulus being vestigial but still observable, intervals of the scutellar sculpture rudimentary aligned so as to form an irregular longitudinal medial carina, sculpture variably dense on metasomal sterna, and size/length of the sternal pit varying in certain specimens.


Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)


The Cleveland Museum of Natural History


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


American Museum of Natural History


Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Field Museum of Natural History


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales


Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen


University of Minnesota Insect Collection


Cornell University Insect Collection


Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences


Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro


Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais


Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut


Peabody Museum of Natural History


Naturhistoriska Rijkmuseet


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia


California State Collection of Arthropods














Traumatomutilla bivittata (Gerstaeckerı 1874)

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Cambra, Roberto A. & Oliveira, Marcio L. 2020

Traumatomutilla duplicata feia

Casal OH 1969: 291

Traumatomutilla bruchi André, 1908a: 230

Andre E 1908: 230

Mutilla lorena

Cresson ET 1902: 72

Mutilla bivittata

Gerstaecker A 1874: 72

Mutilla duplicata

Gerstaecker A 1874: 72

Mutilla cristata

Gerstaecker A 1874: 317

Mutilla aterrima

Gerstaecker A 1874: 318

Mutilla obsoleta

Burmeister HCC 1854: 24

Mutilla americana

Burmeister HCC 1854: 24