Chamaecrista setosa (Vogel) Irwin & Barneby (1982: 650), Irwin & Barneby, 1982

Oliveira, Jaqueline Aparecida De, Mendes, Thainara Policarpo, Souza, Alessandro Oliveira De & Silva, Marcos José Da, 2021, New taxonomic circumscription to Chamaecrista ser. Setosae (H. S. Irwin & Barneby) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae), Phytotaxa 490 (2), pp. 118-158: 150-152

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.490.2.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/DC5D8782-FFE7-5070-FF4E-6401FD96ED74

treatment provided by

Marcus

scientific name

Chamaecrista setosa (Vogel) Irwin & Barneby (1982: 650)
status

 

9. Chamaecrista setosa (Vogel) Irwin & Barneby (1982: 650)   . ≡ Cassia setosa Vogel (1837: 51)   . Type:— BRAZIL.

Brasília: Pr. Jundiahy leg. Sellow (lectotype: K-000555488! designated by Irwin & Barneby (1978); isolectotypes: G-

00277285!, K-00835966!, LE-00002385!, P-00836110!).

= Cassia setosa var. angusta Bentham (1870: 141)   . Type:— BRAZIL. Goiás: from Cavalcante, 1870, Burchell 7588 (holotype: K- 000555484!).

= Cassia chrysotingens Hoehne (1919: 143)   . Type:— BRAZIL. Minas Gerais: Colhida no Lambary além de Campos Novos da Serra do Norte, 1919, Hoehne 5413 (holotype: R-000013998!).

= Chamaecrista setosa var. dentosa (Bentham) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (1982: 651)   Cassia setosa var. detonsa Bentham (1870: 141)   , Type:— BRAZIL. Goiás: In collibus siccis campisve aridis, 1841, Gardner 3127 (holotype: K-000555484!; isotypes: BM- 000793259!, G-00370963!, K, P-00836115!) Syn. nov.

= Chamaecrista setosa var. paucivenia (H. S. Irwin & Barneby) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (1982: 651)   Cassia setosa var. paucivenia H. S. Irwin & Barneby (1978: 70)   . Type:— BRASIL. Minas Gerais: Serra do Cipó, km 117, 15 March 1962, (fl., fr.), A.P. Duarte 6547 (holotype: RB, mounted in 2 sheets, RB-00168982!, RB-00539496!; isotypes: NY-00003940!). Syn. nov.

= Chamaecrista setosa var. subsetosa (Malme) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (1982: 561)   . ≡ Cassia setosa var. subsetosa Malme (1931: 62)   . Type:— BRAZIL. Mato Grosso: Santa Anna da chapada in ‘cerrado’ arenoso, 13 May 1903 Malme 3321 (holotype: S-10-9066!, isotypes: S-R-8866!). Figs. 21–23. Syn. nov.

Subshrubs, shrubs or small trees 0.7–5 m tall, erect with branches sometimes pendent or decumbent when subshrubs. Stem and adult branches light brown or greyish; stem and young branches light brown, tomentose, villosule, puberulent, stellate-setose and setulose or stellate-setulose, including petiole, rachis, axes of inflorescence, pedicel, external surface of stipules, bracts, bracteoles, pulvinus, pulvinule, buds and fruits.Stipules 2–5× 1 mm, lanceolate, triangular or subulate, margin entire, persistent. Leaves (7–) 9–19 (–23) cm long, regularly distributed throughout the branches, ascending or not; pulvinus 0.2–1 mm, discretely dilated, striated or not; petiole 2–7 cm long; rachis 2.5–3 cm, both cylindrical in cross section and sulcate above; pulvinule 0.2–1.1 mm; leaflets 2 (3) pairs, 5–13 × 2.5–7.5 cm, oblong-elliptical, ovallanceolate, oval-oblong, widely oval, elliptical or suborbicular, base asymmetrically rounded or cuneate or obtuse, apex obtuse retuse or emarginate and mucronulate, coriaceous, margin plane, entire, setulose-stellate, puberulous, setulose, velutinous or glabrous, discolorous, adaxial surface dark green, glossy, pubescent, glabrescent, stellatesetulose, velutinous, puberulent, sometimes glabrous, abaxial surface light green, opaque or glaucous, setulose, villous or glabrous; venation camptodromous-brochidodromous, secondary veins ascending on both surfaces, 8–15 (–22), with impressed veins on the adaxial surface, being the main vein sulcate, and conspicuously prominent on the abaxial surface, including tertiary, and or quaternary, that are arranged in an alveolate-like arrangement, all yellow. Panicles 13–75 cm long, terminal or axillary, effuse, with flowers congest or lax, suberect or pendent; buds 1–1.5 × 0.5–1 cm, globose, ovoid, oval-ellipsoid, yellow, yellow-vinaceous or reddish, apex obtuse or acute. Flowers 2.5–5.7 cm long, pedicel 1–4 cm long; bracts 3–8 × 1 mm, lanceolate or oval-lanceolate, apex acute or obtuse, margin entire, ferruginous; bracteoles 1–4 mm long, similar to bracts; sepals 1.5–2.1 × 0.8–1.2 cm, elliptical, oval-elliptical or lanceolate, apex acute or short acuminate, vinaceous green or reddish; petals 1–2.5 × 0.5–1.8 cm, oboval or asymmetrically oboval one of the lower-lateral; stamens 7–12 mm long, filaments 1.2–3 mm long, anthers 5–10 mm long, oblong, mucronulate; ovary 0.5–0.8 × 0.1 cm, setulose, villosule, styles 0.8–1.3 cm long, glabrous, curved near the apex. Legume 3–6 × 0.5–1 cm, narrow-oblong, apex not mucronulate, light green, setulose and puberulent. Seeds 4–6 × 2–4 mm, pyriform,, light brown or dark, faveolated, glossy.

Specimens Examined:— BRAZIL. Distrito Federal: Brasília. GO 60, sentido Brasília-Goiânia em cerrado, 15º 54’43,7’’S, 48º 9’33,7’’W, 1099 m, 28 May 2016, (fl.), J.A. Oliveira & T.P. Mendes 114, 115 ( UFG) GoogleMaps   , 116 (UFG), 117 (UFG), 118 (UFG), 119 (UFG); ibid., Bacia do Rio São Bartolomeu , 04 April 1980, (fl.), E.P. Heringer et al. 4999 ( IBGE) GoogleMaps   ; ibid., 09 March 1981, (fr.), E.P. Heringer et al. 6383 ( IBGE) GoogleMaps   ; Goiás: Água Fria de   Goiás, GO 118, km 82, lado esquerdo da estrada em cerrado, 05 Ocrtober 2013, (fl.), A.O. Souza et al. 645 ( UFG)   ; ibid., GO118, km 61, borda esquerda da rodovia sentido Alto Paraíso , 30 October 2014, (fr.), A.O. Souza et al. 1465 ( UFG)   ; ibid., GO 118, km 56, em borda de estrada em cerrado rupestre, 28 January 2014, (fl.), A.O. Souza et al. 856 ( UFG)   ; Alto Paraiso, ca. 20 km S of Alto Paraíso on highway GO 12, 1100 m, 19 February 1975, (fr.), W.R. Anderson 11468 (F); ibid., Fazenda Oréades- Sitio Arqueológico Pedra Escrita , 01 July 2011, (fl., fr.), J.R.B. Vidal et al. 142 ( HEPH)   ; Caldas Novas, Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas , 1000 m, 30 July 2009, (fr.), J.O.V. Iglesias 43 ( UEG)   ; Campinorte, Fazenda ca. 8 km da cidade em direção ao lago Serra da Mesa , 14° 17’43’’S, 49° 06’15’’W, 490 m, 23 June 1988, (fl.), M.L. Fonseca et al. 1916 ( IBGE) GoogleMaps   ; Minaçu , GO 132, próximo à entrada da usina, 13° 48’54,7’’S, 48° 18’31,6’’W, 688 m, 20 June 2016, (fl., fr.), J.A. Oliveira et al. 49 ( UFG) GoogleMaps   , 50 (UFG), 51 (UFG), 52 (UFG), 53 (UFG), 54 (UFG), 55 (UFG), 56 (UFG), 57 (UFG), 58 (UFG), 59 (UFG), 60 (UFG); Niquelândia, 31 km da cidade em direção ao povoado de Muquém , 14° 28’32’’S, 48° 10’42’’W, 470 m, 08 May 1988, (fl.), M.A. Silva et al. 3813 ( IBGE) GoogleMaps   ; ibid., km 20 da GO-532, CODEMIN, 14° 17’0,2’’S, 48° 20’02’’W, 28 June 1996, (fl.), M.L. Fonseca et al. 1027 ( IBGE) GoogleMaps   ; São Gabriel, ca. 35 km. N. of Formosa on road to São Gabriel , 950 m, 28 March 1966, H.S. Irwin et al. 14169 (F); São João d’Aliança , Fazenda Barra Mata Serena , 18 September 1990, (fl., fr.), A. Fonseca 782 ( IBGE)   ; Mato Grosso: Barra do Garças, Vale dos sonhos, 80 km N of Barra do Garças on the road to Xavantina , approx 15° 40’S, 52° 23’W, 26 October 1972, (fl.), J.A. Ratter et al. 2250 (F); ibid., Serra do Roncador , 6 km da BR 158, 15° 20’54,4’’S, 52° 13’54,2’’W, 642 m, 24 March 2016, (fr.), (fl.), J.A. Oliveira et al.15 ( UFG) GoogleMaps   , 16 (UFG), 17 (UFG), 18 (UFG), 19 (UFG), 20 ( UFG); São José do Rio Claro, estrada para São José do Rio Claro, BR 364, 14°12’S, 56°32’W, 530 m, 13 March 1978, R. Beceer 44 (F); Vale dos Sonhos, 80 km N of Barra do Garças on the road to Xavantina , 15°40’S, 52°23’W, 26 August 1972, (fr.), J.A. Ratter et al. 2250 (F) GoogleMaps   ; Minas Gerais: Bom Despacho , 18°51’13,8’’S, 49°4’55,6’’W, 720 m, 06 July 2016, (fl., fr.), J.A. Oliveira et al. 109 ( UFG) GoogleMaps   , 110 (UFG), 111 (UFG), 112 (UFG), 113 (UFG), 114 (UFG), 115 (UFG); Cardeal Mota, Serra do cipó, October 1997, (fr.), M. Sobral & K. Esposito 6262 ( ICN)   ; Caeté, 29 June 1933, (fl.), M. Barreto 6019 (F); Curimataí, arredores ( Mun. Buenópolis ), 19 August 2002, (fl., fr.), G. Hatschbach et al. 73657 ( HRB)   ; Diamantina, descida ao rio Jequitinhonha , 23 July 1998, (fr.), G. Hatschbach et al. 68106 ( MBM)   ; Furnas, Cerrado próximo ás eclusas, pela estrada Belo Horizonte , 05 July 1995, (fl.), J.A. Lombardi 836 ( BHCB)   ; ibid., Cerrado próximo às eclusas, pela estrada Belo Horizonte , 06 July 1995, (fl., fr.), J.A. Lombardi 841 ( BHCB)   ; Grão Mogol , cerrado aberto, 600-800 m, 20 July 1985, (fl., fr.), G. Martinelii et al. 11211 ( BHCB)   ; Jaboticatubas, Serra do cipó, 1200 m, 26 July 1979, (fl., fr.), W. Montovani. 88 ( SP)   ; Oliveira, Rod. Fernão Dias, 4 September 1971, (fl., fr.), G. Hatschbach 26970 (M); Patos , 19 June 1936, M. Barreto 6022 (F); Raposos , 20°01’13’’S, 43° 76’85’’W, 1170 m, 7 May 2010, (fr.), T. Neto & T. Mansur 4855 ( BHCB)   ; Santana do Riacho, Serra do cipó, 24 May 1993, (fl.), J.A. Lombardi & F.R.N. Toledo 265 ( BHCB)   ; ibid., ca. de 1-2 km acima do Córrego Chapéu do Sol, Campo rupestre, 03 July 1996, (fl.), V.C. Souza et al. 11592 ( BHCB)   ; ibid., 19°18’47’’S, 43°37’12,2’’W, 851 m, 01 August 2012, (fr.), I.A.C. Coutinho et al. 28 ( VIC) GoogleMaps   ; ibid., 24.05.1993; Santa Luzia, Serra do Cipó km. 117- Chapéu do Sol , 6 August 1936, (fl., fr.), W.A. Archer & Mello Barreto 5001 ( BHCB) GoogleMaps   ; São Gonçalo do Rio Preto, Parque Estadual do Rio Preto , área com vegetação de cerrado e formações rupestres, 11 June 1999, (fl.), A. Salino 4810 ( BHCB)   ; São Paulo: Parque Estadual das Furnas do Bom Jesus , 20°11’50’’S, 47°25’10’’W, 900 m, 09 July 2003, (fr.), D. Sasaki et al. 629 ( UEC) GoogleMaps   ; Tocantins: Dianópolis, beira da estrada, após a lagoa Bonita , 11°44’26’’S, 46°40’57’’W, 621 m, 30 September 2003, (fr.), T.B. Cavalcanti et al. 3443 ( CEN) GoogleMaps   ; ibid., Palmeirópolis, Fazenda do Sr. Samuel , 13°02’47’’S, 48°09’51’’W, 260 m, 90 May 2007, (fr.), G.P. Silva et al. 11710 ( CEN) GoogleMaps   ; ibid GoogleMaps   ., Paraná, Fazenda Alegre , 19°06’15’’S, 48°05’59’’W, 350 m, 15 May 2007, (fr.), G.P. Silva et al. 11818 ( CEN) GoogleMaps   .

Etymology:—the specific epithet “ setosa   ” refers to the setose trichomes that cover the stem of the species.

Geographical distribution and ecology:— Chamaecrista setosa   is species with the widest distribution of the series, occurring in areas of cerrado sensu lato between 260-1200 m in the Brazilian states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Piauí, Tocantins, São Paulo and Federal District ( Fig. 24).

Phenology:—The specimens are perennial, with the peak of flowering in the dry season (from April to October). However, some populations may show early flowering, starting in January. Usually, at the beginning of the year, we observe old inflorescences, only after the rainy season (March and April) do young inflorescences begin to appear, with the greatest peak of flowering in September and October.

Conservation status:—The species is assessed as being of least concern (LC) due to its wide distribution across much of Brazil with EOO of 1,949,952.51 km 2.

Taxonomic relationships and morphological characterization:— Irwin and Barneby (1982) recognized four varieties for Ch. setosa   ( Ch. setosa var. setosa   , Ch. setosa var. subsetosa   , Ch. setosa var. paucivenia   and Ch. setosa var. dentosa   ). However, analyzing many collections, we observed that all varieties have quite overlapping characteristics, which makes it difficult to identify them. This phenotypic variation may be the result of a species with wide distribution. That said, and based on morphological characteristics and overlapping distribution we are proposing all varieties of Ch. setosa   as synonyms. Chamaecrista setosa   it is a polymorphic species. However, its can be recognized by having habit subshrubby to arboreal, the main stems usually woody, densely recovered by vinaceous ou reddish setose-viscous trichomes, including inflorescences, leaves with 2, rarely 3 pairs of coriaceous leaflets dorsoventrally differentiatedwith secondary veins ascending in relation to the midrib and anastomosed before the margin; and inflorescences pending or suberect, profusely ramified, up to 90 cm of length, with secondary axes long, and flowers with sepals yellow with a central spot vinaceous, reddish or vinaceous with margin yellowish, as well as petals light or dark yello, and fruits vinaceous ou greenish with vinaceous or reddish margin.

Excluded species and it synonymization

UFG

Universidade Federal de Goiás

IBGE

Reserva Ecológica do IBGE

HEPH

Jardim Botânico de Brasília

ICN

Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural

HRB

IBGE

MBM

San Jose State University, Museum of Birds and Mammals

BHCB

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

SP

Instituto de Botânica

VIC

Universidade Federal de Viçosa

UEC

Universidade Estadual de Campinas

CEN

EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia - CENARGEN

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Fabales

Family

Fabaceae

Genus

Chamaecrista

Loc

Chamaecrista setosa (Vogel) Irwin & Barneby (1982: 650)

Oliveira, Jaqueline Aparecida De, Mendes, Thainara Policarpo, Souza, Alessandro Oliveira De & Silva, Marcos José Da 2021
2021
Loc

Chamaecrista setosa var. dentosa (Bentham) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (1982: 651)

Irwin, H. S. & Barneby, R. C. 1982: )
Bentham, G. 1870: )
1982
Loc

Chamaecrista setosa var. paucivenia

Irwin, H. S. & Barneby, R. C. 1982: )
Irwin, H. S. & Barneby, R. C. 1978: )
1982
Loc

Chamaecrista setosa var. subsetosa (Malme) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (1982: 561)

Irwin, H. S. & Barneby, R. C. 1982: )
Malme, G. O. A. 1931: )
1982
Loc

Cassia chrysotingens

Hoehne, F. C. 1919: )
1919
Loc

Cassia setosa var. angusta

Bentham, G. 1870: )
1870