Trochocyathus (Trochocyathus) sp. 1

Filander, Zoleka N., Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D., Sink, Kerry J. & Lombard, Amanda T., 2021, Azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) from South Africa, ZooKeys 1066, pp. 1-198 : 1

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Trochocyathus (Trochocyathus) sp. 1


Trochocyathus (Trochocyathus) sp. 1

Figs 5O, P View Figure 5 , 6A, B View Figure 6

Trochocyathus rawsonii . - Gardiner 1904: 100-103, 124, pl. 1, fig. 2A, B, pl. 2, fig. D, E, G, H, J, K . - Cairns and Keller 1993: 241.

Caryophyllia gigas . - Boshoff 1981: 36.

Endopachys grayi . - Boshoff 1981: 42 (in part).

Material examined.

SAMC_A073233 (2 specimens): Southern margin, 14 km from Cape Point / 10 km off Buffels Wes Estuary, 34°13'59.99"S, 18°30'00.00"E; 42 m. GoogleMaps SAM_H1244 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 7 km from East London / 5 km off Buffalo Estuary, 33°02'59.99"S, 27°56'59.99"E; 59 m. GoogleMaps SAM_H1449 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 14 km from Mazeppa Bay / 20 km off Great KeiEstuary, 32°34'00.00"S, 28°33'00.00"E; 174 m. GoogleMaps SAM_H3115 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 2 km off Mosselbaai / 10 km off Hartenbos Estuary, 34°10'37.57"S, 22°09'19.14"E; 55 m. GoogleMaps SAM_H3117 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 246 km from Mazeppa Bay / 243 km off Mendu Estuary, 33°43'11.99"S, 30°48'47.99"E; 780 m. GoogleMaps SAM_H3177 (2 specimens): Southern margin, 15 km from Port Alfred / 11 km off Riet Estuary, 33°39'18.00"S, 27°11'35.99"E; 90 m. GoogleMaps SAM_H3833 (1 specimen): Eastern margin, 34 km from Coffee Bay / 7 km off Ntlonyane Estuary, 32°15'11.99"S, 28°57'42.00"E; 47 m. GoogleMaps SAM_H3834 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 23 km from Port Elizabeth / 22 km off Bakens River Estuary, 33°50'41.99"S, 25°47'30.00"E; 36 m. GoogleMaps ORI_DIIIa4_3 (1 specimen): Locality data unknown, 300 m. ORI_EId1 (2 specimens): Eastern margin, other locality data unknown. USNM 77220 (3 specimens): Eastern margin, 28 km from Coffee Bay / 19 km off Bulungulu Estuary, 32°14'53.99"S, 29°10'23.99"E; 620- 560 m. GoogleMaps

Imagery data.

BMNH 1950.03.22.17 (1 specimen), BMNH 1950.01.10.112 (1 specimen), NHMUK 1970.01.26.11-20 (2 specimens): South Africa, other locality data unknown. Mortensen Java Expedition (12 specimens): Eastern margin, off Durban, 128 m.


Corallum solitary, ceratoid to trochoid, mostly attached through a variably sized pedicel (PD:GCD = 0.3-0.7). Calice circular to slightly elliptical (GCD:LCD = 1.0-1.1), calicular margin slightly serrated. Largest specimen examined (ORI_DIIIa4_3) 11.1 × 10.1 mm in CD, 12.0 mm in H, and 6.6 mm in PD. Costae prominent from calicular margin to base, similar in width to associated septa, equidistant, low, bearing small granules, and separated by thin intercostal furrows. Corallum white.

Septa hexamerally arranged in four cycles according to the formula: S1 ≥ S2 > S3 > S4 (48 septa); sometimes a pair of S5 present in a half-system (e.g., ORI_EId1). S1 most exsert, equal or slightly wider than S2, with straight or slightly sinuous axial margin. S2 ¼ wider than S3 with moderately sinuous axial margin. S3 as sinuous as S2. S4 rudimentary and bearing dentate axial margin. S3-4 progressively less exsert than S2. Pali present before all but last septal cycle. P2-3 joining deeper in fossa, forming thick chevrons before S2. Pali tall, being distinctively higher than columellar elements. All septal and palar faces covered with small granules. Fossa moderately deep, containing a papillose columella composed of a group of 6-18 loosely-packed, low-profile rods.


Regional: Southern to eastern margin of South Africa, from off Cape Point towards Coffee Bay; 36-780 m.


The validity of Gardiner’s (1904) specimens as Trochocyathus (T.) rawsonii has long been questioned due to their well-developed costae, slender pedicel, and rarely bearing S5 ( Cairns 1979; Zibrowius and Gili 1990; Cairns and Keller 1993). The examined material conforms to these characteristics and closely resembles Gardiner’s (1904) illustrations. Nevertheless, the specimens reported herein, together with Gardiner’s (1904), might represent a new species. However, as Trochocyathus have great intraspecific variation, a formal description is postponed. Nonetheless, these new records extend the known distribution of this taxon towards the eastern margin of South Africa and also expand its known depth range (both upper and lower).














Trochocyathus (Trochocyathus) sp. 1

Filander, Zoleka N., Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D., Sink, Kerry J. & Lombard, Amanda T. 2021

Trochocyathus rawsonii

Guynia sensu Cairns in Cairns & Keller 1993

Caryophyllia gigas

van der Horst 1931

Endopachys grayi

Milne-Edwards & Haime 1848