Enitharoides brasiliensis ( Spinola, 1837 ),

Nessimian, Jorge Luiz, 2017, Resurrecting the genus Enitharoides Brooks, 1953 (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Notonectidae): description of three new species and redescription of Enitharoides brasiliensis (Spinola, 1837), comb. nov., Zootaxa 4323 (4), pp. 469-486: 472-476

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Enitharoides brasiliensis ( Spinola, 1837 )

comb. nov.

Enitharoides brasiliensis ( Spinola, 1837)  comb. nov.

( Figs. 1–23View FIGURES 1 – 11View FIGURES 12 – 20View FIGURES 21 – 23, 64View FIGURE 64)

Enithares brasiliensis Spinola, 1837 

Spinola (1837): 60 [Description: “Du Brésil”; Holotype deposited in Museo Regionale di Scienze naturali di Torino]; Kirkaldy (1897): 393 [Note]; Kirkaldy (1904): 101 [Redescription: “Brasilien, Minas Gerães (Stockholmer Mus.) Espirito Sancto (meine Sammlung).”; synonym: Bothronotus grandis Fieber, 1852  and Notonecta grandis Germar  in Herrich- Schäffer,1853]; Kirkaldy & Torre-Bueno (1909): 200 [List]; Hungerford (1933): 176, pl. VIII, fig 1-2 [First illustration of genital capsule]; Truxal (1952): 34 [Note about genital capsule]; Casale (1981): 87 [Catalogue of Collezione Emitterologica di Massimiliano Spinola]; Nieser & Melo (1997): 75 [Key and records in Minas Gerais, Brazil]; Goulart et al. (2002):69 [relationship between environmental variables and diversity].

Bothronotus grandis Fieber, 1852 

Fieber (1852): 470 [Description: “Aus Brasilien (Germar. Mus. Ber.)”].

Notonecta grandis Germar, 1853 

Germar in Herrich-Schäffer (1853): 42 [According Walker (1873), types deposited in the Collection of the British Museum].

Enithares  Enitharoides braziliensis Spinola, 1837 

Brooks (1953): 74, 75, figs A, D [Description of subgenus; illustration of genital capsule].

Enithares braziliensis Spinola, 1837 

Hungerford (1933): 11 [Footnote]; Lansbury (1968): 355 [History of Enithares  ]; Vianna & Melo (2003): 126 [Survey: Retiro das Pedras, Brazil]; Pelli et al. (2006): 70 [Survey: Serra da Canastra, Brazil]; Souza et al. (2006): 809 [Survey: Mariana, Brazil]; Ribeiro et al. (2010): 307 [Survey: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]; Heckman (2011): 503 [Key to species from South America].

Enitharoides brasiliensis ( Spinola, 1837) 

Henriques-Oliveira & Nessimian (2010): 118 [Composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient]; Moreira et al. (2011): 56 [Checklist]; Cordeiro & Moreira (2015): 27 [Records from South America].

Redescription. MALES (n=10) /FEMALES (n=10). Body length (from apex of head to apex of hemelytra): 15.2– 16.2/13.9–15.0; greatest vertex width: 1.3–1.7/1.5–1.6; synthlipsis: 1.1–1.2/1.0–1.1; eye width: 2.0–2.1/1.8–2.0; head length: 1.3–1.7/1.3–1.8; greatest head width: 5.1–5.4 /4.5–5.0; pronotum length: 1.6–1.9/1.6–1.9; greatest pronotum width: 5.8–6.1/5.3–5.6; scutellum length: 4.1–4.8/3.8–4.2; greatest scutellum width: 4.8–5.3/4.5–4.8.

Color. Wide variation in color pattern. Body entirely yellow to dark brown ( Figs. 1–4View FIGURES 1 – 11). Patch of setae of fore tibia and tarsus brown; greyish to dark brown setae distributed throughout connexivum. Head yellow to light brown, with two light brown triangles on vertex; transition between vertex and frons yellow or reddish; frons yellow or reddish with brown macula. Rostrum yellow to dark brown. Pronotum yellow with foveate area dark brown. Scutellum entirely yellow; yellow with brown maculae irregularly distributed; dark brown with one yellow macula on each side of punctations; or entirely dark brown. Hemelytra entirely yellow or brown to dark brown with base to mid-length yellow. Hind wing translucent and brown ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 1 – 11). Legs yellow or reddish, with brown spots distributed throughout trochanters and femora; or coxae and trochanters entirely brown, femora predominantly yellow, and tibiae and tarsi entirely yellow ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 1 – 11). Ventrally body yellow to brown with abdominal ventral keel yellow ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 – 11).

MALE. External morphology. Head with greatest width 3.2–4.1 times its median length, and 3.1–4.2 times vertex width. Vertex width 1.3–1.6 times synthlipsis. Eye width 1.7–2.1 times synthlipsis. Pronotum with greatest width 3–4 times its median length, 1.1 times head greatest width; median length equal to 1.3 times head length; posterior margin concave medially ( Figs. 1–4View FIGURES 1 – 11). Scutellum with greatest width 1.1–1.2 times its median length; longitudinal median length 2.1–3.0 times pronotum median length; pattern of punctations on scutellum in a wide rectangular strip, not reaching posterior margin; puncture rounded in individuals with yellow scutellum ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 1 – 11) and irregular in individuals with dark scutellum ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 11). Middle femur setose, with setae very short and dark ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 1 – 11); anteapical pointed protuberance apparently absent ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 1 – 11) to weakly developed, with blunt setae at apex, slightly curved toward apex ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 1 – 11). Hemelytra with nodal furrow curved anterad, shorter than distance between its tip and membranal suture. Metaxyphus with margins rounded and apex conspicuously acute to spatulate; with two strips of setae ( Fig. 11View FIGURES 1 – 11).

Genitalia. Posterior region of male genital capsule ending in an acute angle with no trace of posterior extension; posterodorsal margin of the genital capsule almost straight ( Figs. 12 – 13, 16View FIGURES 12 – 20). Right paramere anteriorly truncate, notched on its dorsal margin ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 12 – 20) or continuous ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 12 – 20) near anterior end; posteriorly rounded; with a patch of setae centered on its surface. Left paramere narrowing anteriorly, with dorsal margin forming a groove along median region; posteriorly rounded, with abundant setae throughout dorsal region ( Figs. 13, 15View FIGURES 12 – 20). Aedeagus rotated to left side; phallosoma annulate; endosoma short, smooth, without appendages ( Figs. 17 – 20View FIGURES 12 – 20).

FEMALE. External morphology. Head with greatest width 2.8–4.1 times its median length, and 2.8–3.4 times vertex width. Vertex width 1.4–1.5 times synthlipsis. Eye width 1.7–2.0 times synthlipsis. Pronotum with greatest width 3–3.5 times its median length, and 1.1–1.2 times head greatest width; median length subequal to 1.4 times head length; posterior margin slightly concave. Scutellum with greatest width 1.2–1.3 its median length; median length 2.1–2.4 times pronotum median length ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 21 – 23); dark individuals with fewer punctures centered on scutellum. Middle femur sparsely setose ( Fig. 22View FIGURES 21 – 23). Abdominal sternum VII narrow with apex rounded ( Fig. 23View FIGURES 21 – 23).

Distribution. Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo!) ( Fig. 64View FIGURE 64).

Type material. The type material is deposited in Museo Regionale di Scienze naturali di Torino ( Casale 1981).

Material examined. BRAZIL. Minas Gerais State— Lambari, Parque Estadual Nova Baden  , 05.III.2003, (S. C. Buys), det. J. F. Barbosa: 1 m ( DZRJ 2259). Rio de Janeiro State— Angra dos Reis   , PARNA Serra da Bocaina, Trilha  do Ouro, Tributário do Mambucaba (P13), 22°55'520"S, 44°37'520"W  , 07.VIII.2004 (A.L. Henriques- Oliveira): 1 m ( DZRJ 3004); Serra do Piloto   , 09.VIII.1992, (S. Potsch): 1 m ( DZRJ 536). Nova Friburgo, Macaé de Cima, Represa Igrejinha (MC006), 22°24'08.80"S, 42°30'48.90"WGoogleMaps  , 965m, 17.II.2016, (N. Ferreira Jr., R. Jordão, I. Souza): 4 m and 1 f ( DZRJ 4264); Macaé de Cima, Rio Macaé, Represa   , 30.XI.2008 (N. Ferreira-Jr.): 4 m and 1 f ( DZRJ 3519); Represa do Macaé (vegetação marginal): 9 m ( DZRJ 3521)  ; 29.XI.2008: 4 m and 1 f ( DZRJ 3520). Nova Iguaçu, Tinguá, Rebio do Tinguá , afluente do Rio Tinguá , ponte, 22°35'02.1"S, 43°26'43.5"WGoogleMaps  , 223 m (TIN 04), 13.IX.2016, (J.F. Barbosa, L.L. Dumas, J.L. Nessimian): 2 f ( DZRJ 4423); Rio Macuco , 22°34'58.9"S, 43°26'49.2"WGoogleMaps  , 241 m (TIN 05), 15.IX.2016: 1 f ( DZRJ 4426). Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca   , 15.XII.1991, (J. L. Nessimian): 1 m (DZRJ 809); poça, 02.IX.2001 (D.I. Faria): 1 m ( DZRJ 1031). Teresópolis, Serra do Subaio , [riacho de mata]  , 07.VI.1996, (J. L. Nessimian), 1 m ( DZRJ 350); Serra do Subaio , rio próximo ao brejo  , 31.III.1996, (J. L. Nessimian): 1 m ( DZRJ 354); Serra do Subaio, represa do Rio Canoas 07.VI.1996, (J. L. Nessimian & N. Ferreira-Jr): 1 m ( DZRJ 358); Serra do Subaio (poça dentro da mata, acima do Hotel Sayonara )  , 18.VIII.1996, (J.L. Nessimian, A. Huamantinco): 1 m and 1 f ( DZRJ 519); Serra do Subaio   : 3 m ( DZRJ 526); Serra do Subaio (piscina do Hotel Sayonara )  , 30.III.1996, (J.C.F. de Assis): 1 m (DZRJ 588); 20.IV.1995, (J.L. Nessimian): 1 m ( DZRJ 592); Vale da Revolta (sedimento)  , 20.IV.1995 (N. Ferreira-Jr.): 1 m ( DZRJ 572); Vale da Revolta, Tributário do Rio Paquequer   , 13.IV.1991, (J.L. Nessimian): 1 m ( DZRJ 987); Vale da Revolta, Rio Paquequer (folhiço e areia entre pedra)  , 19.VIII.1996 (A.L. Carvalho, N. Ferreira-Jr.): 1 m ( DZRJ 520); Rio Paquequer , remanso  , 01.IV.1996 (N. Ferreira-Jr.): 1 m (DZRJ 349); (folhiço de fundo), 05.XI.1994 (J.L. Nessimian): 1 m ( DZRJ 540). Santa Maria Madalena, P.E. do Desengano, Morumbeca dos Marreiros , Ribeirão Macapá ( DES 07View Materials), 21°52'36.10"S, 41°54'43.80"WGoogleMaps  , 1111m, 14.IV.2016 (L.L. Dumas, J.L. Nessimian, C.S. Portela, J.F. Barbosa): 1 m ( DZRJ 4295); afl. do Ribeirão Macapá, remanso (atrás do 2° Chalé ), 21°52'39.00"S, 41°54'55.30"WGoogleMaps  , 1110 m (DES 08), 14.IV.2016, (L.L. Dumas, J.L. Nessimian, C.S. Portela, J.F. Barbosa): 1 f (DZRJ 4290); Ribeirão Macapá (ponte) (DES 09), 21°52'34.90"S, 41°54'54.90"W, 1045m, 14.IV.2016: 1 m and 3 f (DZRJ 4284); 22.X.2016 (J.F. Barbosa, L.L. Dumas, J.L. Nessimian): 2 m and 1 f (DZRJ 4441); 23.X.2016: 1 m and 2 f ( DZRJ 4436); afluente de 1ª ordem do Ribeirão Macapá, próx ao Chalé , 21°52'37.5"S, 41°55'10.3"WGoogleMaps  , 1055 m ( DES 11View Materials): 1 f ( DZRJ 4281); afluente de 1ª ordem do Ribeirão Macapá , 21°52'41.90"S, 41°54'29.50"WGoogleMaps  , 1083m (DES 12), 15.IV.2016: 1 f (DZRJ 4280); Ribeirão Macapá (trilha para o poço do padre) (DES 37), 21°52'33.7"S, 41°55'19.1"W, 985m, 22.X.2016: 1 m and 1 f ( DZRJ 4440); Ribeirão Macapá, Poço do Padre ( DES 39View Materials), 21°52'23.2"S, 41°55'34.6"WGoogleMaps  , 1030m, 22.X.2016 (J.F. Barbosa, L.L. Dumas, J.L. Nessimian): 4 m and 2 f ( DZRJ 4435); afluente do Ribeirão Macapá (1ª ordem) ( DES 38View Materials), 21°52'33.9"S / 41°55'21.8"WGoogleMaps  , 1052m, 22.X.2016 (J.F. Barbosa, L.L. Dumas, J.L. Nessimian): 2 m and 2 f ( DZRJ 4438); Sossego do Imbé, afluente de 2ª ordem do Rio Roncador (ponte) ( DES 16View Materials), 21°57'17.60"S, 41°57'29.30"WGoogleMaps  , 695m, 16.IV.2016: 1 m ( DZRJ 4297); Parque Estadual do Desengano, Córrego da Rifa   , 23.XI.2000 (L.F.M. Dorvillé): 1 m and 2 f ( DZRJ 3005); Rifa, Rio Rifa (estação tratamento CEDAE) ( DES 15View Materials), 21°57'10.60"S, 41°57'17.50"WGoogleMaps  , 695m, 16.IV2016: 6 m and 4 f (DZRJ 4298); 21.X.2016 (J.F. Barbosa, L.L. Dumas, J.L. Nessimian): 2 m ( DZRJ 4437). Campos dos Goytacazes, Itacolomi, P.E. do Desengano, afluente do Córrego da Malhada Branca , Poço Parado , 21°49'58.7"S, 41°49'47.4"WGoogleMaps  , 919 m (DES 44), 25.X.2016, (L.L. Dumas, J.L. Nessimian): 3 n (DZRJ 4473); afl. do Córrego Malhada Branca (trilha) (DES 47), 21°49'59.8"S, 41°49'57.0"W, 958m, 24.X.2016: 3 m ( DZRJ 4442). São Paulo State! — Esta. Biol. Boracéia , Salesópolis, S.P  . 850 m, em riacho, 16.I.1958 (F. Trav., E. Dente): 1 m ( MZUSP); Est. Biol. da Boracéia , riacho a direita da Estrada—± 150 m antes da sede, A  , 6-8.XI.1993, (A. Jerozolimski): 1 m ( MZUSP); Est. Biol. da Boracéia, localidade A: 1 m and 2 f ( MZUSP); São José do Barreiro , lajeado, paredão, vegetação marginal, 22°43'33.3"S, 44°37'17.6"WGoogleMaps  , 03.V.2010, (B. Clarkson): 1 m and 1 f (DZRJ 3006).

Taxonomic notes. The original description of E. brasiliensis  is very short and lacks illustrations and basic information about length, color pattern and shape of parameres. Despite Kirkaldy’s (1897) statement about “Rhynchotographieen”, Fieber’s description of Bothronotus grandis  was a clear improvement; he cited a measurement of “7 2/3 Linien” and noted the punctation on the scutellum. In contrast, the description of Notonecta grandis  was uninformative. The first comprehensive description of E. brasiliensis  was that of Kirkaldy (1904), which mentioned the length of the body (15–18 mm) and several other measurement ratios based on specimens from Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. However, without illustrations of the genital capsule, it is impossible to know if these specimens were E. brasiliensis  .

This species exhibits a wide range in color pattern and size of the middle femur anteapical pointed protuberance. At least in this species, the quantity of punctures on the scutellum seems to be related to the color of the individual. The right paramere also varies slightly, with a slight emargination on the proximal end of the dorsal margin in some specimens.

As in males of Enitharoides lanemeloi  , males of E. brasiliensis  have the middle femur with the ventral surface not conspicuously setose, and the anteapical pointed protuberance not developed. These species are distinguished by the shape the parameres. In E. brasiliensis  , the right paramere is lightly to not notched near the anterior margin, in the left paramere a groove is formed along the median region and the posterodorsal margin of the genital capsule is almost straight. In E. lanemeloi  , the right paramere is strongly notched near the anterior margin, the left paramere lacks a groove along the median region and the posterodorsal margin of the genital capsule is emarginate.

Biological notes. These specimens are usually found in streams with slow current, generally at high elevation localities. When disturbed, they quickly escape by swimming and hiding near rocks and vegetation. As do specimens of Notonecta  , they normally rest just under the waterline.


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo














Enitharoides brasiliensis ( Spinola, 1837 )

Nessimian, Jorge Luiz 2017

Enitharoides brasiliensis ( Spinola, 1837 )

Nessimian 2017

Bothronotus grandis

Fieber 1852

Bothronotus grandis

Fieber 1852

Enithares brasiliensis

Spinola 1837

Enitharoides braziliensis

Spinola 1837

Enithares braziliensis

Spinola 1837