Cinachyrella solis, Sim-Smith & Hickman & Kelly, 2021

Sim-Smith, Carina, Hickman, Cleveland & Kelly, Michelle, 2021, New shallow-water sponges (Porifera) from the Galápagos Islands, Zootaxa 5012 (1), pp. 1-71 : 37-40

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Cinachyrella solis

sp. nov.

Cinachyrella solis sp. nov.

( Fig. 17 View FIGURE 17 )

Material examined. Holotype — MCCDRS9476, Darwin’s Arch, 1.672° N, 91.991° W, 20.4 m, 14 Nov 2003.

Type locality. Darwin’s Arch , Darwin Island .

Habitat and distribution. Only known from type locality. Found growing on rock; 20 m.

Description. Globular sponge, 30 mm in diameter, with a furry, hispid surface and numerous scattered, sometimes quite large porocalices. Much sandy debris and filamentous red algae are present on the surface. Colour in life is golden yellow, colour in ethanol is tan ( Fig. 17A View FIGURE 17 ). Texture is very firm, not compressible.

Skeleton. Radial, dense bundles of oxeas radiate out from the centre of the sponge to protrude beyond the surface of the sponge. No ectosomal layer is present ( Fig. 17B View FIGURE 17 ). Oxeas are the most common megasclere. Protriaenes are common, particularly protriaene/prodiaenes II, positioned with their cladomes just below the surface of the sponge. ( Fig. 17C View FIGURE 17 ). Anatriaenes are rare. Sigmaspires are abundantly scattered throughout the choanosome.

Spicules. Megascleres— oxeas, large and stout, 3165 (2113–4095) × 25 (17–33) µm (n = 20) ( Fig. 17H View FIGURE 17 ). Protriaene I, 4208 (3056–4905) µm long (n = 6), with a variable shaped cladome; cladome width 40 (25–76) µm (n = 15) ( Fig. 17E View FIGURE 17 ). Protriaene/prodiaenes II, with an extremely fine shaft, 1408 (1177–1970) µm long (n = 10), and a small, narrow U-shaped cladome with two or three clads; cladome width 12 (7–19) µm (n = 20) ( Fig. 17F–G View FIGURE 17 ). Anatriaenes, very long with an extremely slender shaft making it extremely difficult to obtain whole spicules, up to 6700 µm long, with a narrow, flat cladome 53 (24–88) µm (n = 20) ( Fig. 17D View FIGURE 17 ). Microscleres— sigmaspires, 10 (7–14) µm (n = 20) ( Fig. 17I View FIGURE 17 ).

Etymology. Named for the sun-shaped golden orb of this species (Latin = ‘of the sun’).

Remarks. Only one species of Cinachyrella has been previously described from the Galápagos Islands — C. desqueyrouxae Van Soest & Hooper, 2020 , which differs from C. solis sp. nov. in that the former possesses orthotriaenes, plagiotriaenes and microxeas, but no protriaenes.

Genus Craniella Schmidt, 1870

Diagnosis. Tetillidae without porocalices, with a distinct cortex strengthened by special cortical oxeas. Globular sponges with conulose but optically smooth surface over most of the upper body; at the base there are bundles of spicules acting as a root. Oscules few, usually on top. Megascleres, protriaenes, anatriaenes, choanosomal oxeas, shorter cortical oxeas. Microscleres, sigmaspires (may be lost not infrequently) (from Van Soest & Rützler 2002).