Viidalepp, Jaan, 2011, A morphological review of tribes in Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), Zootaxa 3136, pp. 1-44: 22

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http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.279481



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Tribe Operophterini   Packard, 1896

( Figs 75–77 View FIGURES 75 – 77 )

Forbes (1948) described the tribe as follows: a pair of small sclerites lateral to clypeus present and naked gena as autapomorphies of the tribe; long accessory cell in forewing and peculiarities of venation and phenology; micropterism of females, associated with high fecundity. Some East Palaearctic species of Operophtera Hübner   and related genera with fully winged females share the above characters with Epirrita Hübner.  

The group of “winter moths” has been discussed from the aspects of its extreme traits of bioecology and female micropterism. Yamamoto and Sota (2007) and Snäll et al. (2007) have also tried to elucidate the position of Operophterini   within the subfamily and the timing of its speciation. Snäll et al. (2007) found sister-group relationships between Perizomini   and Operophterini   ; from the aspect of comparative morphology, both share long labides which fuse together at the apex. Operophterin has a stout uncus and Epirrita   - specifically modified male sternite A 8 ( Figs 75, 76 View FIGURES 75 – 77 )

The following traits characterize the tribe supplementally: ecological trait: polyphagous on trees and shrubs; male antenna ciliated long (shared with Alsophilinae   and some ennomine winter moths); labides arise from juxta, while the connection to costa base is membranous (shared with Melanthiini   ); labides tips united roof-like upon the juxta.

The tribe is restricted to the Holarctic region, being most speciose in East Asia.