Viidalepp, Jaan, 2011, A morphological review of tribes in Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), Zootaxa 3136, pp. 1-44: 23-25

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Tribe Cidariini   Duponchel, 1845

( Figs 78–80, 82 – 83 View FIGURES 78 – 83 )

Pierce (1914) discussed the genera, now placed in the tribes Cidariini   and Hydriomenini   , together, listing the common characters as follows: “a rather compact group, composed of a few closely allied genera. The large simple valva, and the extended anellus lobes. Often with clavate scales, … manica finely spined. The signum … small, scobinate”. However, concerning the first included genus, Lampropteryx Stephens   , it is added that there is a “hinge” between the ninth and the tenth segments (i.e. between tegumen and uncus), and Pierce described the labides attached to the point of connection of transtilla and tegumen. Labides of Lampropteryx Stephens   and Nebula Bruand   have labides bipartite, with a hinge between.

Pierce separated the subfamily Therinae for the species with ”costa well developed, sacculus extended, aedeagus ctenoid at orifice and anellus lobes strong, with spatulate scales.” Forbes (1948) has collected an over-heterogenous assemblage of genera under his equivalent of Cidariini   ( Hydriomenini   ).

Choi (e.g. 1997), Viidalepp and Kostjuk (2005) and Viidalepp (2003) have analyzed different sets of cidariine genera using cladistic methodology. Choi (1997) found seven strict synapomorphic characters to support the monophyly of the tribe: bulged postmedial line of the forewing; long male eighth abdominal segment; oblong or posteriorly broad male eighth sternite; absence of calcar; membranous female eighth tergite; ostium with sclerotized short cingulum, which is open dorsally; SV 4 seta of larval third abdominal segment outside the L 1 –SV 1 line; moderate and rounded paraprocts in larva.

Choi (2007) found four characters discriminating Thera Stephens   : valve costa with medial projection; cucullus large; cornuti, a few in number, arranged corona-like around the aedeagus mouth.

He paid attention to characters of anellus and relations of tegumen and vinculum in male genitalia, and synonymized Therini Pierce with Cidariini   , Viidalepp and Kostjuk (2005) analyzed a case of character reduction on the cidariine background. Retrograde evolution of morphological characters, if occurs, then in several sections of a group, and will be ignored by cladistic methodology. Another case study of the Mediterranean genus Protothera ( Viidalepp 2003) demonstrated how essential it is to include more than one representative species of each group into a matrix for cladistic analysis to be sure that their synapomorphic traits will be revealed. These studies revealed the presence of four main clades within Holarctic Cidariini   , characterized by synapomorphic traits: conifer-feeding genera with male genital capsule well sclerotized and valva a plate ,,with sacculus tip projecting scelerotized” ( Thera Stephens   and allies); presence of specialized thick setae (hamuli) on labides ( Nebula Bruand   and allies); valva with a subcostal furrow on inner side, between costa and valvula, associated with vestiture on medial wall of valva long and springing from ring-like ornamentation; thick vestiture to labides, consisting of clavate hairscales, associated with long palpi in moths.

The variation of putative cidariine genera in Neotropical fauna (e.g. Brabirodes cerevia Druce   , Fig. 82 View FIGURES 78 – 83 ) is considerably larger than in boreal fauna.

Scarce data on Erateina   indicate a kind of similarity to Cidariini   (see also discussion under Eratenini). The genus Hagnagora Druce   has some similarities to Cidariini   as well:

However, Sihvonen et al. (2011) showed Hagnagora   clustered with Hydriomena   . This may be correct as H. vittata Philippi   has more setae on proleg of mature larva than typical to cidariine larvae studied ( King & Parra 2011; Viidalepp 2006). Hagnagora clustimena Druce   ( Figs 149, 150 View FIGURES 149 – 152 ) has a solid male genital armature with putative clusters of androconian hairscales at uncus base and bases of valvae. H. ephestris Felder and Rogenhofer   ( Figs 151, 152 View FIGURES 149 – 152 ) has a pyriform bursa with well defined cingulum and with two longitudinal bands of flat signa. King & Parra (2011) described the biology and larval characters of Hagnagora vittata Philippi.  

Distribution: Neotropical, Holarctic.