Charops Holmgren, 1859

Santos, Alvaro Doria Dos, Onody, Helena Carolina & Brandão, Carlos Roberto Ferreira, 2019, Taxonomic contributions to the genus Charops Holmgren, 1859 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), with description of seven new species from Brazil, Zootaxa 4619 (1), pp. 45-76 : 47-48

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Charops Holmgren, 1859


Genus Charops Holmgren, 1859

( Figs. 2–18 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10 View FIGURE 11 View FIGURE 12 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 View FIGURE 16 View FIGURE 17 View FIGURE 18 )

Charops Holmgren, 1859: 324

Zacharops Viereck, 1912: 646

Gongropelma Enderlein, 1921:13

Type of the genus: Ophion (Campoplex) decipiens Gravenhorst, 1829: 596 by monotypy (= Charops cantator De- Geer, 1778: 594)

Emended Diagnosis: relatively small to large sizes (fore wing 3.1 to 8.2 mm) covered with a silvery or golden pubescence; head strongly lenticular; mandible with a ventral flange; mandibular teeth small with equal or subequal sizes, and upper tooth broader than the lower tooth; clypeus slightly convex and rounded at apex; eyes strongly emarginate opposite to antennal socket; antennae filiform, usually not longer than half of the body; occiput subpolished and occipital carina reaching hypostomal carina at base of mandible; mesosoma short, as long as or slightly longer than high; pronotum short, with transverse wrinkles; epomia strong to absent; mesoscutum without discernible notaulus; epicnemial carina present, extending to 0.5–0.75× the height of mesopleurum; scutellum subquadrate and not acutely carinate laterally, covered with long pubescence; metapleuron with juxtacoxal carina usually complete, sometimes strong on its anterior part and weak on its posterior part; propodeum with or without pubescence, usually rugose to reticulate and with elliptical spiracle; median longitudinal carina strongly present to absent; apex of propodeum close to the apex of hind coxa; legs with tarsal claws pectinate; fore wing areolet absent and 2 m-cu vein straight and vertical; metasoma long and strongly compressed; petiolar part of first segment very long, weakly up curved or straight; tergosternal suture in a dorsal position near base of petiole lateral and ventral near apex of petiole; postpetiole swollen and sometimes bulbous; glymma absent; ovipositor short, straight or upcurved, not projecting beyond apex of metasoma and with a distinct subapical notch.

Etymology: a female word from Greek (χάροψ) which means bright eyes (Hopper, 1959).

Comments: Charops is easily distinguished from all other Campopleginae genera by the following combination of characters: emarginate eyes, tergosternal suture near its upper margin, absence of areolet and relatively short ovipositor. Charops is very similar to Scenocharops Uchida, 1932 , because they share the strongly emarginated eyes, the complete juxtacoxal carina, and the tergosternal suture near its upper margin, in lateral view. However, Scenocharops presents a small petiolate areolet on the fore wing. In Brazil, Charops can be easily misidentified as Casinaria Holmgren,1859 , since both genera have strongly emarginated eyes, and a suture separating the first metasomal sternite from the tergite near its upper margin, in lateral view. It is possible to discern Charops from Casinaria because the latter shows a petiolate areolet on the fore wings, and usually lack a complete set of propodeal carinae as well as the juxtacoxal carina.

Brazilian Charops species have the juxtacoxal carina always present, sometimes faint on its posterior part; epomia present or absent; ovipositor straight or upcurved. It is possible to discern its species by studying the number of flagellomeres, format of supraclipeal area, presence or absence of epomia, the orientation of the propodeal carinae, ovipositor format and body coloration, that may vary in tone or pattern (illustrated for C. lucianae ). Surface sculpturing may vary between faint to strong wrinkles on the mesopleura and the propodeum.

Charops has been registered only in Southeast Brazil ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). However, its occurrence now seems to cover almost all of the Brazilian territory, except for the Midwest and Tocatins, both poorly studied regions (e.g. Fernandes et al. 2014 for Ophioninae ).












Charops Holmgren, 1859

Santos, Alvaro Doria Dos, Onody, Helena Carolina & Brandão, Carlos Roberto Ferreira 2019


Viereck, H. L. 1912: 646


Holmgren, A. E. 1859: 324