Monochaetum carbonoi Alvear & Almeda, 2014

Alvear, Marcela & Almeda, Frank, 2014, Three new species of Monochaetum (Melastomataceae) from Colombia, Phytotaxa 163 (1), pp. 27-38 : 28-36

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.163.1.3

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/CF6687E7-FFDE-7842-FF7E-FA49FBACFCA8

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Monochaetum carbonoi Alvear & Almeda
status

sp. nov.

Monochaetum carbonoi Alvear & Almeda , sp. nov. ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 )

Monochaetum carbonoi is distinguished by its overall pubescence of smooth unbranched trichomes, prominent flap-like scars on the inflorescence nodes, deciduous calyx lobes after anthesis, glabrous hypanthia, dimorphic stamens, and oblongovate, sessile bracteoles.

Type:― COLOMBIA. Magdalena: Santa Marta. Camino a Nuavaca, Río Palomino , 3300 m, 10°52’10” N, 73°38’40” W, 12 February 2010 (fl & fr), E. Carbonó & D. Escribano 5094 (holotype: UTMC!; isotypes: COL! –2 sheets) GoogleMaps .

Shrub 2 m tall with exfoliating bark. Internodes terete to subquadrangular, distal internodes 0.5–3 cm long, moderately strigose, older branches glabrescent, the trichomes 0.4–1 mm long, eglandular, mostly flexuoussmooth, and frequently with a somewhat papillose base. Cauline nodes densely setose with antrorsely hirsute to divaricate trichomes 0.6–2 mm long that are eglandular and flexuous-smooth. Leaves opposite and isophyllous, petiole 4–8 mm long, semiterete, abaxially concave and adaxially channeled to flattened upwards, with the same vestiture as the internodes. Blades 18–35 × 10–20 mm, subcoriaceous, elliptic, the margin revolute and ciliate with the same trichomes as the surface, the apex acute, the base obtuse, 5–7-plinerved, with the innermost pair of secondary veins joining at a point up to 4 mm from the base of the leaf, primary and secondary veins elevated abaxially and impressed adaxially, tertiary and further veins clearly visible abaxially. Adaxial leaf surface green, vestiture between secondary veins moderately strigose, the pubescence homogeneous throughout the blade with eglandular, flexuous-smooth, unbranched trichomes, and frequently with a somewhat papillose base, 0.4–0.7 mm long, vestiture on primary and secondary veins glabrous, forming glabrous strips of 0.5–1.3 mm. Abaxial leaf surface light green, vestiture between secondary veins sparsely strigose, with flexuous-smooth, unbranched trichomes, 0.3–0.6 mm long, vestiture on primary and secondary veins moderately strigose, with flexuous-smooth, unbranched trichomes and frequently with a somewhat papillose base, 0.8–1.3 mm long. Inflorescence 7–15 cm long, terminal, paniculate-thyrsoid, highly branched, floriferous shoots with twice-to thrice-compound dichasia, branches reddish, with prominent flap-like scars 0.3–1 mm thick, peduncles and floriferous branches glabrous. Lowermost floral bracts 25–30 × 1218 mm, petiole 4–6 mm long, similar to the principal leaves in shape, vestiture and color, 5-plinerved. Bracteoles 2–3 × 1–2 mm, reddish, sessile with a truncate base, oblong-ovate, with a broadly acute to obtuse apex, apically irregularly ciliate, glabrous otherwise, 1-nerved. Flowers 4-merous, on pedicels 5–6 mm long, glabrous. Hypanthium (at anthesis) 4.5–5.5 × 2.3–3 mm, campanulate to suburceolate, reddish, glabrous. Calyx lobes 3–4 × 2.3–3.2 mm, deciduous, shorter than the hypanthium, purplish-red, broadly ovate, ciliate, apex broadly acute to obtuse, sometimes shortly acuminate, glabrous on both surfaces, calyx tube obsolete, calyx lobes sinus glabrous. Petals 9–11 × 7–8.5 mm, obovate, magenta to dark pink, entire. Stamens 8, dimorphic and fertile. Antepetalous stamens: filaments 5–5.5 mm long, pink, pedoconnective 0.4–0.6 mm long, anthers 5.2–6 × 0.7–0.85 mm, yellow, subulate, incurved and geniculate, pore 0.3–0.4 mm in diameter, dorsally inclined; appendages 2.8–3 0.5–0.65 mm, yellow, distally falcate, strongly incurved towards the anther, basally terete, medially to apically expanded, papillose. Antesepalous stamens: filaments 4.5–5 mm long, pink, anthers 2.9–3.3 × 0.4–0.5 mm, yellow, subulate, erect, pore 0.25–0.3 mm in diameter, dorsally inclined; appendages 1.8–2 × 0.5 mm, yellow, fusiform-elliptic, flattened, papillose, upturned. Ovary apex densely setose with stout-smooth trichomes 0.2–0.8 mm long. Style 8.5–10 mm long. Seeds 0.6–0.7 × 0.3–0.4 mm, light brown to orange-brown, cochleate, surface minutely foveolate and shiny.

Common names: ―According to indigenous people living in the area where the type was collected, this species belongs to the family of plants locally called “Taylli”.

Phenology: ―The species has been collected in flower and fruit in early February.

Habitat and distribution: ― Endemic to Colombia where it is known only from the type locality in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, an isolated massif in the northwest of Colombia. This species grows at elevations around 3300 m .

Conservation status: ―This species is known only from the type locality in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. This area is located within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park which has an area of 3830 km 2 and an elevational gradient from sea level up to 5775 m ( Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia 2013). Based on IUCN guidelines and criteria ( IUCN 2001, 2011) and our current knowledge of the distribution, this species is assigned a provisional IUCN conservation status of Endangered (EN).

Etymology: ―We dedicate this new species to Professor Eduino Carbonó, Director of the Herbarium at the Universidad del Magdalena, notable Colombian botanist, and collector of the type specimen. We salute him for his important contributions to knowledge of the Colombian flora with an emphasis on the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.

Additional specimens examined: ―None.

Discussion: — Monochaetum carbonoi is distinguished by its overall pubescence of smooth and unbranched trichomes, prominent flap-like scars persisting once the bracts and bracteoles have fallen away on all nodes of the inflorescence, oblong-ovate sessile bracteoles, deciduous calyx lobes after anthesis, glabrous hypanthia, and dimorphic stamens with one set (the antesepalous whorl) smaller but not staminodial.

Other Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta species with deciduous calyx lobes after anthesis include Monochaetum magdalenense and M. uberrimum . They differ in having larger leaves and flowers, different overall indumentum, apiculate flower buds, and having one set of stamens that are staminodial. Monochaetum laxifolium , another species endemic to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta with deciduous calyx lobes, differs by its sprawling habit with divaricate branching, simple to once-compound dichasial inflorescences, eciliate calyx lobes, and isomorphic stamens.

The little material of this new species that was available for study reinforces the need for additional exploration of the isolated and biodiverse massif where it grows.

Monochaetum longicaudatum Alvear & Almeda , sp. nov. ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 )

A species similar to Monochaetum lindenianum ( Naudin 1850: 158) , differing by its denser and more congested inflorescences, abaxial foliar surface with denser, longer and divergent trichomes, ovate to ovate-elliptic petals with a broadly acute apex, longer filaments (9.5–10.3 mm long) and appendages (8–9 mm long) on the antesepalous stamens, and longer style (11–12 mm long), that is antrorsely hirsute (trichomes 0.7–1 mm long) on the basal to medial portion.

Type:― COLOMBIA. (Guajira): Sierra de Santa Marta: Surivaquito , in open páramo, 9000 ft (2743 m), 22 April 1939 (fl), J . Hanbury-Tracy 342 (holotype: US!; isotype: K)

Shrub up to 3 m tall with exfoliating bark. Young internodes quadrangular, some branches with two opposite faces that are sulcate and carinate, distal internodes 0.6–1.5 cm long, densely villous with spreading or sometimes antrorsely hirsute trichomes; the trichomes 1–2 mm long, eglandular, flexuous-smooth, the pubescence usually rufescent, the older branches are glabrescent. Cauline nodes somewhat swollen and frequently with an interpetiolar ridge (usually obscured by the pubescence), densely villous with antrorsely hirsute to divaricate trichomes 2.5–4.5 mm long, eglandular, flexuous-smooth and stout-smooth, frequently with somewhat papillose base. Leaves opposite and isophyllous, petiole 2–3 mm long, abaxially concave and adaxially channeled, with vestiture identical to the internodes. Blades 1.6–3.5 × 1–1.8 cm, membranous-firm, ovate-elliptic to elliptic, margin entire and ciliate with trichomes like those of surface, apex acute, base obtuse to rounded, (5-)7-plinerved, with the innermost pair of secondary veins joining at a point up to 6 mm from the base of the leaf, primary and secondary veins elevated abaxially and impressed adaxially, tertiary veins percurrent and clearly visible abaxially. Adaxial foliar surface green, drying brown or dark green, with light brown pubescence, vestiture between primary and secondary veins densely antrorsely strigose, in 6–8 well-defined longitudinal belts between the veins, with flexuous-smooth basally papillose trichomes 0.8–1.4 mm long; vestiture on primary veins forming glabrous strips along the veins 0.3–0.5 mm wide, some leaves sparsely antrorsely hirsute at the junction of the main veins at the base of the leaves with trichomes like those on the surface, frequently with a few sparse orange short-stalked glandular trichomes less than 0.2 m long on the central veins. Abaxial foliar surface light green, vestiture between primary and secondary veins antrorsely hirsute with flexuous-smooth trichomes 0.6–1 mm long, vestiture on primary and secondary veins densely villous with trichomes 1–2 mm long, similar to those on the surface but ascending to divergent and longer. Inflorescence terminal and terminal on lateral branches, a dense and congested compound dichasium up to 6 cm long, peduncles and floriferous branches with vestiture similar to the internodes but becoming more ascending. Lowermost floral bracts 1.8–2.8 × 0.8–1.3 cm, petiole 2–4 mm long, similar to the principal leaves in shape, vestiture and color, 5–7-plinerved. Bracteoles 2–3.5 × 0.6–1 mm, sessile, oblong-lanceolate, frequently navicular, with an acute apex, ciliate, abaxially glabrous, adaxially densely strigose with flexuous-smooth trichomes, 1- nerved. Flowers 4-merous, on pedicels 6–8 mm long, antrorsely hirsute. Hypanthium (at anthesis) 4.5–5.5 × 2.4– 2.8 mm, turbinate to campanulate, reddish, moderately to densely strigose, with flexuous-smooth trichomes 0.8– 1.6 mm long. Calyx lobes deciduous, longer than the hypanthium, 6.5–7.5 × 1.8–2.2 mm, reddish, lance-triangular, ciliate, apex acuminate, adaxially glabrous, abaxially strigose with trichomes similar to the ones on the hypanthia, calyx lobes sinus surface with 2–3 longer and thicker flexuous-smooth trichomes up to 2 mm long, that commonly have a papillose base. Petals 5.5–6 × 3.2–3.5 mm, ovate to ovate-elliptic, pink to magenta, entire, sometimes with a seta 0.5–0.8 mm long near the apex. Stamens 8, dimorphic and fertile. Antepetalous stamens: filaments 7–8 mm long, pink, anthers 8.3–9 × 1–1.2 mm, yellow?, subulate, geniculate and strongly curved, pore 0.5–0.65 mm in diameter, dorsally inclined; appendages 8.5–9 × 0.7 mm, yellow?, narrowly falcate, basally terete, apically lanceolate and curly in dry specimens, upturned but strongly incurved towards the anther. Antesepalous stamens: filaments 9.5–10.3 mm long, pink, anthers 4.5–6.5 × 0.6–0.7 mm, yellow?, subulate, erect, pore 0.3–0.4 mm in diameter, dorsally inclined; appendages 8–9 × 0.3–0.4 mm, yellow?, ensiform, upturned, papillose, long and curly in dry specimens. Ovary upper half and apex densely appressed setose with elongate smooth trichomes 0.7–2 mm long. Style 11–13 mm long, pink, basally to medially pubescent, antrorsely hirsute with elongate smooth trichomes 0.7–1.8 mm long. Seeds 0.5–0.7 × 0.4 mm, light brown to orange-brown, cochleate, surface minutely muriculate and shiny.

Phenology: ―The species has been collected in flower in January, March, April, July and October, and in fruit in March.

Habitat and distribution: ―Endemic to Colombia where it is known from five collections. Four collections are from the eastern flank of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta at elevations between 2000 and 3000 m and one other collection from a disjunct population in the Central Andes at high elevations (4140–4250) on the Nevado del Ruíz and Santa Isabel (Caldas). This species grows in Andean forest, high-Andean forest and páramo; the population from Caldas reportedly grows in a high-Andean forest dominated by Polylepis ( Ruiz & Pavón 1794: 80) , one of the highest naturally occurring genera of angiosperm trees in the world ( Simpson 1979).

Etymology: ―The name of this new species refers to the uniqueness of its very long appendages on the antesepalous stamens.

Conservation status: ―This species is known only from two locations. One of them is situated within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park which has an area of 3830 km 2 and an elevational gradient from sea level up to 5775 m ( Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia 2013). In that region this species is only known to grow above 2000 m. The other location is within the Los Nevados National Park which has an area of 583 km 2 and an elevational gradient between 2600–5321 m ( Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia 2013). At that locality this species is only known to grow above 4140 m. Based on IUCN guidelines and criteria ( IUCN 2001, 2011) and our current knowledge of the distribution, this species is assigned a provisional IUCN conservation status of Endangered (EN).

Additional specimens examined (paratypes): ― COLOMBIA. Caldas: Cordillera Central, alrededores del Nevado del Ruíz y Sta. Isabel, 4140–4250 m, 11 Octubre 1978, O . Rangel et al. 1859- A ( COL!, NY!). Cesar: Valledupar, Laguna Naboba - Nabusimake, hacia Nabusimake , 2000 m, 15 January 1998, E . Carbonó 3663 ( UTMC!); Valledupar, corregimiento Pueblo Bello , 1200–2000 m, 13 Julio 1983, H . Cuadros 1694- B ( COL!, US!). Magdalena: San Sebastián de Rábago , 4 Marzo 1948, R . Romero-Castañeda 848 ( COL!, US!, UTMC!) .

Discussion: — Monochaetum longicaudatum is similar in appearance to M. lindenianum ( Naudin 1850: 158) . It differs in having denser and more congested inflorescences, abaxial foliar surface with denser, longer and divergent trichomes, elliptic petals with a broadly acute apex (vs. obovate), and longer filaments (9.5–10.3 mm long, vs. 6.5– 7 mm long) and appendages (8–9 mm long, vs. 3–4 mm long) on the antesepalous stamens. Monochaetum longicaudatum is unique in having the antesepalar anther appendages that are longer than the anthers (4.5–6.5 mm long), and a longer style (11–13 mm long, vs. 6–8 mm long) that is antrorsely hirsute (trichomes 0.7–1.8 mm long) on the basal to medial portion.

Cuadros 1694 (COL, US) is a mixed collection of Monochaetum longicaudatum and M. rotundifolium . We have marked M. longicaudatum as 1694-B and M. rotundifolium as 1694-A on each of the two collections known to us.

Monochaetum perijensis Alvear & Almeda , sp. nov. ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 )

A species similar to Monochaetum humboldtianum ( Kunth & Bouché 1844: 15; Kunth & Bouché in Bouché 1844: 504) Kunth ex Walpers (1846: 702), but differs in having leaves with basal secondary veins (vs. plinerved with the innermost pair diverging from the midvein 5–8 mm from the base), glabrous hypanthia (vs. strigose), calyx lobes that are persistent, shorter (4.2–5 mm long vs. more than 10.5 mm long), oblong and with acute apex (vs. deciduous, lance-triangular and acuminate calyx lobes), and petals ciliate (vs. entire or only with an apical seta).

Type:― COLOMBIA. Magdalena (Cesar): Sierra de Perijá , E of Manaure, quebrada de Floridablanca, 2700–2800 m, 10 November 1959, (fl & fr), J. Cuatrecasas & R. Romero-Castañeda 25172 (holotype: COL!; isotype: US!) .

Shrub up to 2 m tall with exfoliating bark. Internodes quadrangular, red, distal internodes 2–4 cm long, sparsely strigose, older branches glabrescent, the trichomes 0.6–1.5 mm long, eglandular, mostly flexuous-smooth, and frequently with somewhat papillose base. Cauline nodes moderately to densely setose with antrorsely hirsute to divaricate trichomes 0.6–2 (–2.6) mm long, eglandular, flexuous- smooth, and frequently with a somewhat papillose base. Leaves opposite and isophyllous, petiole 4–11 mm long, semiterete, dark red, abaxially concave and adaxially channeled to flattened distally, abaxially with vestiture identical to the internodes, adaxially glabrescent. Blades 15–44 × 9–22 mm, membranous, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, the margin entire and ciliate with trichomes like those on the actual surface, the apex acute, the base broadly acute to obtuse, 5(–7)-nerved, sometimes with the innermost pair of veins slightly plinerved but always diverging less than 1.5 mm from the base, primary and secondary veins elevated abaxially and flat to impressed adaxially, tertiary veins ramified and not clearly visible abaxially. Adaxial surface green, vestiture between primary and secondary veins glabrous or sparsely strigulose in 6 diffuse longitudinal belts between the main nerves, with about 1–3(–4) trichomes across that are spaced and not overlapping, frequently the proximal half or one third of the leaf glabrous, and the only obvious belts of trichomes are the ones near the margins, the trichomes 0.8–1.5 mm long, stout-smooth; vestiture on the primary and secondary veins glabrous, on the more pubescent leaves forming glabrous strips along the veins 1.8–2.8 mm wide, sometimes sparsely covered with orange short-stalked glandular trichomes less than 0.2 mm long on the primaries. Abaxial foliar surface light green, vestiture between primary and secondary veins sparsely strigulose with flexuous-smooth trichomes 0.6–0.9 mm long, sometimes also with sparse orange short-stalked glandular trichomes, less than 0.2 m long; vestiture on primary veins moderately strigose-villous with flexuous-smooth trichomes 1–1.8 (–2) mm long, commonly with small pockets (acarodomatia?) at the junction of the primary and secondary veins. Inflorescence terminal or occasionally axillary on short shoots below the main inflorescence axis, a simple to once-compound dichasium, some flowers appearing solitary, peduncles and floriferous branches glabrous or with identical vestiture to the internodes. Lowermost floral bracts 5–15 × 1.5–6 mm, petiole 1–2 mm long, similar to the principal leaves in shape, vestiture and color, 3–5-nerved. Bracteoles 2–4 × 0.6–1 mm, subsessile to shortly petiolate (less than 1 mm long), oblong-elliptic to spatulate, with a broadly acute apex, ciliate, abaxially sparsely strigose, apex usually with a trichome 1.5–2 mm long, 1-nerved. Flowers 4-merous, on pedicels 7–9 mm long, glabrous or sometimes sparsely strigulose with flexuous-smooth trichomes 0.6–1.5 mm long. Hypanthium (at anthesis) 5.5–7 (–8) × (2.5–) 3–3.8 mm, subcylindric to narrowly campanulate, dark red, glabrous. Calyx lobes persistent, shorter than the hypanthium, 4.2–5 × 1.7–2 mm, red, oblong to ovate-oblong, apex broadly acute to bluntly-acute, glabrous on both surfaces but ciliate, calyx tube obsolete, calyx lobe sinus with a tuft of about 3–10 long and thick flexuous-smooth (with papillose base) trichomes 0.8–1.5 mm long. Petals 11–13 × 11.8– 13 mm, pink, purple to magenta, widely obovate to sub-orbicular, ciliate. Stamens 8, dimorphic and fertile. Antepetalous stamens: filaments 8.5–9.7 mm long, pink, pedoconnective 0.8–1 mm long, anthers 10.5–12 × 0.9– 1.2 mm, yellow, subulate, arcuate and strongly geniculate, pore 0.4–0.5 mm in diameter, dorsally inclined; appendages 9–11 × 0.5–0.7 mm, yellow?, distally falcate, strongly incurved towards the anther, basally terete, medially to apically expanded, papillose. Antesepalous stamens: filaments 11–13 mm long, pink, anthers 6–7.5 × 0.6–0.7 mm, yellow?, subulate, erect, pore 0.25–0.35 mm in diameter, dorsally inclined; appendages 6.5–9.5 × 0.5– 0.65 mm, yellow?, fusiform-elliptic, flattened, papillose, upturned. Ovary apex sparsely setose with about 10–15 conic-smooth or stout-smooth trichomes 0.7–1 mm long. Style 15–20 mm long, glabrous. Fruiting hypanthium long-urceolate sometimes with an apical neck. Seeds 0.6–0.65 × 0.35–0.45 mm, light brown to orange-brown, cochleate, surface minutely muriculate and shiny.

Phenology: ―This species has been collected in flower and fruit in November and December, with flowers in July, and with fruit in March.

Habitat and distribution: ―Endemic to Colombia where it is restricted to the Serranía de Perijá, the northernmost extension of the Cordillera Oriental and the northern watershed between Colombia and Venezuela. It is known from nine collections. This is a rare species occurring in Andean forests and subpáramo, between 2200 and 3250 m; it has been reported to occur in forest dominated by Billia rosea ( Planchon & Linden 1857: 3) Ulloa Ulloa & Jørgensen (2001: 287) . Although this species has not been collected in Venezuela it probably occurs on the Venezuelan slopes of the Serranía de Perijá.

Etymology: ―The name of this new species refers to the type locality Serranía de Perijá.

Conservation status: ―This species is known only from the Colombian highlands of the Serranía de Perijá. This area currently has no protected status. Because several parts of this mountain system are home to diverse Andean forests and an ecosystem of azonal páramos with high levels of floristic endemism it is an ideal candidate for some kind of conservation status ( Rivera-Díaz & Fernández-Alonso 2003, Rivera-Díaz 2007). Based on IUCN guidelines and criteria ( IUCN 2001, 2011) and our current knowledge of its distribution, this species is assigned a provisional IUCN conservation status of Endangered (EN).

Additional specimens examined (paratypes): ― COLOMBIA. Cesar: Agustin Codazzi, Serranía de Perijá , vereda Siete de Agosto , Camino al páramo de Tres Tetas, desde la Cuchilla “Macho Solo”, 1884–2551 m, 9°57’3”– 9°57’24.4”N, 73°2’4.3”– 73°00’58.9”W, 10 December 2005, O GoogleMaps . Rivera-Díaz et al. 2877 ( COL!); Mancha de subpáramo azonal, conocida localmente como Parque Natural, 2526 m, 9°59’6.5”N, 73°1’43.1”W, 13 December 2005, O GoogleMaps . Rivera-Díaz et al. 2968 ( COL!); 13 December 2005, O . Rivera-Díaz et al. 2963 ( COL!); 13 December 2005, O . Rivera-Díaz et al. 2994 ( COL!); Bosque arriba de la “Cuchilla Macho Solo”, 1884–2551 m, 9°57’9”– 9°57’10.6”N, 73°1’45.9”– 73°1’34.3”W, 10 December 2005, O GoogleMaps . Rivera-Díaz et al. 2877 ( COL!); Páramo de Sabana Rubia , 3250 m, 22 July 1987, H . Cuadros 3697 ( MO!); Sabana Rubia, top of Serranía de Perijá , E of Manaure, 2900 m, 10°30’N, 72°55’W, 11 March 1993, A GoogleMaps . Gentry & H . Cuadros 79224 ( COL!, MO!, US!) ; Manaure, Serranía de Perijá , "El Cinco", finca "Vista Hermosa" SE de la carretera, 2200 m, 10°26’N, 72°57’W, 13 November 1993, O GoogleMaps . Rangel et al. 11353 ( COL!) .

Discussion:— Monochaetum perijensis is similar to M. humboldtianum (Kunth & Bouché) Kunth ex Walpers but differs in having leaves with basal secondary veins (vs. plinerved with the innermost pair of secondary veins diverging 5–8 mm above the base) and shorter and persistent calyx lobes, that are oblong and have an acute apex (vs. deciduous, lance-triangular and acuminate calyx lobes).

Monochaetum humboldtianum has long been known from the Cordillera de la Costa in Venezuela, where the three currently recognized varieties occur. We have not been able to verify the identity of collections that would extend its range to the Andean region (Mérida and Táchira states in Venezuela) bordering Colombia ( Wurdack 1973, Michelangeli & Cotton 2008). The presence of this species along the Orinoco River, as cited in the protologue of the synonym M. umbellatum ( Naudin 1845: 49) , is certainly a mistake as noted by Wurdack (1971b, 1973). The presence of M. humboldtianum in Colombia is based on two historical collections by Karsten from an unspecified locality (“Columbien” is the only geographical reference on the labels). The first one is known only by a photo of a destroyed Berlin specimen (Karsten s.n., photos at F!, MO!), which is apparently the type of Grischowia hirta ( Karsten 1848: 16) , the basionym of M. humboldtianum var. hirtum ( Wurdack 1966: 68–69) . The second one is Karsten 13 (G!), which corresponds to M. humboldtianum var. humboldtianum . This latter taxon was also seen by Cogniaux, but he did not cite the collection number nor did he mention Colombia in his treatment of the species (Cogniaux 1891). Karsten (1848) did not mention Colombia in the description of Grischowia . Cogniaux and Triana (1871) cited a few Karsten specimens but always attributed them to Venezuela without a collection number. Karsten was a German botanist who collected extensively in Colombia and Venezuela (Stafleu & Cowan 1979, Tryon 1963). It is possible that these specimens were actually collected in Venezuela. For a discussion of the origin of some of Karsten’s collections see Alvear (2010) and Tryon (1963). All Colombian collections previously identified as M. humboldtianum are actually M. perijensis .

E

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

UTMC

Universidad del Magdalena

COL

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

J

University of the Witwatersrand

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

O

Botanical Museum - University of Oslo

A

Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum

NY

William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden

H

University of Helsinki

B

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden