Martin, Jon H. & Lau, Clive S. K., 2011, The Hemiptera-Sternorrhyncha (Insecta) of Hong Kong, China-an annotated inventory citing voucher specimens and published records, Zootaxa 2847, pp. 1-122: 34-36

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2847.1.1

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Ceroplastes actiniformis Green (1896)  

Single sample in BMNH, from Duranta erecta   [= D. repens   ] at Deepwater Bay Country Club, sent to CIE by Winney.

Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius, 1798)  

Single sample in BMNH, from Podocarpus macrophyllus   in the Castle Peak area.

Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (1881)  

Single sample from Citrus   in BMNH (examined by Hodgson), sent from HK by Winney in 1976, where it had earlier been intercepted from Manila ( Philippines). Another HK sample, from unknown host (sent to IIE, ref. A20924 View Materials ) was not present in BMNH at time of this study. This species was proposed as the type of a new genus, Paracerostegia   , by Tang (1991) but the genus was regarded as a synonym of Ceroplastes   by Hodgson (1994).

Ceroplastes murrayi Froggatt (1919)  

Single sample present in PPRD and UCD, from Melicope pteleifolia   on Braemar Hill, HK Island. This determination was by courtesy of Ana Peronti. Vouchers from this sample not in BMNH.

Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (1893)  

Samples in BMNH from “ Euphoria longan   ” (now Dimocarpus longan   ), Pinus sp.   , Psidium guajava   , Schefflera heptaphylla   [= S. octophylla   ] and “mangroves”. Ceroplastes rubens minor Maskell (1897)   , a junior synonym of C. rubens   , was described from HK on Pinus sinensis   and P. thunbergii   : syntypes in NZAC and USNM. Reported from HK by Lee & Winney (1981).

Ceroplastes rubens minor Maskell (1897)  

see Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (1893)  

Ceroplastes   undetermined sp. 1

Single specimen in BMNH from Rhodomyrtus sp.   , sent by Hill.

Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell, 1893)  

see Pulvinaria psidii Maskell (1893)  

Coccus acutissimus (Green, 1896)  

see Prococcus acutissimus (Green, 1896)  

Coccus capparidis (Green, 1904)  

Single sample in BMNH, from Desmos chinensis   in Sai Kung Peninsula (NT).

Coccus formicarii (Green, 1896)   (Fig. 26)

Two samples in BMNH, from “ Euphoria longan   ” (now Dimocarpus longan   ) at Castle Peak (NT) and from Schefflera heptaphylla   (covered and vigorously attended by ants) at Fei Ngo Shan (NT), with a slide from the latter also in USNM. Lecanium globulosum Maskell (1897)   , a junior synonym of C. formicarii   , was described from HK on Stillingia sebifera   (host not listed by HK Herbarium) and syntypes are in NZAC and UCD. Reported from HK by Lee & Winney (1981).

Coccus sp.   near formicarii (Green, 1896)  

Single HK sample in BMNH, from stems of Symplocos lancifolia   (covered over by ants) on Lantau Island. It is noted that this species has up to 6 stigmatic spines at each cleft.

Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus (1758)  

Vouchers in BMNH from Carica papaya   , Cassia sp.   , Euphoria longan   [now Dimocarpus longan   ], Hedera helix   , Oxalis sp.   , Roystonea regia   and Schefflera heptaphylla   [= S. octophylla   ]. This is an extremely common and polyphagous soft-scale species worldwide.

Coccus longulus (Douglas, 1887)  

Vouchers in BMNH from Acacia confusa   , Bauhinia sp.   and “croton” [ Codiaeum   cultivated variety]. Reported from HK by Lee & Winney (1981).

Coccus viridis (Green, 1889)  

Samples in BMNH from Aralia armata   , Citrus sp.   , Manilkara zapota   , Maesa perlarius   , Psidium guajava   and undetermined Rubiaceae   . Reported from HK by Lee & Winney (1981).

Coccus   undetermined spp

Three small samples in BMNH, from Ficus sp.   , Macaranga tanarius   and undetermined host. These may represent one or more species.

Cribropulvinaria tailungensis Hodgson & Martin (2001)   (Fig. 25)

This genus, with its sole known species, was described from HK, where a large colony was found on Aporusa dioica   bushes lining the boundary fence at TLF ( Hodgson & Martin, 2001)   . The holotype is in BMNH   and paratypes are in BMNH, PPRD and USNM   . A second large colony on the same host was later discovered at Pak Sha O ( NT), with vouchers in BMNH, PPRD and USNM   .

Drepanococcus cajani (Maskell, 1891)  

Single sample in BMNH, from Litchi chinensis   at TLF.

Fistulococcus pokfulamensis Hodgson & Martin (2005)   (Figs 27, 28)

This genus, and its type species, were described from HK, where a large colony was found on Gnetum luofuense   at Pok Fu Lam Country Park, HK Island. A second species, F. intsiae   from Papua New Guinea, was described in the same paper ( Hodgson & Martin, 2005). The holotype of F. pokfulamensis   is in BMNH and paratypes are in BMNH, PPRD and USNM. A second large colony, on the same host, was subsequently discovered at Aberdeen Country Park, HK Island, with vouchers in BMNH and PPRD; a very few further specimens were collected from the same host close to this location in April 2010. In life the adults and nymphs are almost completely hidden by the opaque white secreted wax, with just a hint of ovoid outlines visible with a lens (Fig. 28).

Kilifia acuminata (Signoret, 1873)  

Single large sample collected by the authors from Gnetum luofuense   at Tai Tam Country Park, HK Island (vouchers in BMNH, PPRD, USNM).

Lecanium globulosum Maskell (1897)  

see Coccus formicarii (Green, 1896)  

Maacoccus bicruciatus (Green, 1904)  

Described from Sri Lanka on Nothopegia colebrookiana   . Single HK sample in BMNH, comprising females in good condition from Zanthoxylum avicennae   at Lady Clementi’s Ride, Aberdeen Country Park. The individuals were feeding on the upper surface midribs of their host. The authors have made this cautious determination in comparison with the lectotype of Lecanium bicruciatus (BMNH)   .

Mallococcus sinensis ( Maskell, 1897)  

Described from “ China ” on Callicarpa tomentosa   , and the lectotype is in USNM (see ScaleNet). Hodgson (1994: 333), quoting Deitz & Tocker (1980), believed that Maskell’s original material came from HK, although “no host was stated”. Single specimen in BMNH, possibly a paralectotype.

Marsipococcus   undetermined sp. 1

Single sample in BMNH, from Rhodomyrtus sp.   at Sai Kung (NT). Reported from HK by Lee & Winney (1981), probably quoting this sample.

Milviscutulus mangiferae (Green, 1889)  

Two small HK samples in BMNH, on Aporusa dioica   and Citrus paradisi   , both from TLF. Neither sample is entirely typical but we cautiously assign them to this species.

Paralecanium expansum (Green, 1896)   species-group

Four samples in BMNH, from Dendrotrophe frutescens   , Ficus microcarpa   , Machilus   or Litsea   , and an undetermined host. Members of the expansum- group are completely without legs, whereas several other species have legs developed to varying degrees. Several varieties and subspecies of P. expansum   have been described.

Paralecanium geometricum (Green, 1896)  

Three slides in UCD, from Laurus canariensis   in HK (the host not listed by HK Herbarium), are very cautiously determined (Penny Gullan, pers. comm.)—see also comments on P. peradeniyense   , below.

Paralecanium peradeniyense (Green, 1904)  

This species was described from Piper nigrum   in Sri Lanka [ Ceylon] in 1904. A HK sample from Gnetum luofuense   in Tai Tam Country Park agrees closely with syntypes of this species, especially the marginal setae being transversely ovoid and in the characters of the stigmatic clefts and setae. With the type specimens of most Paralecanium species   being mature and heavily sclerotic, most determinations in this genus are somewhat cautious. One specimen of the HK sample is newly moulted (teneral), showing all characters exceptionally well, but all the syntypes are mature-sclerotic.

Paralecanium planum (Green, 1896)  

Vouchers from single sample in BMNH, from upper midribs of Syzygium hancei   on HK Island. Sample determined with caution—see comments on P. peradeniyense   , above.

Paralecanium   undetermined sp. 1

Observed by the second author, on Kandelia candel   in Tai Tam Country Park (IIE ref. 22505) but the location of the material is now unknown.

Paralecanium   undetermined sp. 2

A large colony discovered as this contribution went to press, on upper surfaces of the fern Neottopteris nidus   at a plant nursery in NT. Specimens do not match other Paralecanium   samples from HK or in BMNH, but a few teneral females should aid identification in the future.

Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861)  

Samples in BMNH and PPRD from Ficus elastica   , Ficus sp.   , Macaranga tanarius   and Rhus succedanea   . Reported from HK by Lee & Winney (1981).

Parthenolecanium persicae (Fabricius, 1776)  

The second author has a record of this species being determined by the former CIE, from material submitted by Dennis Hill. However, there are presently no HK vouchers present in BMNH. Although a slide is present in PPRD, from “croton” [assumed to be Codiaeum   cultivar], we are uncertain whether this is part of the sample in question.

Prococcus acutissimus (Green, 1896)  

Single voucher in BMNH, from Machilus sp.   on Peel rise, HK Island.

Protopulvinaria longivalvata Green (1909)  

Two samples in BMNH, from Aporusa dioica   at Pak Sha O (NT) and Cinnamomum burmannii   at TLF.

Pulvinaria hydrangeae Steinweden (1946)  

Two samples in BMNH, from Celtis sinensis   and Reevesia thyrosidea   .

Pulvinaria kuwacola Kuwana (1907)  

A single small sample, whose only data are “ Hong Kong, 1973”, was sent by Hill and is now in BMNH.

Pulvinaria polygonata Cockerell (1905)  

Single sample in BMNH, sent by Hill from Citrus paradisi   on HK Island, the record quoted by Lee & Winney (1981).

Pulvinaria psidii Maskell (1893)  

Vouchers in BMNH, from Cycas sp.   , Ixora chinensis   , Ixora sp.   , Litchi chinensis   , Manilkara zapota   (= Achras sapota   ), Plumeria rubra   , Psidium guajava   , undetermined Rubiaceae   and undetermined Asteraceae   . Reported from HK by Lee & Winney (1981), under both Pulvinaria   and Chloropulvinaria   .


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History













Martin, Jon H. & Lau, Clive S. K. 2011

Fistulococcus pokfulamensis

Hodgson & Martin 2005

F. pokfulamensis

Hodgson & Martin 2005

Cribropulvinaria tailungensis

Hodgson & Martin 2001

Ceroplastes rubens minor

Maskell 1897

Lecanium globulosum

Maskell 1897

Ceroplastes rubens

Maskell 1893