Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda, 1861

Hutchings, P. & Peart, R., 2002, A Review of the Genera of Pectinariidae (Polychaeta) Together with a Description of the Australian Fauna, Records of the Australian Museum 54, pp. 99-127 : 112-118

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Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda


Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda

Figs. 9A–B, 10A–C, 12A–B, 13, Tables 4, 6

Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda, 1861: 46 .– Nilsson, 1928: 69–73.– Knox & Cameron, 1971: 34.– Stephenson et al., 1974: 114 (in part).– Poore et al., 1975: 30. Not Monro, 1931: 28.

Pectinaria (Pectinaria) cf. antipoda .– Hartmann-Schröder, 1979: 145–146.

Cistenides antipoda Augener, 1927: 231–234 .

Pectinaria sp 1 .– Hutchings et al., 1993: 10.

Type material. NEOTYPE: BMNH 1886.8.20.1, 22 mm long, 7.0 & 5.5 mm wide.

Type locality. New South Wales: Port Jackson, Sydney , 33°51'S 151°16'E GoogleMaps .

Additional material examined. WESTERN AUSTRALIA: N . end of Oyster Harbour , 35°03'S 117°50'E, 21.vii.1963, 5.5 m, mud, 1, WAM 45-96 View Materials GoogleMaps *; 0.8 km SE of Mistaken I ., King George Sound , 35°03'S 117°58'E, 21.vii.1963, 31.1 m, 1, WAM 47-96 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Bremmer Bay , 34°24'S 119°25'E, 13.i.1979, 1, WAM 31-96 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Albany , 35°0'S 117°52'E, 1, MV F 78899 View Materials GoogleMaps ; 3.2 km NW of Bussleton Jetty , 33°39'S 115°20'E, 12.iv.1963, 21.9–23.8 m, Posidonia and Cymodosa patches and sand, 6, WAM 42-96 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Gnarup Reef, Margaret River , 33°54'S 115°50'E, 3.ix.1987, sandy rockpool, 1, WAM 39-96 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Rottnest I ., Pocillopora Reef , 32°00'S 115°30'E, 14.i. 1991, 3 m, 4, AM W 25406 View Materials GoogleMaps *; 3.2 km WNW of Cottesloe , 31°59'S 115°45'E, 5.v.1960, 7.3 m, 1, WAM 400-75 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Dampier Archipelago, Norbill Bay , Rosemary I ., 20°29'S 116°35'E, 21.v.1972, 1.8–3.6 m, 2, WAM 354-75 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Mermaid Sound , 20°38'S 116°29'E, 10.ii.1981, 1, WAM 38-96 View Materials GoogleMaps *; lagoon between Trimoville and Alpha I ., 20°24'31"S 115°32'33"E, 13.viii.1993, 3– 5 m, silty grey sand, 1, WAM 34-96 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Broome , 18°58'S 122°14'E, 1, HZM P 16615 View Materials GoogleMaps . QUEENSLAND: Heron I ., Great Barrier Reef , 23°27'S 151°55'E, 29.viii. 1984, 10 m, 1, AM W200622 GoogleMaps *; Dunwich , 27°30'S 153°24'E,, 1, QM G3600 GoogleMaps *; 2.4 km S of SW Rocks, Peel I ., Moreton Bay , 27°30'S 153°21'E, December 1970, sand, shell, mud, 1, QM G 10400 View Materials GoogleMaps *. NEW SOUTH WALES: Port Jackson , 33°51'S 151°16'E, 2, BMNH GoogleMaps 1886.8.20.2–3; Sydney , E of Malabar, 33°50'S 151°17'E, 29.v. 1973, 83 m, 2, AM W6462 GoogleMaps *; Port Hacking, Gunamatta Bay , 34°05'S 151°10'E, October 1957, muddy sand at LWM, 5, AM W3672 GoogleMaps *; Bass Point , 34°36'S 150°54'E, 29.x.1990, 65– 70 m, 1, AM W 25418 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Jervis Bay, Green Point , 35°01'00"S 150°45'12"E, 1991, 12 m, 3, AM W 25424 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Jervis Bay, Plantation Point ( S), 35°04'48"S 150°41'48"E, 1991, 20 m, 1, AM W 25425 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Jervis Bay, Montagu Roadstead , 35°02'12"S 150°46'00"E, 1990, 12 m, 2, AM W 25428 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Jervis Bay, Hole in the Wall , 35°07'36"S 150°44'48"E, 1991, 12 m, 1, AM W 25426 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Jervis Bay, Honeymoon Bay , 35°03'48"S 150°45'24"E, 1989, 20 m, 1, AM W 25614 View Materials GoogleMaps *, 4, AM W 21203 View Materials *, 2, AM W 25423 View Materials *, 21.ii.1991, 2, AM W 25420 View Materials *, 21.viii.1989, 1, AM W 25421 View Materials *, 27.ii.1990; Eden , 37°04'S 149°55'E, 13.ix.1914, 9.1 m, 1, HZM GoogleMaps V-9562*. VICTORIA: Port Phillip Bay , 38°21'S 144°51'30"E, 9.xii. 1971, 9 m, 1, AM W 16203 View Materials GoogleMaps *; SW of Sandringham , 37°58'S 144°59'E, 19.iv.1959, 2, MV F 41676 View Materials GoogleMaps *; front of Popes Eye Beacon , 38°16'S 144°42'E, 28.ii. 1982, 7 m, sand, 1, MV F 78892 View Materials GoogleMaps *, 1, MV F 41681 View Materials ; 2, MV F 41676 View Materials ; off Werribee , 38°00'00"S 144°42'54"E, 19.xi. 1971, 7 m, sand, 1, MV F 78908 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Port Phillip Heads , 37°58'S 144°54'E, 1, BMNH GoogleMaps 1885.11.19.79; W Bass Strait , 11 km SSW of Cape Otway, 38°58'18"S 143°29'12"E, 8.x. 1980, 68 m, sand, 2, MV F 78889 View Materials GoogleMaps *; 30 km S of Cape Otway , 39°06'48"S 143°37'36"E, 23.xi. 1981, 92 m, sandy coarse shell, 2, MV F 78891 View Materials GoogleMaps *; 47 km E of Cape Rochon, Three Hummock I ., 40°23'48"S 145°32'E, 3.xi. 1980, 66 m, mud-shell-sand, 1, MV F 78920 View Materials GoogleMaps ; 42 km SW of Babel I ., 40°13'48"S 148°39'36"E, 60 m, muddy sand, 2, MV F 78928 View Materials GoogleMaps ; 94 km NE of North Point, Flinders I ., 38°53'42"S 147°55'12"E, 17.xi. 1981, 71 m, shelly sand, 2, MV F 78929 View Materials GoogleMaps *; 46 km SW of Lakes Entrance , 38°17'S 147°29'E, 31.vii.1983, 29– 31 m, 2, MV F 78938 View Materials GoogleMaps *;

n. r. character not recorded.

* Only a selection of records are given based on the literature to indicate distribution of species, however distributions outside the region of the type locality require verification.

k [ abranchiata ] Re-recorded from India ( Fauvel, 1953). Notochaetae narrow winged some straight with spinous tips. Characterised by absence of branchiae.

l [ australis ] Additional records from New Zealand ( Augener, 1926). (Redescribed by Nilsson, 1928). (Examined material from type locality). Notochaetae with finely serrated tips.

m [ bocki ] Recorded by Nilsson, 1928 & Imajima & Hartman (1964) Annenkova (1929) described a variety of this species.

n [ koreni ] Recorded from Bering Sea ( Annenkova, 1929); Swedish west coast ( Hessle, 1917; Nilsson, 1928); North Sea, English Channel, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean, Adriatic ( Fauvel, 1927; Holthe, 1986). o [ neapolitana ] Records: Mediterranean Sea ( Hessle, 1917; Nilsson, 1928); Black Sea ( Annenkova, 1929); southwest Africa ( Day, 1967).

n. r. character not recorded.

* Only a selection of records are given based on the literature to indicate distribution of species, however distributions outside the region of the type locality require verification.

p [ aegyptia ] Recorded from Red Sea, Mozambique, Japan? ( Nilsson, 1928; Imajima & Hartman, 1964; Marenzeller, 1879; Grube, 1870; Gravier, 1906).

q [ antipoda ] Recorded from New Zealand ( Ehlers, 1904), SE Australia (Nilsson, 1927; Augener, 1927); Gulf of Oman ( Wesenberg-Lund, 1949); Persian Gulf ( Fauvel, 1953); Broome, WA ( Hartmann-Schröder, 1979). Non-Australian material needs checking.

r [ belgica ] Recorded from: Swedish west coast ( Hessle, 1917); North Sea; Irish Sea; Atlantic Coast of West Ireland ( Fauvel, 1927); Boreal Atlantic Ocean (Nilsson, 1927); North Sea, Scandinavia ( Holthe, 1986).

s [ californiensis newportensis] Known only from original record, differs from stem species in shape and colour of paleae and shape of scaphal hooks.

u [ gouldii ] Recorded as P. belgica on East coast of USA and West Indies ( Gould, 1841; Nilsson, 1928; Long, 1973).

v [ regalis ] Recorded from Bermuda, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Barbados, Florida, Bonaire, Georgia ( Long, 1973).

Bennison Channel , 1 km S of Granite I ., 38°49'S 146°23'E, 23.xi. 1983, 6 m, sand, shell, grit, 1, MV F 78901 View Materials GoogleMaps *. Tasmania: Midway Point , 42°48'S 147°32'E, 9.xii.1973, 1, TMAG K937 GoogleMaps *; Tasman Peninsula, Fortescue Bay , 43°08'S 147°57'E, 1977, 10 m, sand, 1, TMAG K935 GoogleMaps *; Tasman Peninsula, Koonya , 43°04'S 147°49'E, 26.v.1974, muddy sand, 1, TMAG K432 GoogleMaps *; Tinderbox , 43°04'S 147°20'E, 18.iii. 99, 8 m, 1, AM W 26160 View Materials GoogleMaps *; North East River , 39°45'S 147°56'E, 8.iv.97, low water mark, 1, AM W 26161 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Dennes Point , 43°05'S 147°21'E, 28.iii. 99, 5 m, 2, AM W 26162 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Creeses Mistake , 43°07'S 147°47'E, 30.iv.99, 15.5 m, 3, AM W 26163 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Simmonds Point , 43°12'S 147°17'E, 29.i.99, 17.9 m, 2, AM W 26164 View Materials GoogleMaps *. SOUTH AUSTRALIA: Nuyts Archipelago, Franklin I ., N of West I ., 32°27'S 133°40'E, 14.iv.1983, 6– 8 m, sandy seagrass beds, 1, SAM E3042 GoogleMaps *; Sir Joseph Banks Group , W side of Kirkby I ., 34°33'S 136°13'E, 31.i.1986, 3–10.7 m, reef rubble, sand and Posidonia , 8, SAM E3076 GoogleMaps *; E of Lusby Rocks, between Lusby and Partney I ., 34°32'S 136°15'30"E, 24.i.1986, 3–4.6 m, reef, rubble, sand and Posidonia , 3, SAM E3088 GoogleMaps *; cove at S end of Reevesby I ., 34°32'S 136°17'E, 24.i.1986, 3–6.1 m, reef, deep crevices and sand pockets, 1, SAM E3086 GoogleMaps *; Kangaroo I ., Bay of Shoals , 35°50'S 137°15'E, March 1978, 33 m, 1, AM W 25409 View Materials GoogleMaps *; Kangaroo I., N side of Point Ellen , 36°00'S 137°11'E, 26.i.1989, 2.4–7.6 m, sand, 1, SAM E3087 GoogleMaps *; Yorke Peninsula, Wool Bay Jetty , 35°00'S 137°46'E, 3.i. 1994, 3 m, sand, 3, SAM E3083 GoogleMaps *; Spencer Gulf, Yorke Peninsula, Point Turton Jetty , 34°56'S 137°21'E, 25.xi.1985, 3–4.6 m, sand and rubble, 1, SAM E3035 GoogleMaps *; Eyre Peninsula, Fancy Point, Boston I ., 34°39'S 136°54'E, 17.ii.1988, 1.5– 8 m, in amongst kelp, Posidonia seagrass, sand, 1, SAM E3077 GoogleMaps *; Edithburgh , 35°05'S 137°45'E, 27.x. 1980, 3 m, in sand amongst rocks, 1, SAM E3089 GoogleMaps *; Spencer Gulf, 16 km SW of First Creek, Port Pirie , 33°16'S 137°51'E, 1979, 12.1 m, 1, AM W 25410 View Materials GoogleMaps ; Monument Hill , 32°50'S 137°49'E, September 1987, 17 m, 1, SAM E3066 GoogleMaps *; Whyalla , 33°05'S 137°37'38"E, August 1986, 12 m, sand, 1, SAM E3050 GoogleMaps *; Victor Harbour, the Bluff , 35°33'S 138°38'E, 8.xi.1980, under sand on rock, 1, SAM E3092 GoogleMaps *; Cape Jervis Jetty , 35°36'S 138°06'E, 9.iii. 1984, 3 m, sand in amongst rocks, 1, SAM E3081 GoogleMaps *; N of St. Francis I ., 32°31'S 133°18'E, 30.xii.1975, 20– 30 m, 1, MV F 78893 View Materials GoogleMaps *. Material examined 7 to 74 mm long & 2 to 12 and 1 to 6 mm wide. A selection of material examined listed, although all material examined has been incorporated into Fig. 13, illustrating the distribution and abundance of the species.

Material described. Neotype.

Description. Preserved specimen grey to pale cream in colour. Body small, conical in shape. Tube curved, composed of cemented shell-like fragments, or composed of sand grains. Rim of cephalic veil with 17 long cirri. Cirri are triangular appendages, which rapidly taper ( Fig. 9A). Cephalic veil completely free from operculum, forming a dorsal semi-circle around the numerous buccal antennae.

Raised opercular margin well developed, smooth. Operculum with 10 pairs of paleae, yellow-gold, subacute, curved dorsally, long without extended tips. First pair of tentacular cirri arise from anterior edge of segment 2. Ventral ridge connecting second pair of tentacular cirri on segment 3 incised to form glandular lobes. Segment 2 lacking posterodorsal lobe. Chaetiger 2 with anteroventral lobe large and broad; anterior margin of lobe with 13 contiguous rounded papillae.

Two pairs of comb-like, stalked branchiae on segments 3 and 4, situated laterally and consisting of loose flat lamellae.Anterior pair situated more ventrally than posterior pair, both pairs similar in size, lying flattened against the body.

Chaetigers 1 to 3 (segments 5 to 7) with notopodia and notochaetae only. Chaetigers 4 to 16 biramous with both notopodia, neuropodia, and notochaetae and neurochaetae. Chaetiger 17 with only notopodia and notochaetae. Notochaetae from chaetiger 5 include smooth winged capillaries, and capillaries with finely serrated margins ( Figs. 10A). Notochaetae from chaetiger 14 with finely hirsute surfaces. Notochaetae of chaetigers 1–3 and 15–17 reduced in size compared to those of notopodia 4–14. Neuropodia wedge shaped, erect and glandular. Neurochaetae with major teeth arranged in two rows, 6–10 teeth per row ( Figs. 10B,C, 12A).

Posterior scaphe and abdomen distinctly separated. Posterior 5 segments fused to form a flattened plate or scaphe longer than broad, with crenulated margins ( Fig. 9B). Anal flap present with dorsal papilla. Scaphal hooks present, 7 pairs, broad, blunt, brown ( Fig. 12B). Glandular areas present on chaetigers 4 to 17, prominent, ventrally glandular on segments 1–6.

Nephridial papillae present on segments 3 and 4, inserted ventrally at base of branchiae.

Variation. The number of cirri on the cephalic veil margin varies from 19 to 29, and the number of papillae on the anteroventral lobe of chaetiger 2 ranges from 12 to 19. The size of the anterior pair of branchiae varies such that on some specimens they are larger than the posterior pair. The number of scaphal hooks varies from 6 to 8 pairs. The development of the glandular areas varies between specimens. Most of these variations appear to be size dependent, with larger animals having more cirri, papillae and pairs of scaphal hooks than smaller individuals.

Remarks. Schmarda’s type of P. antipoda could not be located. Most of Schmarda’s material is housed in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna. Dr Helmut Sattmann, the Curator of polychaetes at this Museum, confirmed that no material of P. antipoda was present in their collections. The species has been reported from Australia several times since it was described in 1861, by Augener (1927), Knox & Cameron (1971) and Poore et al. (1975). All this material has been examined and represents P. antipoda . Nilsson (1928) also described the species and examined some material from Port Phillip Bay housed in the Zoologisches Museum, Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt- Universität, Berlin. According to Dr Neuhaus, the Curator responsible for polychaetes, the material has been lost, perhaps destroyed during the Second World War. As P. antipoda is widely distributed throughout Australian waters, the species needed to be fully described because the original description is brief. Three specimens of Pectinaria antipoda were found in the Natural History Museum in London. They were collected by Dr Robert von Lendenfeld, an Austrian sponge worker who visited Australia in the 1880s, and although he established a laboratory in Melbourne on the shores of Port Phillip Bay, he also travelled to Sydney. These three specimens were collected from Port Jackson several decades after Schmarda’s material was collected, although no detailed location within the harbour is given. During this period, little development occurred within the harbour, so we have assumed that environmental conditions were The distribution of the two species of Pectinaria in Sydney Harbour is not known. The harbour has a variety of habitats and the two species were never present in the same samples examined by us.

Pectinaria antipoda can be distinguished from the other two species of Pectinaria present in Australian waters, P. dodeka n.sp. and P. kanabinos n.sp., both described in this paper, by the presence on the anteroventral lobe of chaetiger 2, ornamented with 12–19 papillae, which are absent in the other two Australian species. Only one other described species of Pectinaria , P. papillosa Caullery, 1944 , has such papillae ( Table 4).

Material identified by Monro (1931) from Low Islands, Great Barrier Reef (BMNH 1931.7.1.61) as P. antipoda Schmarda, 1861 , was re-examined and identified as P. dodeka n.sp. (this paper). Material identified as P. antipoda by Stephenson et al. (1974) from Moreton Bay was reexamined and consisted of both P. antipoda and P. dodeka n.sp. Material identified by Hartmann-Schröder (1979) as P. cf. antipoda has been re-examined and although the material is in poor condition, especially in the region of chaetiger 2, we believe that it is P. antipoda .

Distribution. Widely distributed south from Broome, Western Australia around southern Australia and along the eastern coast to Heron Island, Queensland ( Fig. 13).

Habitat. Recorded from low water mark to 92 m, in sediments ranging from mud, silty sand to sand, and occasionally in Posidonia seagrass beds.


Nanjing University


"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University


University of Montana Museum


Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department


Australian Museum


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien


Museum of Natural History (Hrvatski Zooloski Muzej)


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Queensland Museum


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


University of New England


University of Warsaw


Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery


South African Museum


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum














Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda

Hutchings, P. & Peart, R. 2002

Pectinaria sp 1

Hutchings, P & Ward, J 1993: 10

Pectinaria (Pectinaria) cf. antipoda

Hartmann-Schroder, G 1979: 145

Cistenides antipoda

Augener, H 1927: 234

Pectinaria antipoda

Poore, G & Rainer, R 1975: 30
Stephenson, W 1974: 114
Monro, C 1931: 28
Nilsson, D 1928: 69
Schmarda, L 1861: 46