Leptomorphus furcatus, Borkent, 2012

Borkent, Christopher J. & Wheeler, Terry A., 2012, Systematics and Phylogeny of Leptomorphus Curtis (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) 3549, Zootaxa 3549, pp. 1-117: 78

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Leptomorphus furcatus


Leptomorphus furcatus   species group

The monophyly of the L. furcatus   group is supported by one uniquely-derived synapomorphy (Br = 1): laterotergite with covering of appressed fine trichia (28:1), and four homoplasious character states: no largesocketed scutellar bristles (25:1), length of gonocoxite <0.8X medial length of tergite 9 (56:3), anterior margin of fusion of parameral and gonocoxal apodemes with a sclerotized, thickened area (70:1), and apex of longest paramere reaching well beyond apex of aedeagus (when anterior margin of apodemes are at same level, 72:2) ( Figs. 150, 151, 155).

Leptomorphus furcatus   , the only Nearctic member of this clade (with an extension into northwest Mexico), is the sister species to the remainder of the group, all of which are Neotropical. The Neotropical clade is the most strongly supported clade in the tree, with four uniquely-derived synapomorphies (Br = 11, bootstrap = 94): palp segment 5 surface with covering of white setulae (14:1), surface of scutum covered with trichia ( Fig. 80, 20:1), scutellum with covering of fine trichia (24:1), mediotergite with covering of appressed trichia (27:1), and ten homoplasious character states: face without bristles (9:2), frons brown (10:1), no inter-antennal bristles on frons (11:2), surface of scutum without covering of setae (19:1), dorsocentral setae present as a single, anterior, large seta (22:2), laterotergite abutting katepisternum (29:1), median wing spot present (34:1), no macrotrichia in cell a 2 (35:1), sclerotized apex of aedeagus with lateral lobes and with medial apex apparent (67:1), and aedeagal lateral lobes present as short taper/flange (68:1).

Leptomorphus neivai   is the sister species to the remainder of the Neotropical species, which form a clade based on two homoplasious character states (Br = 1): clypeus with strong bristles only along ventral margin (8:1), and gonocoxite III fused to gonostylus (65:1). It is uncertain whether L. eberhardi   or L. crassipilus   is the sister species to the remaining five species, probably due to the missing male genitalic characters for L. crassipilus   (the genitalia of the male holotype are crushed). The clade of five species is supported by one uniquely-derived synapomorphy (Br = 1): few macrotrichia in basal third of wing (36:1) and one homoplasious character state: scutellum brown (23:0). Leptomorphus brandiae   is the sister species to L. amorimi   , L. fasciculatus   , L. femoratus   and L. waodani   . These four species form a monophyletic clade based on one strong uniquely-derived synapomorphy (Br = 2): gonocoxal lobe present (57:1), and two homoplasious character states: head yellow (1:0), and R 5 concave relative to anterior wing margin (42:1).

The relationships between the remaining species are based on homoplasious character states, with L. amorimi   as sister species to the remaining three species based on three characters (Br = 3, bootstrap = 58): scape setae in short row on apicodorsal margin and thick patch covering apicoventral process, remainder bare (3:2), gonocoxite III separate from gonostylus (65:0), and paramere a straight taper (71:0). At the apex of the L. furcatus   clade L. fasciculatus   is the sister species to L. femoratus   and L. waodani   , supported by two character states (Br = 2): tergite 9 with medioposterior lobe (evagination) present (52:1), and posterior margin of tergite 9 with three lobes (50:3).