Macreupelmus brasiliensis Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2016, Revision of the Neotropical genus Macreupelmus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae), Zootaxa 4161 (1), pp. 81-115: 92-96

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Macreupelmus brasiliensis Ashmead


Macreupelmus brasiliensis Ashmead  

Figs 13 View FIGURES 11 – 14. 11 & 1 2 , 34–51 View FIGURES 34 – 41 View FIGURES 42 – 51

Macreupelmus brasiliensis Ashmead, 1896: 14   . Lectotype ♀ ( USNM), here designated. Published type data: Santarem, Brazil, H. H. Smith Coll.  

Type material. Ashmead (1896) did not state the number of specimens on which he based M. brasiliensis   , but a given range in length indicates there were more than one. Three USNM females all have the following two labels: Santarem [printed] / H.H. Smith Coll. [handwritten]. One female in the type collection also has a red label with “ ♀ Type | No. 8091. | U.S. N.M.” between the “Santarem” and “H.H. Smith” labels and below the latter label a handwritten label in black ink with “ Macreupelmus   | brasiliensis   | Ashm | ♀ Type ”. In the general collection are another two females that in addition to the first two labels have a red label with “ Paratype No. | 8091 | USNM ”; one also has a hand written label in black ink with the species name similar to the female in the type collection, but with “ Para ” written in blue ink in the space between “ brasiliensis   ” and “ ♀ Type ”.

Ashmead (1896) did not designate a holotype and no lectotype has been designated. Consequently, although there is a female in the USNM type collection labelled as “Type” it is a syntype with equal status as the other two females in the general collection. The female in the type collection is contorted and glued to a triangular card point by its left side so that in dorsal view its head faces to the left, in the opposite direction than is normal when pointmounted (see images at for M. brasiliensis   ). However, originally it apparently was glued by its mesosternum to the top of the point in the correct direction, and only sometime later was detached and re-glued in the opposite direction by its mesopleuron. This is suggested by glue dorsally at the end of the point having a concave impression and one hind leg glued to the top of the point that points in the correct direction if the specimen had originally been mounted with its head pointing to the right in dorsal view. The head is entire except that the right antenna is missing beyond the anellus. The mesonotum is arched and only the right hind leg remains attached to the body, but one front leg is glued to the bottom of the point and one hind leg is glued to the top of the point; both middle legs are missing. The right fore and hind wings and left hind wing are attached to the body, but most of the left fore wing is detached and glued to the top of the point, the base of the wing consisting of the costal cell glued to the apex of the point (the wing is also partly torn). This is the most complete of the three syntypes, the other two lacking at least their head and antennae. For this reason, the female in the type collection labelled “Type” is hereby designated as lectotype of M. brasiliensis   ; I have labelled it as lectotype and the other two females as paralectotypes.

Description. FEMALE (habitus: Figs 34, 35 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ). Head ( Figs 36, 37 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ) with interantennal prominence, lower face, lower parascrobal region and scrobal depression to near dorsal limit of depression, and gena posterior to malar sulcus usually entirely green to blue or purple ( Figs 36, 40 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ), but sometimes regions variably extensively reddishviolaceous ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ), including small region on gena adjacent to malar sulcus; parascrobal region and scrobal depression dorsally as well as frons to level somewhat behind posterior ocelli dark with slight coppery to reddishviolaceous luster ( Figs 38, 39 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ) except sometimes more greenish narrowly along inner orbits ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ); vertex partly green to blue or purple; vertex and temples with dark setae. Head with interorbital distance about 0.31–0.33× head width; OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 0.35–0.47: 1.1–1.2: 0.9–1.1: 1.0; distance between anterior ocellus and inner orbit about 1.0–1.3× MAOD; anterior ocellus about 1.0–1.5× MAOD from dorsal extent of scrobal depression, with sulcus extending between ventral margin and depression, but not within depression; frons entirely punctatereticulate ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ) similar to interantennal region and vertex or variably extensively granular ( Fig. 39 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ). Antenna dark brown except scape dorsoapically for distance at most about equal to length of pedicel ( Figs 37, 40 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ), and ventral surface of at least apical clavomere pale; scape robust-compressed, about 3.1–3.6× as long as medial width, and in lateral view at most extreme apex of pedicel extending beyond ventral margin when at right angle to scape ( Fig. 40 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ).

Mesoscutum ( Fig. 42 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ) variably distinctly carinate mediolongitudinally at least partly over anteromedial lobe and often through depressed posteromedial region, sometimes to or near posterior margin of mesoscutum; scutellar-axillar complex with axillae meshlike reticulate but scutellum with more longitudinally aligned sculpture so as to appear more reticulate-strigose. Front leg dark except tarsus usually lighter, more orangish. Middle leg ( Fig. 34 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ) dark except trochantellus dorsally and ventroapically white, and femur apically or knee narrowly pale to white; femur uniformly setose over about apical half ( Fig. 50 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ); tibia with 6–8 pegs in two or more rows forming distinct patch ( Fig. 48 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ). Hind leg dark except apex of coxa, trochanter and trochantellus white, femur pale, yellowish to yellowish-brown dorsally over at most about apical half, and tibia pale to white basally ( Fig. 49 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ). Fore wing with dark setae continuously through hyaline basal cell onto infuscate basal part of disc ( Figs 43–45 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ), with ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ) or without ( Figs 43, 44 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ) evident hairlike white setae in slender band on mediocubital fold distal of basal cell, and with variably large and conspicuous hyaline region with white setae along posterior margin of wing near mid-length ( Figs 43–45 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ), but with variable patterns of white setae between marginal vein and mediocubital foldmost often with posterobasally tapered region of white setae extending from marginal vein about half way to mediocubital fold ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ), but sometimes white setae extending more extensively posteriorly to or near mediocubital fold over infuscate region ( Fig. 44 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ) or disc with variably large region of hairlike white setae adjacent to mediocubital fold behind posterobasal angle of anterior hyaline region, with the white setae sometimes extending anteriorly into infuscate region separating anterior hyaline region from mediocubital fold, and then wing with oblique, more or less hourglass-shaped region of white setae medially constricted by dark, slender-lanceolate setae ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ); costal cell dorsally entirely setose along length, with several rows basally becoming less apically ( Fig. 46 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ). Propodeum ( Fig. 41 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ) elongate medially, with ∩-like incurved foramen distant from shallowly, broadly Vlike angulate anterior margin, and mostly reticulate-rugose to obliquely strigose but minutely granular posteriorly.

Gaster ( Fig. 47 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ) mostly brown dorsally, but under some angles of light with blue to purple or reddishviolaceous lusters basally on Gt1 and usually increasingly more apparent and extensive laterally on Gt1–Gt5, with Gt6 mostly or entirely with distinct blue to purple luster; Gt6 reticulate to reticulate-rugose or reticulate-imbricate. Ovipositor sheaths shorter than metatibia ( Fig. 34 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ), about 0.55–0.9× metatibia length.

Material examined. BOLIVIA. Cochabamba, Villa Tunari , 16º54'55"S 65º22'06"W, 7.V.2001 (1 CNC), 1.VIII.2001 (2 CNC), H. Heider, MT GoogleMaps   . La Paz, Heath River Wildlife Centre, ~ 21 km SSW Puerto Heath, 12°40' 68°42'W, 29.IV –12.V.2007, Paiero & Kitts, debu00282520 (1 UGIC)   . BRAZIL. Rondonia, Faz. Rancho Granje, 62 km S Airquemes , 12–22.XI.1991, E.M. Fisher (1 CNC)   . COSTA RICA. Cartago, Dulce Nombre, Vivero Linda Vista , 1300m, VI –VIII.1993 (3 MZUCR, CNC Photo 2016-22, 2016-23), IX.1994 (2 MZUCR, 1 CNC Photo 2016-31), P. Hanson   . ECUADOR. Napo, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkone Gare Camp, Reserva Etnica Waorani , 220m, 00º39'10"S 76º26'00"W [no date], T.L. Erwin et al., Lot # 1151, fogging terre firme forest (1 USNM) GoogleMaps   . Napo, Jatun Sacha Biol. Station , 21 km E Puerto Napo, 400m, 18.VII.1994, Levy & Génier, virgin rainforest, FIT (1 CNC, CNC Photo 2016-30)   . Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Station , 00º37'55"S 76º08'39"W, 216m, 23.X.1998, Lot # 1916, Transect #2 (1 CNC, CNC Photo 2016-21; 1 USNM), 24.X.1998, Lot # 1932, Transect #4 (1 USNM), T.L. Erwin et al., insecticidal fogging of mostly bare green leaves, some with covering of lichenous or bryophytic plants GoogleMaps   . Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Station , nr Yasuni Nat’l. Park, 220–250m, 23.X.1998, T.L. Erwin et al., canopy fogging bare leaves, w/bryophytic/lichenous coat, T2/ Sta. 8, Lot # 1917 (1 USNM)   . Pompeya, Napo R.   , Pastaza, 14–22.V.1965, L. Pena (1 CNC)   . Sucumbios Sacha Lodge, 0º30'S 76º30'W, 1–31.XII.1995, Peter Hibbs, MT (1 CNC) GoogleMaps   . FRENCH GUIANA. Montagne de Kaw, relais Patawa , 4º32'N 52º10'W, 190m, XII.2003, J.A. Cerda, MT (3 CNC, CNC Photo 2016-32, 2016-33) GoogleMaps   . PERU. Dept. Loreto, Explorama Lodge, 80 km NE Iquitos on Amazon River , 24.VI –20VII.1990, Menke & Awertschenko, MT (1 USNM), YPT (1 CNC, 1 USNM)   . Madre de Dios, Rio Tambopata Res. , 30 km (air) SW Pto. Maldonado, 290m: 12º50'S 69º17'W, 7.III.1984, Smithsonian Inst. Canopy Fogging Project, T.L. Erwin et al. colls, 02/02/050 (1 USNM) GoogleMaps   ; 12º50'S 69º20'W, 1–4.V.1984, W.J. Pulawski (1 CASC). Monson Valley, Tingo Maria , 2.XI.1954, E.I. Schlinger & E.S. Ross (1 CASC)   .

Distribution (Map 1D). Bolivia *, Brazil, Costa Rica *, Ecuador *, French Guiana *, Peru *.

Remarks. It is possible that females I include in M. brasiliensis   consist of more than one species or that the species is even more highly variable than realized and should also include the females newly described as M. laticlavius   and/or M. auranticrus   . The fore wing of females included in M. brasiliensis   from Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru have the anterior hyaline region with white setae behind the marginal vein tapered posterobasally and extending only partly to the mediocubital fold ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ) as for the holotype. However, two of three females from the same locality in French Guiana have about the posterior half of the fore wing disc infuscate, similar to the holotype, but with some white setae extending from the anterior hyaline region through the infuscate part to near the mediocubital fold so as to appear as an elongate-triangular streak ( Fig. 44 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ). These two females also have distinct reddish-violaceous to purplish lusters on the interantennal prominence and lower face (cf. Fig. 37 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ); all three otherwise lack evident white setae on the mediocubital fold distal to the basal cell and have a reticulate frons. The five females from Costa Rica have quite a different fore wing color-setal pattern. They are similar to typical females of M. brasiliensis   because the anterior hyaline region with white setae extends only about half way to the mediocubital fold, but they also have a variably large and conspicuous region of white setae adjacent to the mediocubital fold opposite the posterobasal angle of the anterior hyaline region, as well as having at least a few white setae on the mediocubital fold between this region and the basal cell ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ). When the more apical region of white setae on the mediocubital fold is large, the white setae extend anteriorly over the intervening infuscate region partly to the anterior hyaline region so the wing has a medially constricted, somewhat hourglass-shaped region of white setae ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 42 – 51 ). Like the two females from French Guiana with the atypical wing color pattern, the Costa Rican females also have reddish-violaceous luster on at least the interantennal prominence and usually also on the lower face ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ) and gena adjacent to the malar sulcus, and they also have a partly to almost completely ( Fig. 39 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ) granular frons. The two females from Bolivia described as M. laticlavius   differ primarily in having the anterior hyaline region and white setae continuous to the mediocubital fold, without any intervening infuscate region ( Fig. 99 View FIGURES 96 – 105 ). The frons in M. laticlavius   is almost entirely granular except narrowly along the inner orbits, and thus falls within what is interpreted as intraspecific variation for M. brasiliensis   . Unlike the Costa Rican females they also have entirely dark setae on the mediocubital fold between the basal cell and where the hyaline region of white setae meets the fold ( Fig. 99 View FIGURES 96 – 105 ). It is possible that the different fore wing color and setal patterns just represent variation within M. brasiliensis   , as might the more extensively pale scape and legs of the two females from Venezuela described as M. auranticrus   . However, both M. laticlavius   ( Fig. 102 View FIGURES 96 – 105 ) and M. auranticrus   ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 15 – 23 , insert) females also have somewhat less compressed scapes than females included in M. brasiliensis   ( Fig. 40 View FIGURES 34 – 41 ) (see under respective species). It is possible that the Costa Rican females also represent a separate species from M. brasiliensis   , but additional specimens and/or molecular analyses are required to more confidently assess species status of females sharing continuous dark setae over the basal fold from the basal cell to the disc, a comparatively long propodeum, a reticulate Gt6, and mesotibial pegs in a patch.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes














Macreupelmus brasiliensis Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2016

Macreupelmus brasiliensis

Ashmead 1896: 14