Paramoandesia colombiensis Foldi

Foldi, Imre, 2009, Archaeococcoid scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the tropical high mountains of the Andean Cordillera, South America, Zootaxa 2300, pp. 1-38: 16-21

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.191685

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Paramoandesia colombiensis Foldi

n. sp.

Paramoandesia colombiensis Foldi   n. sp.

Material examined. Holotype adult female. COLOMBIA: Boyacá, Pàramos NW of Belén, at around 4100 m, on dead leaves of Espeletia brachyaxiantha Diaz   ( Asteraceae   ), -. x. 1982, P. Pesson coll. MNHN. Paratype: 1 adult male, same data as holotype. MNHN.


Description based on holotype.

Mounted specimens. Body elongate-oval, 6.3 mm long, 3.2 mm wide; body segmentation clearly visible.

Dorsum. Derm membranous. Multilocular pores, each 10–12 µm in diameter with an oval centre ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A) with 2 loculi plus 16 outer loculi; densely distributed throughout. Multilocular pores each with a triangular centre ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 F) plus 10 outer loculi; scattered over dorsal surface. Entire dorsal surface densely covered with straigth and curved hairs ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 B+C), each 25–45 µm long; hair-like setae ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 D), each 80– 110 µm long, mainly on submargin of body; slender flagellate setae ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 E), each 45–55 µm long, scattered among hairs. Anus and anal tube not located.

Venter. Derm membranous. Multilocular pores similar to those on dorsum present on venter but also with multilocular pores with quadrate centre ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 L) on head and thorax margin. Multilocular pores, each with a triangular centre ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 F) with 3 loculi plus 10 outer loculi, abundant, 3 to 4 pores wide in submedial and submarginal areas of each abdominal segment. Multilocular pores, each with an oval centre with 2 loculi plus 16 outer loculi abundant around vulvar area. Setae less dense than on dorsum, with: (i) straigth and curved hairs ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 B+C), each 22–45 µm long; (ii) hair-like setae ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 D), mostly 70–130 µm long, scattered on head, thorax and most abundantly medially and submedially on abdomen, rare on margin; (iii) slender flagellate setae ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 E), each 50–70 µm long, sparsely scattered on head, thorax and abdomen; (iv) stout hair-like setae ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 D), each 110–130 long, on in medial areas of head and thorax and throughout on abdomen; (v) short spiniform setae (Fig. H), each with a strongly enlarged base, present near of vulvar opening, and (vi) a few longer and stouter setae, each up to 210 µm long, restricted to posterior end of abdomen.

Antennae 11 segmented, total length 760 µm; all segments heavily sclerotised, with a few flagellate setae, each seta 35–70 µm long; segment XI with few flagellate setae, most setae broken at base, plus 1 or 2 fleshy setae; derm between antennal segments III –IV with 3 intersegmantal sensilla; derm between segments V –VI with 2,and derm between segments VIII –IX ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 M) with 1 sensillum. Eyespots 140 µm wide, lens 45 µm in diameter. Pro-, meso- and metasternal medial apophyses large and bifurcate. Mouthparts absent. Thoracic spiracles ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 K) each with atrium 70 µm wide; 125–140 µm long, without atrial pores; each peritreme with a small group of 6–8 multilocular pores laterally; spiracular apodeme irregular in shape, broadest near atrium. Abdominal spiracles ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 G) in 7 pairs, each with atrium 25–30 µm wide, 33–36 µm long, each with 3–6 atrial pores. Legs well developed, all segments strongly sclerotised, with relatively few setae. Metathoracic legs: coxa: 270 µm long, 350 µm wide, each coxa with a strong articulatory sclerosis with trochanter, and with large triangular apodemes; trochanter + femur 750 µm long; trochanter with 3 or 4 hair-like setae, each 20–25 µm long, 1 ventral trochanteral seta, 280 µm long, plus 3 or 4 circular sensoria on each side; femur with about 10–12 hair-like setae laterally, 3 or 4 setae dorsally, and 2–4 ventrally, each 30–80 µm long; tibia 580 µm long, with about 14–16 stout setae ventrally, and 6 slender hair-like setae along lateral side, each 25–45 µm long; tarsus 320 µm long, ventrally with about 10–12 stout setae, each 20–30 µm long, dorsally with a pair of setose tarsal digitules, each 40 µm long; claw ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 J) about 80 µm long, slightly curving and narrowing gradually to a sharp apex; with 2 setose claw digitules, each 30–35 µm long. Vulvar opening a transverse fissure, each extremity limited by raised integument and surrounded by hair-like setae, hairs and multilocular pores, particularly those with an oval centre. Spinules ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 N) present medially and submedially on anterior six abdominal segments. Intersegmental membranes between abdominal segments II –VII with a few sclerotised patches bearing polygonal markings ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 I).

Comment. P. colombiensis   is similar to Neocoelostoma xerophila Hempel   in having perispiracular pores near each thoracic spiracle, by the presence of multilocular pores with oval and triangular centres and by the presence of hair-like setae, flagellate setae and hairs. However, P. colombiensis   differs in also having: multilocular pores with a quadrate centre; a greater number of straight and curved dorsal and ventral hairs; shorter marginal setae; polygonal patches on the ventral intersegmental membranes; short spiniform setae with strongly enlarged base near of vulvar opening; 11 -segmented antennae (only 9 segments in N. xerophila   ).

Derivatio nominis. The species name, colombiensis   , was chosen because this species was collected in the Colombian Cordillera of Andes.

ADULT MALE ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 )

Description based on one specimen.

Mounted material. Body 3.75 mm long from head to anus; 4.64 mm long including caudal filaments; 0. 97 mm wide across prealare.

Head. Length 420 µm to behind compound eyes, 600 µm wide across compound eyes. Dorsally derm membranous; postoccipital suture (pos) 360 µm wide, broadening medially. Epicranium covered in numerous hair-like (hs) setae, each 30−65 µm long, plus a few loculate pores (lp), each mainly with 3 triangular loculi and 8−10 µm in diameter. Laterally: antero-laterally with numerous small convex pores (cp), each 9−10 µm wide. Compound eyes (cde) large, each about 180 µm long and 160 µm wide, with about 95−120 ommatidia; post-ocular ridges (pocr) present close to dorsal margin of cde, extending from anterior margin of each cde to ocellus (o) situated on dorsal margin. Ventrally: midcranial ridge (vmcr) fusing posteriorly with a pair of lateral preocular ridges (procr) and a pair of preoral ridges (pror), which pass posteriorly to each compound eye and fuse dorsally with postoccipital suture (pos). Ventral anterior part of epicranium on either side of vmcr with 2–3 setae, each with shallow basal sockets and 50 µm long, plus 3–4 loculate pores. Setae on either side of mouth (m) each 35–50 µm long.

Antennae. 10 segmented, total length 2.7 mm. All segments heavily sclerotised, particularly I to IV. Scape (scp) 125 µm long, 120 µm wide, without a sclerotised articulary socket with head; with a few short setae, each about 35−50 µm long. Pedicel (pdc) 120 µm long, 90 µm wide, with few setae, each up to about 30−50 µm long, some with satellite setae (sats); apex of pedicel with Johnston’s organ. Antennal segments from III to preapical segment with irregularly spaced, small or indistinct nodes, or even without swellings; some segments appear binodose or trinodose, with few setae, each seta 80–260 µm long, and not arranged in rings, but most with satellite setae (sats), plus a few shorter setae, each 25−30 µm long amongst long setae; apical segment elongate, 370–380 µm long, 50−55 µm wide, with indistinct nodes; with about 15 flagellate setae, each 140−190 µm long, some with satellite setae (sats) about 15−17 µm long µm long, plus a few short setae, 25−30 µm long; with 2 or 3 basiconic sensilla (bas) distally, and with 2 or 3 bristles (ab) at apex.

Thorax. Prothorax. Dorsally: pronotum and pronotal ridges absent; post-tergites (pt) each about 330− 340 µm long, broadening at both anterior and posterior ends. Laterally with a pair of cervical sclerites (cv) which articulate with posterior ventral projection of ocular sclerite and preoral ridge (pror). With a broad group of median pronotal setae, each 35−75 µm long; pores absent medially; propleural setae in large groups of short setae. Pleural ridge (plr 1) present, extending dorsally from articulation with coxa. Ve n tr a l ly with prosternum (stn 1) with median ridge 425 µm long, which significantly broadens posteriorly.

Mesothorax. Well developed, convex dorsally and flat ventrally. Dorsally prescutum (prsc) ovaltriangular, 390 µm long, 210 µm wide at base, with anterior part forming a large reticulated mesoprephragma (phr 1); prescutal setae absent. Scutum (sct) strongly sclerotised; membranous area 410 µm long, 220 µm wide, with about 22 fine hair-like scutal setae (scts), each 40−80 µm long, plus about 11 loculate pores. Scutellum (scl) 410 µm long, 185 µm wide; scutoscutellar suture (scuts) extending from scutal membranous area postero-laterally to postalare (pa); each outer angle of sutellum with a small, 20 µm in diameter, membranous area; scutellum with 3 loculate pores and 9 scutellar setae (scls), 90–120 µm long, on sclerotised area. Mesopostnotum (pn 2) well developed, antero-laterally fusing with postalare (pa) on each side. Laterally, prealare sclerites (pra) well developed; mesepisternum (eps 2) without nodulations. Tegula (teg) well developed, with about 16−18 tegular setae (tegs), each 25−40 µm long. Mesothoracic spiracles (sp 2): each peritreme 70 µm wide; a few setae, each 40–50 µm long, plus a few loculate pores present posterior to each anterior spiracle. Ven tr a ll y, basisternum (stn 2) 750 µm long, and unusually narrow, 310 µm wide, bounded by a marginal ridge (mr) anteriorly and by a mesoprecoxal ridge (pcr 2) posteriorly; lateropleurite (lpl) very narrow.

Metathorax. Dorsally: as in generic diagnosis except with a group of metatergal setae (mts) and a few loculate pores present across segment. Metathoracic spiracular peritremes 70–75 µm wide. Posterior metasternal setae (pmss) plus loculate pores and postmetaspiracular setae (eps 3) present between ventral sections of pleural ridge.

Wings. Well developed, each about 2.5 mm long, 800 µm wide; with a line of about 15 circular sensoria (sens), each 7−8 µm in diameter, plus fine alar setae (als), each 30−40 µm long, extending distally from where radius (rad) and media (med) vein meet to end of subcostal. Hamulohalteres (h) each 330 µm long, 130 µm wide at broadest area, with 3 hamuli (ham), each hooked and about 50−53 µm long, with clavate apices.

Legs. As in diagnosis. Bifurcated setae (bs) on each profemur each 25−30 µm long. Metathoracic legs: coxae (cx) 250 µm long; each with some hair-like setae along lateral margins, each 50−75 µm long; trochanter (tr) + femur (fm) 800 µm long; trochanter with short hair-like setae 25−35 µm long, plus a long single hairlike seta, 230 µm long; femur (fm), 135 µm wide, with hair-like setae dorsally, each 80−120 µm long, ventral setae each 30–70 µm but some up to 130 µm long; also with a few bifurcated setae (bs), 25–35 µm long. Tibia (tib) 920 µm long, with few bifurcated setae (bs) ventrally; with long (70–100 µm) flagellate setae dorsally and many tibial spurs (tibs) ventrally, longest distally about 65 µm long. Tarsi (ta): length of t 1 + t 2 470 µm; with about 22 tarsal spurs (tas) along ventral margin, each 50−65 µm long, and a few hair-like setae dorsally, each 50 µm long; tarsal digitules setose. Claws (c) 100 µm long, without a denticle; claw digitules (cdgt) both fine, each 30 µm long.

Abdomen. As for diagnosis except caudal extensions (ce) on each side of segment VII, each 745 µm long, 75 µm wide at base, narrowing progressively towards apex where 30 µm wide; ce on segment VIII larger, each 1060−1150 µm long, 115 µm wide at base and 40 µm wide at apex; each ce covered in a lightly reticulated pattern and with a few collared setae, each 90−120 µm long, and few hair-like setae, each 40−60 µm long. Ventral abdominal setae (avs) in a transverse row 1 seta wide, each seta 35−75 µm long; more abundant than dorsal abdominal setae (ads) in small groups on abdominal segments, each 40−105 µm long; dorsally minute pores, 1 pore wide, in transverse row on abdominal segments I and II. Laterally: pleural setae longest, in a group on each side of segment, length varying between 75−180 µm. Loculate pores in rows, 1 seta wide, on both abdominal surfaces. Abdominal spiracles (asp) present dorsally on segment II –VIII, each with peritremes 25−28 µm wide.

Genital segment. As in generic diagnosis. Anus (an): a sclerotised tube located between caudal extensions of segment VIII. Penial sheath (ps) broadest part anteriorly, where 200 µm wide.

Comment. In having 2 pairs of long caudal extensions, the male of Paramoandesia colombiensis Foldi   resembles to the South American species Protortonia ecuadorensis Foldi (2006)   . but P. colombiensis   differs most obviously from Protortonia ecuadorensis   in having (character-state on P. ecuadorensis   in brackets): (i) loculate pores mostly with 3 loculi (4 loculi); (ii) antennal segments of flagellum irregularly and weakly noded, mostly trinodose (without nodes); (iii) antennal segment with few setae (numerous setae); (iv) apical segment of antennae with basiconic sensilla (absent); (v) prescutal setae absent (present); (vi) presence of setae around mouth (setae absent); (vii) sclerotised abdominal tergites and sternites absent (present); (viii) each hamulohaltere with 3 hamuli (6 hamuli); (ix) minute pores absent on head (present), and (x) aedeagus unsclerotised (sclerotised). P. colombiensis   is also similar to males of other Monophlebidae   , such as Lauencella colombiana Foldi & Watson   , Drosicha dahlbergiae (Stebbing)   etc. (see Hodgson & Foldi, 2006).


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle