Paramoandesia Foldi

Foldi, Imre, 2009, Archaeococcoid scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the tropical high mountains of the Andean Cordillera, South America, Zootaxa 2300, pp. 1-38: 13-16

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.191685

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Paramoandesia Foldi

n. gen.

Paramoandesia Foldi   n. gen.

Type species: Paramoandesia colombiensis Foldi   by original designation.

Generic diagnosis. Adult female. Body elongate-oval, 6.3–9.2 mm long, sometimes attaining a length of over 10 mm, 3.2–4.5 mm wide.

Dorsal surface with derm membranous, covered in abundant multilocular pores, hairs, hair-like setae and rather fewer flagellate setae; marginal setae on each segment usually longer and stouter than elsewhere. Multilocular pores circular or broadly oval, with a strongly thickened rim, each with a large oval, triangular, quadrate centre with 2, 3 or 4 central loculi, surrounded by a ring of 10–16 outer loculi, abundant over entire surface, distributed in segmental bands throughout both venter and dorsum, often concentrated near segmental margins; pores with pentagonal centre present or absent. Minute circular pores present or absent.

Ventral surface with multilocular pores and setae, similar to those on dorsum. Abundant short setae found on all segments; longer hair-like setae on margin present in small groups; setae on posterior abdominal segments longest, each with large, conspicuous collars; short, slender setae present but few, each with a domeshaped collar; dermal spines absent. Antennae 11 segmented; most antennal segments with a few hair-like and fleshy setae. Eyespots oval and convex, present posterolateral to each scape. Mouthparts absent or represented by a weakly sclerotised indistinct clypeolabral shield. Legs short and stout; setae sparse on all segments; each trochanter with a long distal trochanteral seta on ventral surface, plus 3 campaniform sensilla on each side; claws each stout and curved, without a denticle, each with a pair short setose digitules. Thoracic spiracles without pores in atrium, but with a cluster of multilocular pores present laterad to each peritreme, each with or without associated minute pores; bar present. Abdominal spiracles rather large, in 7 pairs; each atrium with multilocular pores. Abdominal intersegmental membranes with sclerotised patches. Spinules present on venter of thorax and abdomen. Cicatrices absent. Vulvar and anal openings both surrounded by a group of multilocular pores, each with an oval centre, and hair-like setae. Anal tube membranous with or without a sclerotised ring at inner end.

Generic diagnosis. Adult male. Head triangular in dorsal view. Dorsally mainly membranous, with setae and loculate pores (lp); postoccipital suture (pos) extending across full width of epicranium. Midcranial ridge absent. Compound eyes (cde) present laterally, each with an ocellus (o) on dorsal margin; anterolaterally with convex pores (cp). Ve n t r a ll y with midcranial ridge (vmcr), a pair of preocular ridges (procr) and 1 pair of preoral ridges (pror) forming a sclerotised 5 -armed star-like structure. Mouth (m) with a small group of setae on each side. Antennae 10 segmented; antennal segments from III to preapical segment each with irregularly spaced, small nodes, or even without swellings; some segments appearing binodose or trinodose, with few flagellate setae not arranged in rings, but most setae with satellite setae (sats); apical segment with basiconic sensilla (bas) and bristles (ab) but without capitate setae.

Prothorax. Mainly membranous. Dorsally with a pair of diagonal post-tergites (pt). Membranous area covered with groups hair-like pronotal setae, plus a few loculate pores, each mainly with triangular loculi. Ve nt ra ll y prosternum (stn 1) represented by a well-sclerotised median ridge extending anteriorly from posterior margin of prothorax to anterior to procoxae. Prosternal and antemesospiracular setae present. Mesothorax mainly sclerotised. Dorsum: prescutum (prsc) large and oval, with a large mesoprephragma (phr 2). Scutum (sc) with a large membranous area medially, with scutal setae and loculate pores. Prealare (pra) extending laterally from each antero-lateral margin of scutum. Scutellum (scl) triangular, each outer angle with a membranous area, and with scutellar setae on sclerotised median area. Mesopostnotum (pn 2) antero-laterally forming postalare (pa). Tegula (teg) with tegular setae (tegs). Mesopleural ridge (plr 2) with a deep pleural apophysis (pla 2). Mesothoracic spiracles (sp 2) quite large, with a few postmesospiracular setae (pm 2 s). Ventrally, basisternum (stn 2) unusually narrow, bounded by a marginal ridge (mr) anteriorly and mesoprecoxal ridges (pcr 2) posteriorly; basisternal setae absent; furca (f) well developed with divergent arms. Metathorax. Dorsally: membranous. Metapostnotum (pn 3) represented by a pair of lateral sclerites. Metatergal setae (mts) and loculate pores present. Laterally suspensorial sclerites (ss) and dorsospiracular setae (dss) present. Pleural ridge (plr 3) and metaprecoxal ridge (pcr 3) well developed Metepisternum (eps 3) weakly sclerotised; metepimeron (epm 3) represented by a sclerotisation extending dorso-posteriorly around metacoxae. Ve n t ra l ly: metasternum (stn 3) with lateral apophyses (stn 3 a). Postmesoprecoxal ridge setae (ppcr 2 s) extending along posterior margin of basisternum and fusing with anterior metasternal setae (amss) and loculate pores anterior to metasternum. Wings. Well developed, with a line of circular sensoria (sens) and some alar setae (als). Alar lobe (al) well developed. Hamulohalteres (h) quiet broad, with 3 hamuli (ham), each with clavate apices. Legs. Long, slender and very setose. Profemur densely covered by bifurcated setae (bs). Metathoracic legs: trochanter (tr) with a few short setae plus 3 or 4 campaniform sensilla (camp) on each side. Femur (fm) and tibia (tib) with a few bifurcated setae (bs). Tarsi (ta) 2 segmented, proximal segment (ta 1) very short and triangular; t 2 with a tarsal campaniform sensilla (camp). Claw (c) elongate, without denticle, each with a pair of fine digitules (cdgt). Abdomen. Membranous. Sclerotised tergites and sternites absent. Small, black spinules distributed throughout. With a pair of caudal extensions (ce) laterally on each side of segments VII and VIII; each caudal extension with sparse covering of collared setae and a few hairlike setae; loculate pores absent. Ventral abdominal setae (avs) more abundant than dorsal abdominal setae (ads). Laterally: Pleural setae on each segment longest. Loculate pores few on both surface. Abdominal spiracles (asp) in 7 pairs. Genital segment. Anus (an) located between caudal extensions of segment VIII, connected to penial sheath (ps) ventrally by a sclerotised bar. Penial sheath (ps) opening ventral and anterior to anus but position and structure of penial sheath unclear on slide mounted specimen. Aedeagus (aed) apparently unsclerotised in a ventral groove along penial sheath, with a long setiferous, eversible endophallus (eph), retracted into body.

Derivatio nominis. The new genus name of Paramoandesia is composed of the word ‘Páramos’ without the character s, plus ‘andesia’ derived from “Andes” in reference to the Cordillera de los Andes where this species was collected.

Distribution. Paramoandesia currently includes two new Neotropicale species: P. colombiensis Foldi   and P. ecuadorensis Foldi.  

Comments. The placement of this genus in a family is based mainly on the morphology of the adult male. The adult female of Paramoandesia resembles the South American genus Neocoelostoma   ( Coelostomidiidae   ) and is also similar to Marchalina Vayssière   (Marchalinidae) and Palaeococcus Cockerell   ( Monophlebidae   ), thus, Paramoandesia shares the following features with the latter two genera: absence of ventral cicatrices; abdominal spiracles in 7 pairs; atria of abdominal spiracles with highly variable number (from few to numerous) of multilocular pores; and dermal pores and setae are numerous and some are similar. However, the mountains of the Andes and of Western Europe are highly disjunt and the morphological similarity may be due to convergence. Adult female Paramoandesia have several features that separate them easily from all other known genera, including Marchalina   , Neocoelostoma   and Palaeococcus   , namely: multilocular pores on both dorsum and venter with oval, triangular, quadrate or pentagonal centre with mostly 2, 3, 4 or 5 central loculi; dorsum and venter densely covered by hairs, hair-like setae plus some flagellate setae; presence of a group of perispiracular pores near opening of each thoracic spiracle; atria of all abdominal spiracles with multilocular pores, and legs short but robust.

The adult male of Paramoandesia is characteristic of the family Monophlebidae   due to the presence of: long caudal extensions on margins of posterior abdominal segments; bi- or trinodose antennal segments, these rarely without swellings (as in Protortonia ecuadorensis   ), each node usually with a few, rather randomely distributed, long flagellate setae; bifurcated setae on profemora; penial sheath usually not extending past posterior margin of abdominal segment VIII; and long setiferous, eversible endophallus present. However, a setiferous endophallus is known to be present also in some other archaeococcoid families and nonmargarodoid species, e.g., Callipappidae, Coelostomidiidae   , Kuwaniidae   , Marchalinidae, Margarodidae   , Pityococcidae   , Stigmacoccidae (see Hodgson & Foldi, 2006).