Anastrepha aithogaster Norrbom

Norrbom, Allen L., Muller, Alies, Gangadin, Anielkoemar, Sutton, Bruce D., Rodriguez, Erick J., Savaris, Marcoandre, Lampert, Silvana, Rodriguez, Pedro A., Steck, Gary J., Moore, Matthew R., Nolazco, Norma, Troya, Henry, Keil, Clifford B., Padilla, Anabel, Wiegmann, Brian M., Cassel, Brian, Branham, Marc & Ruiz-Arce, Raul, 2021, New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Suriname and Pará, Brazil, Zootaxa 5044 (1), pp. 1-74: 6-9

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Anastrepha aithogaster Norrbom

new species

Anastrepha aithogaster Norrbom   , new species

Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1–2 , 19–23 View FIGURES 19–30 , 74 View FIGURES 74–76 , 98 View FIGURES 98–120 , 121 View FIGURES 121–131 , 145–146 View FIGURES 145–148

Diagnosis. Anastrepha aithogaster   can be distinguished from most other species of Anastrepha   by the following combination of characters: frons with brown mark on orbital plate, separate from mark on ocellar tubercle; abdominal tergites with brown markings; S-band complete, with distal section narrow, cell r 2+3 with subapical hyaline area. Of the most similar species, it differs from A. anomala Stone   and A. pseudanomala Norrbom   in having brown markings on the occiput, and the aculeus tip shorter (0.19–0.25 mm vs.> 0.27 mm in A. anomala   and pseudanomala   ) and nonserrate. It further differs from A. anomala   in having brown markings on the frons, and different brown markings on the abdomen; in A. anomala   there are narrow bands, sometimes narrowly medially interrupted, on syntergite 1+2, tergite 3, and usually tergite 4, whereas in A. aithogaster   the brown markings are broader, especially on tergites 3 and 4, and they are more widely separated, so that there is a more T-shaped pale medial area. Anastrepha aithogaster   also differs from A. pseudanomala   in having longer terminalia, and from A. pulchra Stone   in having the base of the S-band separated from the C-band by hyaline areas in cells br and dm, as well as a shorter and narrower aculeus tip. It differs from A. serpentina (Wiedemann)   in having longer terminalia and a shorter, narrower and nonserrate aculeus tip, and by the abdominal yellow areas often less distinctly T-shaped. It is most similar to A. woodleyi Norrbom & Korytkowski   , but differs in having shorter terminalia (oviscape 5.01–6.32 mm long, 1.54–1.70 times as long as mesonotum vs. 7.29–9.07 mm, 1.98–2.15 in A. woodleyi   ) and the aculeus tip narrower and nonserrate. In the key of Zucchi et al. (2011), A. aithogaster   runs to A. anomala   , but differs as indicated above.

Nineteen sequences of A. aithogaster   , from five adult specimens ( MT672173 View Materials MT672177 View Materials ) and 12 larvae ( MT643942 View Materials MT643945 View Materials , MT644009 View Materials MT644012 View Materials , MT644079 View Materials MT644082 View Materials ) from Brownsberg, Suriname and two adults from Mitaraka, French Guiana ( MT672171 View Materials , MT672172 View Materials ), were included in the COI barcode analysis of Moore et al. (in prep.). All are unique. They form a separate cluster, except for one sequence from a French Guiana male ( MT672172 View Materials , USNMENT00875224) which is clustered with a sequence of A. anomala   from Panama ( MF838775 View Materials ) and multiple sequences of A. woodleyi   , thus there was no COI barcode gap. The A. aithogaster COI   barcodes display an intraspecific range of K2P distances from 0.0–2.4%. The smallest interspecific K2P distance was 1.7% with A. woodleyi   .

Description. Mostly brown and orange. Setae dark red brown.

Head: Mostly yellow to orange, ocellar tubercle brown, frons with ovoid to quadrate brown spot on lateral margin aligned with ocelli, occiput with broad comma-shaped mark on lateral margin of median occipital sclerite and mesal margin of lateral occipital sclerite. 3–4 frontal setae; 1 orbital seta, posterior seta absent. Ocellar seta weak, 1.0–1.5 times as long as ocellar tubercle. Facial carina, in profile, straight or concave on dorsal two-thirds. Antenna not extended to ventral facial margin. Palpus in lateral view dorsally curved, evenly setulose.

Thorax: Mostly dark orange and brown, most of scutum brown, with submedial dark orange area from at least midlength of presutural part to at most midlength of postsutural part; most of anepisternum and katepimeron, posteroventral corners of anatergite and katatergite, and triangular or inverted L- or V-shaped mark on meron dark brown; with following areas white to pale yellow: postpronotal lobe and lateral margin of scutum bordering it; medial scutal vitta, ovoid posteriorly, extending laterally less than midway between acrostichal and dorsocentral setae; sublateral scutal vitta from transverse suture to posterior margin, including base of intra-alar seta; scutellum except basal band or crescent shaped brown area not extended to level of basal seta; dorsal margins of anepisternum and katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Scuto-scutellar suture entirely brown. Subscutellum dark brown except narrowly medially; mediotergite entirely dark brown or narrowly orange medially. Mesonotum 3.15–3.99 mm long. Postpronotal lobe, notopleuron, scutum and scutellum entirely microtrichose; scutal setulae mostly orange, brown on lateral margin, evenly distributed sublaterally. Chaetotaxy typical for genus. Katepisternal seta weak, orange, less than half length of anepisternal seta.

Legs: Entirely yellow to orange.

Wing ( Figs. 19–23 View FIGURES 19–30 ): Length 7.29–8.74 mm, width 2.78–3.34 mm, ratio 2.50–2.66. Apex of vein R 1 at 0.53–0.57 wing length, proximal to level of anterior end of crossvein r-m. Cell c 1.05–1.17 times as long as pterostigma; pterostigma 3.88–4.94 times as long as wide. Vein R 2+3 not sinuous. Crossvein r-m at 0.69–0.73 distance from bm-m to dm-m on vein M 1. Vein M 1 strongly curved apically; cell r 4+5 at apex 0.81–0.92 times as wide as at level of dm-m, 0.73–0.79 times as wide as maximum subapical width. Cell cu a with distal lobe moderately to relatively long, length of cu a 1.50–1.74 times as long as anterior margin, lobe 0.68–0.81 times as long as vein CuA+CuP. Wing pattern mostly brown. C-band pale orange brown to subhyaline in cell bc and posteriorly in cell c, orange brown in most of cells r 1 and r 2+3, dark brown on anterior margin of cell c, in most of pterostigma, on distal margin in cells r 1 and r 2+3, and entire part in cell br. C-band and S-band very broadly connected along vein R 4+5; hyaline marginal spot in cell r 1 subtriangular, with apex slightly proximal to or aligned with anterior end of crossvein r-m, often not extended into cell r 1. Basal hyaline area in cell dm relatively small. Basal half of S-band broad, dark brown except orange brown in most of cell cu a except lobe, in small basal area in cell m 4 not extended distally beyond crossvein bm-m and isolated by brown from orange area in cell dm, in cell dm except broadly on posterodistal margin, and in posterior distal part of br; posterodistal margin with small to large incision in cell m 4; distal section entirely dark brown except usually for small orange area in cell r 1, relatively narrow, at apex of vein R 2+3 0.38–0.45 times width of cell r 2+3, not extended to apex of vein M 1,without marginal hyaline spots; hyaline area proximal to apex of band extended to vein R 2+3. V-band with proximal arm relatively narrow, often tapered or faint anteriorly in cell r 4+5, sometimes not reaching vein R 4+5; mostly brown except anteriorly in cell r 4+5; separated from S-band; on posterior margin extended about four-fifths distance to apex of vein CuA+CuP; distal arm usually absent, rarely (1 female) with narrow faint brown spot on vein M 1.

Abdomen: Syntergite 1+2, tergites 3 and 4, and anterior part of tergite 5 with large lateral brown marks, surrounding medial whitish to yellow area appearing somewhat T-shaped or as series of trapezoidal marks, with mark on syntergite 1+2 wider than those on other tergites. Female tergite 6 orange.

Female terminalia: Oviscape 5.01–6.32 mm long, 1.46–1.70 times as long as mesonotum; mostly to entirely red brown dorsally, orange to dark orange ventrally, usually paler basally; spiracle at basal 0.23–0.28. Eversible membrane ( Fig. 74 View FIGURES 74–76 ) with dorsobasal denticles in subtriangular pattern, with approximately 30 medium-sized hooklike denticles in 4–5 V-shaped rows. Aculeus ( Fig. 98 View FIGURES 98–120 ) slightly ventrally curved in lateral view, 4.94–6.38 mm long, 0.92–1.04 times oviscape length; in ventral view base distinctly expanded, triangular, 0.17–0.18 mm wide, shaft 0.095 mm wide at midlength; tip ( Fig. 121 View FIGURES 121–131 ) 0.19–0.25 mm long, 0.04 times aculeus length, 0.09–0.10 mm wide, 2.14–2.67 times as long as wide; in ventral view gradually tapered, triangular, nonserrate or at most with several minute serrations subapically (visible only with compound microscope); 0.06–0.08 mm wide in lateral view, 0.61– 87 times ventral width. Spermathecae subspherical.

Male terminalia ( Figs. 145–146 View FIGURES 145–148 ): Epandrium slightly shorter than high in lateral view, in posterior view with posterodorsal margin without medial V-shaped indentation. Lateral surstylus with small basolateral lobe, relatively long, extended beyond prensisetae by 2.8–3.6 times length of prensiseta; in lateral view elongate triangular, apical half slender, slightly posteriorly curved; in posterior view elongate triangular, apex blunt, medial margin convex basally, straight or slightly convex or concave on apical half, lateral margin straight to slightly convex. Proctiger with ventral and lateral sclerotized areas separated. Phallus 6.81–7.60 mm long, 2.03–2.26 times as long as mesonotum; glans 0.6 mm long.

Distribution. Anastrepha aithogaster   is known from Brazil (Pará), French Guiana, and Suriname. In Suriname it was collected at Brownsberg and, less commonly, at Berg en Dal (4 specimens), Nassau (1 specimen), and Coebitie (1 specimen).

Biology. This species was reared from fruit of babunnoto, Pacouria guianensis Aubl.   , and Parahancornia fasciculata (Poir.) Benoist   (both Apocynaceae   ). The latter plant has also been reported as a host for A. anomala Stone   ( Jesus et al. 2008, plant as P. amapa (Huber) Ducke   ), which belongs to the same species group as A. aithogaster   .

Type data. Holotype ♀ ( USNM USNMENT01526555), SURINAME: Brokopondo: Brownsberg Nature Park , [Mazaroni Val trail, next to fallen tree 200 m before waterfall, 4.93897°N 55.20195°W, 418 m,] trap BNP-ML-31, [27 Oct 2017 –] 11 Feb 2018, A. Gangadin GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: BRAZIL: Pará: Oriximiná, Porto Trombetas, F.N. Saracá- Taquera , 1°51.157’S 56°28.317’W, 91 m, multilure traps, 12–29 Nov 2018, S. Lampert & M. Savaris, 1♂ ( MELQ DZUP460219 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   1♀ ( DZUP DZUP460220 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; F.N. Saracá-Taquera , 1°50.762’S 56°29.097’W, 71 m, multilure trap ST-ML-20, 3–16 Dec 2019, M. Savaris, A. L. Norrbom & S. Lampert, 1m $ 1♀ ( MELQ USNMENT01556583, US- NMENT01556584) GoogleMaps   ; same, 15–30 Jan 2020, 2♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556658, USNMENT01556659)   . FRENCH GUIANA: Saint-Laurent du Maroni: Maripasoula, Mitaraka , near base camp, 2°14’2”N 54°26’59.8”W, 266 m, SLAM, 1–6 Mar 2015, J. Touroult & E. Poirier MITARAKA/195, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00875223) GoogleMaps   ; Mitaraka , site MIT-DZ, 2°14’1.8”N 54°27’1”W, 306 m, light trap, 9 Mar 2015, E. Poirier MITARAKA/100, 1♂ ( MNHNP USNMENT00875224) GoogleMaps   . SURINAME: Brokopondo: Berg en Dal, Bergendal Resort , exit road, hilltop, 5.14908°N 55.07515°W, 29 m, trap BD-ML-12, 1–14 Mar 2018, A. Muller, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT01526504) GoogleMaps   ; Bergendal Re- sort, forested area between roads, 5.14808°N 55.06905°W, 13 m, emerged 4 May 2020 reared ex fruit of babunnoto, Pacouria guianensis   collected 2 Apr 2020, A. Muller F22913 View Materials , 1♀ ( MAAHF) GoogleMaps   1♂ 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT01355309– 10)   ; Brownsberg Nature Park , edge of old orchid garden, 4.94826°N 55.18102°W, 488 m, trap BNP-ML-12, 21 Dec 2016, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( MAAHF) GoogleMaps   ; same, 23 Jan–26 Feb 2017, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00875210)   ; same, 18 Mar–7 Apr 2017, 1♂ ( MAAHF)   ; same, 19 Sep–26 Oct 2017, 1♀ ( MAAHF)   1♀ ( USNM USNMENT01526540)   ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Irene Val trail, 4.9584°N 55.19082°W, 333 m, trap BNP-ML-23, 21 Jul–19 Aug 2016, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( NZCS) GoogleMaps   ; same, 19 Mar–8 Apr 2017, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01526542)   ; Irene Val trail, 4.95814°N 55.19033°W, 319 m, trap BNP-ML-24, 27 Oct 2017 – 11 Feb 2018, A. Gangadin, 2♀ ( NZCS) GoogleMaps   ; same, 12 Feb–15 Apr 2018, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556871)   ; Irene Val trail, 4.95606°N 55.1894°W, 349 m, trap BNP-ML-25, 26 Apr–15 May 2016, A. Gangadin, 3♀ ( FSCA) GoogleMaps   ; same, 15 May–21 Jun 2016, 1♂ ( NZCS)   ; same, 18 Sep–30 Oct 2016, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00875412)   ; same, 20 Dec 2016, A. Gangadin, 2♂ 3♀ ( NZCS)   ; same, 21 Apr–21 May 2017, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT01526539)   ; same, 27 Oct 2017 – 11 Feb 2018, 1♀ ( MAAHF)   2♀ ( USNM US- NMENT01526061–62)   ; same, 12 Feb–14 Apr 2018, 2♀ ( CDFA)   2♂ 3♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556898–902)   ; same, 13 May–8 Jul 2018, 2♀ ( USNM USNMENT01355834–35)   ; Irene Val trail, 4.95474°N 55.18998°W, 382 m, trap BNP-ML-27, 15 May–21 Jun 2016, A. Gangadin, 1♂ ( MAAHF) GoogleMaps   ; same, 20 Dec 2016, 1♀ ( MAAHF)   ; same, 12 Feb–14 Apr 2018, 1♂ ( CDFA)   ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Kumbu Val trail, next to mark 1.6 km, 4.94574°N 55.19371°W, 467 m, trap BNP-ML-39, 15 May–21 Jun 2016, A. Gangadin, 1♂ ( MAAHF) GoogleMaps   ; same, 19 Dec 2016, 1♀ ( FSCA)   ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Leo Val trail, 4.95284°N 55.18799°W, 319 m, trap BNP-ML-28, 12 Feb–14 Apr 2018, A. Gangadin, 2♀ ( MAAHF) GoogleMaps   1♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556896)   ; Leo Val trail, 4.95234°N 55.18755°W, 472 m, trap BNP-ML-29, 20 Dec 2016, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( FSCA) GoogleMaps   ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Mazaroni top trail, 10 m before end, 4.95125°N 55.17612°W, 457 m, trap BNP-ML-01, 23 Jan–26 Feb 2017, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT01526541) GoogleMaps   ; same, 8–20 Apr 2017, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00875209)   ; Mazaroni top trail, in front of old cabin, 4.95034°N 55.17903°W, 464 m, trap BNP-ML-08, 12 Feb–15 Apr 2018, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( USNM USN- MENT01527063) GoogleMaps   ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Mazaroni Val trail, 4.93826°N 55.20181°W, 449 m, trap BNP-ML-32, 12 Feb–15 Apr 2018, A. Gangadin, 1f ( USNM USNMENT01556854) GoogleMaps   ; Mazaroni Val trail, 4.93727°N 55.20097°W, 491 m, trap BNP-ML-34, 26 Apr–14 May 2016, A. Gangadin, 2♀ ( USNM USNMENT01526551–52) GoogleMaps   ; Mazaroni Val trail, 4.93592°N 55.20094°W, 491 m, trap BNP-ML-35, 12 Feb–15 Apr 2018, A. Gangadin, 2♀ ( FSCA) GoogleMaps   1♂ ( ICAT) GoogleMaps   4♀ ( NZCS)   2♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556903–04)   ; Mazaroni Val trail, next to fallen tree 200 m before waterfall, 4.93897°N 55.20195°W, 418 m, emerged 3 May 2016 reared from fruit of Parahancornia fasciculata   collected 11 Apr 2016, E. J. Rodriguez, 2♂ 4♀ ( USNM USNMENT01526545–50) GoogleMaps   ; Mazaroni Val trail, next to fallen tree 200 m before waterfall, 4.93897°N 55.20195°W, 418 m, trap BNP-ML-31, 19 Dec 2016, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( FSCA) GoogleMaps   ; same, 23 Jan–26 Feb 2017, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01526543)   ; same, 21 May 2017, 1♀ ( USNM AP20180212.04)   ; same, 26 Oct 2017, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00875211)   ; same, 27 Oct 2017 – 11 Feb 2018, 4♂ 6♀ ( USNM USN- MENT01526554)   ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Witti Creek trail, 4.94555°N 55.17842°W, 411 m, trap BNP-ML-17, 11 Feb–15 Apr 2018, A. Gangadin, 2♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556876–77) GoogleMaps   ; Witti Creek trail, 4.94611°N 55.18029°W, 412 m, trap BNP-ML-20, 20 Dec 2016, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( NZCS) GoogleMaps   ; Witti Creek trail, 4.94146°N 55.17288°W, 287 m, trap BNP-ML-43, 19 Apr 2017, A. Gangadin, 1♀ (Wiegmann AP 20180212.03) GoogleMaps   ; Witti Creek trail, near mark 0.5 km, 4.94589°N 55.17902°W, 419 m, trap BNP-ML-18, 26 Oct 2017 – 10 Feb 2018, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( MELQ) GoogleMaps   ; same, 11 Feb–15 Apr 2018, 2♀ ( ICAT)   3♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556853, USNMENT01556855–56)   ; Witti Creek trail, near mark 0.8 km, 4.94399°N 55.1774°W, 352 m, trap BNP-ML-14, 16 May–22 Jun 2016, A. Gangadin, 2♀ ( FSCA) GoogleMaps   ; Witti Creek trail, next to mark 1.1 km, 4.94265°N 55.17566°W, 340 m, trap BNP-ML-41, 26 Feb–18 Mar 2017, A. Gangadin, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01526544) GoogleMaps   . Para: Coebitie area, road to Witagron , 5.35818°N 55.49783°W, 18 m, trap CB-ML-03, 3 May 2017, A. Muller, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01526553) GoogleMaps   . Sipaliwini: Nassau , 4.81445°N 54.61536°W, mercury vapor light, black light blue ( HPL /BLB), 1 Aug 2016, A. J. Hielkema, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556799) GoogleMaps   .

Etymology. The name of this species is a noun in apposition, from the Greek aithos (reddish-brown) and gaster (stomach) in reference to the brown markings on the abdomen.

Comments. This species belongs to the serpentina   species group as indicated by its brown abdominal markings, predominantly brown thorax, and its extensively brown wing pattern, with the distal part of the S-band narrow and the distal arm of the V-band reduced or absent. In a preliminary phylogenetic analysis using anchored hybrid enrichment (Wiegmann et al., in prep.), A. aithogaster   is clustered with all four of the other species of the serpentina   group included in the analysis and is closest to A. woodleyi   . In the COI analysis of Moore et al. (in prep.), the sequences of A. aithogaster   are grouped with five other species of the serpentina   group.

The female from Brazil: Maranhão: Itapecuru-Mirim, 2000, R. N. S. Lemos (MELQ USNMENT00031431), det. R. A. Zucchi, reported by Norrbom (2002: 398) under A. anomala   , may instead be this species. It has not been reexamined. It differs slightly from the examined specimens of A. aithogaster   in head and thoracic markings.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay


University, National Zoological Collection of Suriname


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora Ltda.