Anastrepha crassaculeus Norrbom & Rodriguez Clavijo, 2021

Norrbom, Allen L., Muller, Alies, Gangadin, Anielkoemar, Sutton, Bruce D., Rodriguez, Erick J., Savaris, Marcoandre, Lampert, Silvana, Rodriguez, Pedro A., Steck, Gary J., Moore, Matthew R., Nolazco, Norma, Troya, Henry, Keil, Clifford B., Padilla, Anabel, Wiegmann, Brian M., Cassel, Brian, Branham, Marc & Ruiz-Arce, Raul, 2021, New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Suriname and Pará, Brazil, Zootaxa 5044 (1), pp. 1-74 : 13-15

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Anastrepha crassaculeus Norrbom & Rodriguez Clavijo

new species

Anastrepha crassaculeus Norrbom & Rodriguez Clavijo , new species

Figs. 4 View FIGURES 3–4 , 31–34 View FIGURES 31–42 , 77–78 View FIGURES 77–84 , 113–114 View FIGURES 98–120 , 124 View FIGURES 121–131 , 149–150 View FIGURES 149–152

Diagnosis. Anastrepha crassaculeus can be distinguished from most species of Anastrepha by its dorsally curved aculeus, and from all other species by its aculeus shape, which in ventral view is broadest near midlength. Other useful diagnostic characters include: Scutum with slightly to distinctly darker orange brown band on posterior margin, not extended to intra-alar seta; S-band with posterior extension in cell m 4 not reaching posterior wing margin and not connected to proximal arm of V-band; C-band and S-band broadly connected; V-band complete, connected to S-band; vein M 1 not reaching S-band; eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles in slightly elongate pattern; and aculeus short, tip very short, broad and nonserrate. In the key of Zucchi et al. (2011) A. crassaculeus runs to A. flavipennis Greene or A. belenensis Zucchi , from which it differs in aculeus length and shape, and in having the S-band with a posterior extension in cell m 4, among other characters.

Three sequences of A. crassaculeus ( MT 672185 View Materials MT 672187 View Materials ), all from adults from Brownsberg , Suriname, were included in the COI barcode analysis of Moore et al. (in prep.). All three sequences are unique, and they formed a separate cluster (i.e., with a COI barcode gap), with a range in intraspecific K2P distance of 0.2–0.4%. The smallest interspecific K2P distance was 9.8% with A. fenestrella Norrbom & Korytkowski .

Description. Mostly orange. Setae red brown to dark red brown.

Head: Mostly yellow to orange, except ocellar tubercle brown. 3–4 frontal setae; 2 orbital setae, posterior seta well developed. Ocellar seta weak, 1–2 times as long as ocellar tubercle. Facial carina, in profile, straight or concave on dorsal two-thirds. Antenna not extended to ventral facial margin. Palpus in lateral view dorsally curved, evenly setulose.

Thorax: Mostly yellow to orange, most of scutum orange; with following areas white to pale yellow but sometimes poorly differentiated: postpronotal lobe and lateral margin of scutum bordering it; medial scutal vitta, broadly quadrate posteriorly, extending laterally to dorsocentral seta; sublateral scutal vitta from transverse suture to posterior margin, including base of intra-alar seta; scutellum except extreme base; dorsal margins of anepisternum and katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Scutum with slightly to distinctly darker orange brown band on posterior margin, not extended to intra-alar seta. Subscutellum and mediotergite entirely orange. Mesonotum 3.19–3.65 mm long. Postpronotal lobe, notopleuron, scutum and scutellum entirely microtrichose; scutal setulae orange, evenly distributed sublaterally. Chaetotaxy typical for genus. Katepisternal seta weak, orange, less than half length of anepisternal seta.

Legs: Entirely yellow to orange.

Wing ( Figs. 31–34 View FIGURES 31–42 ): Length 6.72–7.56 mm, width 2.95–3.29 mm, ratio 2.27–2.37. Apex of vein R 1 at 0.50–0.53 wing length, proximal to level of anterior end of crossvein r-m. Cell c 1.28–1.47 times as long as pterostigma; pterostigma 3.17–3.55 times as long as wide. Vein R2+3 not sinuous. Crossvein r-m at 0.62–0.65 distance from bm-m to dm-m on vein M 1. Vein M 1 weakly curved apically; cell r 4+5 at apex 1.10–1.29 times as wide as at level of dm-m, 0.90–0.98 times as wide as maximum subapical width. Cell cu a with distal lobe moderately long, length of cu a 1.57–1.66 times as long as anterior margin, lobe 0.76–0.78 times as long as vein CuA+CuP. Wing pattern mostly orange and moderate brown. C-band mostly orange, cells bc and c orange, pterostigma mostly orange brown to moderate brown, distal margin in cells r1 and r2+3 narrowly brown, with distinct oval brown spot on fork of vein Rs and triangular brown spot on posterior margin in middle of cell br. C-band and S-band broadly connected along vein R4+5; hyaline marginal spot in cell r1 subtriangular to subquadrate, with apex aligned proximal to anterior end of crossvein r-m. Basal hyaline area in cell dm relatively small. Basal half of S-band broad, mostly orange, anterobasal margin mostly narrowly brown in cells br, r1 and r2+3, posterodistal margin mostly narrowly brown, broadly brown along vein CuA+CuP but brown area not extended into lobe of cell cu a, with strong incision in cell m 4 and also with extension to or almost to posterior wing margin in middle of cell m4, extension brown but fading posteriorly, margin of S-band between extension in cell m 4 and brown area along CuA+CuP not brown; distal section orange, with most of margins and part in cell r4+5 moderate brown; relatively broad, at apex of vein R2+3 0.67–0.73 times width of cell r2+3, not extended to apex of vein M1, without marginal hyaline areas; hyaline area proximal to apex of band extended slightly into cell r 1. V-band with proximal arm relatively narrow, brown posteriorly, orange medially in cell r 4+5 and bordering most of crossvein dm-m in cell dm and sometimes very narrowly in cell m 1; broadly connected to S-band in cell r 2+3; on posterior margin extended 0.31–0.37 distance to vein CuA+CuP; distal arm slender, mostly brown, connected to proximal arm; hyaline area between arms of V-band and vein M


more than half width of cell cell r



Abdomen: Mostly orange, without brown markings.

Female terminalia: Oviscape 1.95–2.16 mm long, 0.53–0.63 times as long as mesonotum, straight in lateral view; entirely orange; spiracle at basal 0.39–0.42. Eversible membrane ( Figs. 77–78 View FIGURES 77–84 ) with dorsobasal denticles in slightly elongate pattern, with approximately 40 short hooklike denticles in 4–6 V-shaped rows. Aculeus ( Figs. 113–114 View FIGURES 98–120 ) strongly dorsally curved in lateral view, 1.36–1.46 mm long, 0.67–0.72 times oviscape length; in ventral view base parallel-sided, 0.20–0.21 mm wide, shaft broadest medially, 0.25–0.28 mm wide at midlength; tip ( Fig. 124 View FIGURES 121–131 ) 0.095 –0.120 mm long, 0.07–0.08 times aculeus length, 0.090 –0.095 mm wide, 1.00–1.33 times as long as wide; in ventral view broadly triangular, nonserrate; 0.060 –0.075 mm wide in lateral view, 0.67–0.79 times ventral width. Spermathecae not examined.

Male terminalia ( Figs. 149–150 View FIGURES 149–152 ): Epandrium shorter than high in lateral view, in posterior view with posterodorsal margin without medial V-shaped indentation. Lateral surstylus relatively short, extended beyond prensisetae by 1.0 times length of prensiseta; in lateral view bluntly triangular; in posterior view bluntly triangular or rounded, medial and lateral margins convex. Proctiger with ventral and lateral sclerotized areas connected. Phallus 2.40–2.55 mm long, 0.70–0.80 times as long as mesonotum; glans 0.45–0.50 mm long.

Distribution. Anastrepha crassaculeus is known from Colombia and Suriname. In Suriname it was collected only at Brownsberg.

Biology. This species has been reared from an undetermined species of Pouteria ( Sapotaceae ).

Type data. Holotype ♀ ( USNM USNMENT00875105 ), SURINAME: Brokopondo: Brownsberg Nature Park , [Mazaroni Val trail, 4.93727°N 55.20097°W, 484 m,] trap BNP-ML-34, [17 Sep –] 29 Oct 2016, A. Gangadin GoogleMaps . Paratypes: COLOMBIA: Magdalena: Santa Marta, predio el Aserrio , 11.0530°N 74.0345°W, 1503m, McPhail trap 14, 12 Jun 2015, ♀ ( ICAT ICAMF00000436 ) GoogleMaps . Norte de Santander: Pamplonita, predio Villanueva , 7.5126°N 72.6389°W, 1300m, McPhail trap 10, 15 May 2015, 1♀ ( ICAT ICAMF00000437 ) GoogleMaps . SURINAME: Brokopondo: Brownsberg Nature Park, Irene Val trail, 4.95474°N 55.18998°W, 382 m, trap BNP-ML-27, 12 Feb–14 Apr 2018, A. Gangadin, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01556864 ) GoogleMaps ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Kumbu Val trail, 4.94471°N 55.19539°W, 417 m, trap BNP-ML-37, 21 Apr–21 May 2017, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00875106 ) GoogleMaps ; same, 11 Feb–15 Apr 2018, 1♀ ( MAAHF) 2♂ 4♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556830–34 , USNMENT01556872 ) ; Kumbu Val trail, 200 m before waterfall, 4.94457°N 55.19614°W, 394 m, trap BNP-ML-36, 12 Feb–15 Apr 2018, A. Gangadin, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01556828 ) GoogleMaps ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Mazaroni road, Km 2.1, emerged 3 Apr 2017 reared from fruit of Pouteria sp. collected 18 Mar 2017, A. Gangadin, 2♂ 1♀ ( MAAHF) 1♂ ( NZCS) 1♂ 1♀ ( USNM USN- MENT01526358–59 ) ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Mazaroni top trail, 10 m before end, 4.95125°N 55.17612°W, 457 m, trap BNP-ML-01, 8–20 Apr 2017, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00875107 ) GoogleMaps ; same, 22 May–3 Jun 2017, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00875103 ) ; 12 Feb–15 Apr 2018, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01556829 ) ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Mazaroni Val trail, 4.93727°N 55.20097°W, 484 m, trap BNP-ML-34, 17 Sep–29 Oct 2016, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( NZCS USNMENT01526503 ) GoogleMaps ; same, 11 Feb–15 Apr 2018, 1♂ ( CDFA) 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01556827 ) ; Maz- aroni Val trail, 4.93592°N 55.20094°W, 491 m, trap BNP-ML-35, 17 Jul–17 Sep 2017, A. Gangadin, 1♂ ( FSCA) GoogleMaps ; same, 12 Feb–15 Apr 2018, 1♂ ( MAAHF) ; Brownsberg Nature Park, Witti Creek trail, 4.94146°N 55.17288°W, 287 m, trap BNP-ML-43, 21 Apr–21 May 2017, A. Gangadin, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00875104 ) GoogleMaps ; Witti Creek trail, at detour, 4.94293°N 55.17639°W, 352 m, trap BNP-ML-13, 11 Feb–15 Apr 2018, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( NZCS) GoogleMaps ; Witti Creek trail, near mark 0.5 km, 4.94589°N 55.17902°W, 419 m, trap BNP-ML-18, 11 Feb–15 Apr 2018, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556881 ) GoogleMaps ; Witti Creek trail, near mark 0.8 km, 4.94452°N 55.17768°W, 377 m, trap BNP-ML-15, 2 Sep–15 Oct 2018, A. Gangadin, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01355862 ) GoogleMaps ; Witti Creek trail, next to mark 1.1 km, 4.94265°N 55.17566°W, 340 m, trap BNP-ML-41, 11 Feb–15 Apr 2018, A. Gangadin, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT01556893 ) GoogleMaps ; same, 2 Sep–15 Oct 2018, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01355873 ) .

Etymology. The name of this species is a noun in apposition, from the Latin crassus (fat, thick) and aculeus in reference to the shape of the aculeus.

Comments. This species belongs to the robusta species group as indicated by the dark posterior band on the scutum, the wing pattern (C-, S- and V-bands connected; base of S-band with posterior extension and distinct incision), and the dorsally curved aculeus. In a preliminary phylogenetic analysis using anchored hybrid enrichment (Wiegmann et al., in prep.), A. crassaculeus is clustered with the four other species of the robusta group included in the analysis. In the COI analysis of Moore et al. (in prep.), the three sequences of A. crassaculeus form a cluster as the sister group to multiple species of the robusta clade of the robusta group.


Mus. Tinro, Vladyvostok


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


University, National Zoological Collection of Suriname


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology