Anthomyia subabyssinica, Ackland, 2001
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‘ Anthomyia abyssinica Jaennicke’. Malloch, 1924: 273; Emden, 1941 b: 261; Emden, 1948: 163 (in part). Holotype Ò: ‘ SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Natal / Weenen Nature Reserve / 28 ° 51'S: 29 ° 59E / Thornveld, Malaise / trap, dam, 1–4.x.1990 / A. E. Whittington’ [white rectangular printed label]; ‘ HOLOTYPE Ò / Anthomyia / subabyssinica / D. M.Ackland’ [red rectangular printed and written label]; ‘Holotype’ [circular white label with red perimeter]. Genitalia dissected and mounted in glycerol in a plastic tube mounted on the pin. In good condition. In NMSA.
Paratypes: BOTSWANA: 2Ò, Kenye , i.1956, F. Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 3Ò, Lake Ngami (B9), 12 mls NE Sehithwa, 16–17.iv.1972, Southern African Exp. , 1972 ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Tsessebe , i.1956, F. Zumpt ( BMNH) . SOUTH AFRICA: North West: 1Ò, Brits , 7.iii.1955, under large fig, Paterson ( BMNH) . KwaZulu-Natal: 1Ò, Ramsgate, SE 3030CD, 11– 12.i.1985, J. Londt, Malaise trap set in riverine bush ( NMSA) ; 1Ò, Mkuzi Game Reserve , ca. 27 ° 35'S: 32 ° 13'E, 1.ii.1988, J. G. H. Londt, 100 m, main camp & caravan park areas ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, Ashburton , 15 km SE of Pietermaritzburg, 19–25.ii.1977, J. G. H. Londt, Malaise in grassland ( NMSA) ; 2Ò, Empangeni , Malaise trap, 28 ° 38'S: 31 ° 42'E, 5– 15.i.1990, P. E. Reavell ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, Weenen N. R., #100, 35 km NE Estcourt, 28 ° 52'S: 30 ° 00'E, 1100 m, 2–9.xii.1991, B. Perrin & K. Goddard, Malaise trap ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, Zululand, Ingwavuma , 10.x.1963, B. & P. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) ; 1Ò, Estcourt , ix– x.1896, G.A. K. Marshall, (det. Anthomyia abyssinica Jaen. by J. R. Malloch) ( BMNH) ; Weenen , 14Ò, same locality and data as holotype ( NMSA) ; 1Ò, same locality, iii.1924, H. P. Thomasset (1Ò det. Anthomyia abyssinica Jaen. by van Emden, 1942) . UGANDA: 1Ò, Mbarara, 15.xi.1934, F. W. Edwards (det. Anthomyia amoena Macq. by van Emden, 1940) . YEMEN: 1Ò, Jebel Jihaf , ca. 7100 ft, ix.1937, B. M. Exp. to SW Arabia (det. Anthomyia amoena Macq. by van Emden, 1940) ( BMNH) . TANZANIA: 2Ò, ex coll. W. H. Potts, no other data ( BMNH) .
All the above Ò paratypes have been dissected, and confirmed as having the same genitalia as the holotype.
Other material is listed below which probably belong to subabyssinica , but a definite identification of the males requires dissection; a large number of the females probably also belong to subabyssinica , especially if caught at the same time and place as identified males:
BOTSWANA: 8Ò17^, Lake Ngami (B9), 12 mls NE Sehithwa, 16–17.iv.1972, Southern African Exp. , 1972 ( BMNH) ; 1Ò3^, Tsessebe , i.1956, F. Zumpt ( BMNH) . MALAWI: 1^, Viphya Mtns., Chikangawa, 1133 Dd , 5–8.xii.1980, 1700 m, B.Stuckenberg & J. Londt, forest edge & grassl. ( NMSA) . NAMIBIA: 1Ò, West Caprivi Park, Kwandu River , Susuwe , 17º43'37''S: 23º20'55''E, 28.ix.–2.x.1998, Malaise trap, dry woodland, A. H. Kirk-Spriggs ( NMWN) GoogleMaps . SOUTH AFRICA: Mpumalanga: 1^, Houtbosloop River nr Rivulets, Nelspruit Dist. , 3530BC, 6.xi.1970, B. Stuckenberg, gallery forest ( NMSA) . North West: 1^, Boekenhoutfontein , 24 km NW Rustenburg, 15.viii.1976, P. Ferrar ( NMSA) ; 1Ò, Brits , 7.iii.1955, Paterson, under large fig ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, same locality, 25.x.1952, Paterson, ( BMNH) ; 1^, same locality, 11.xi.1955, Paterson, under fig ( BMNH) ; 1^, Ottoshoop , iv.1916, H. G. Breyer ( NMSA) ; 1^, Potchefstroom , 1.ii.1953, Paterson ( BMNH) ; 1^, same locality, 8.xii.1952, Paterson ( BMNH) . KwaZulu-Natal: 2^, Giant’s Game Reserve, Injamuti area , SE2929AB, 5– 11.xii.1983, J. G. Londt ( NMSA) ; 2Ò, Estcourt , ix–x.1896, G.A. K. Marshall ( BMNH) ; 8Ò10^, Weenen Nature Reserve , 28º51'S: 29º59'E, 1–4.x.1990, A. E. Whittington, Thornveld, Malaise trap, dam ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 2Ò6^, Weenen N. R., #100, 35 km NE Estcourt, 28º52'S: 30 ° 00'E, 1100 m, 2–9.xii.1991, B. Perrin & K. Goddard, Malaise trap ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, Weenen , iii.1924, H. P. Thomasset (det. Limnophora bisetosa Wd. by E. Brunetti, 1925) ( BMNH) ; 1^, Weenen , iv.1924, H. P. Thomasset (det. Anthomyia abyssinica by van Emden, 1942) ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Empangeni , Malaise trap, 28º38'S: 31º42'E, 5–15.i.1990, P. E. Reavell ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1^, same data but 20.i.1990 ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò2^, Ashburton , 15 km SE Pietermaritzburg, i.1977, J. G. H. Londt, Malaise in grassland ( NMSA) ; 1^, Spioenkop , #1, 28º37'S: 28º31'E, 5–8.ix.1988, R. M. Miller ( NMSA) GoogleMaps . Gauteng: 1^, Johannesburg , 10.x.1949, F. Zumpt, stool ( BMNH) ; 1^, same locality, 16.vii.1950 F. Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1^, same locality, 14.ix.1949, F. Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1^, same locality, Parkstown North , 1.ii.1930, B. de Meillon ( BMNH) . Eastern Cape: 1^, Klein-Vis Riv. , 3225CB, 8 km W Somerset East, 29.x.1978, R. Miller & J. Londt, river bank ( NMSA) ; 1^, 16 mls E of Cradock Farm ‘ Who can tell’, 3225 Bb , 11.iii. 1972, 100 m, M. E. & B. J. Irwin ( NMSA) . TANZANIA: 1Ò, ex coll. W. H. Potts, no other data [donated to BMNH in 1967] ( BMNH) . ZIMBABWE: 1Ò, Salisbury , vii.1957, N. L. H. Krauss ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Mazowe , 27.ii.1997, J. W. Ismay ( DMA) ; 3^, Harare, Botanic gardens, 20–21.ii.1997, J. W. Ismay ( DMA) .
Etymology: The prefix sub indicates that this species was originally misidentified as abyssinica .
Colour: Interfrontalia, parafrontalia and genae varying from dark brown to blackish (with rather dense silvery dusting); parafrontals opposite lunule with a brownish shifting sheen stripe which extends from lunule to level of arista, and a brownish black non-shifting spot in vibrissal angle which extends above genal groove to eye margin when viewed in profile; face and occiput blackish (with normal dusting), except upper part of occiput rather shining blackish. Antennae entirely dark brown to blackish. Palpi dark greyish dusted; arista brownish at base; prementum dark brown, thinly dusted, extreme base shining. Thorax ( Figs 188, 189 View Figs 188–199 ) densely dusted (over dark ground-colour) with contrasting black and silvery grey pattern on dorsal surface; transverse postsutural band across the scutum complete between wing bases (posterior margin slightly indented, and only reaching 2nd postsutural dorsocentral seta; presutural spots small, joined immediately behind head by lighter greyish shading, each spot just reaching 2nd presutural dorsocentral seta on inner corner, but only reaching anterior posthumeral seta on outer corner (if more extensive, not reaching posterior posthumeral seta); scutellum largely black, with only its tip silvery grey. Pleura largely grey dusted, only lower part of the post pronotal lobes and anterior corner (and sometimes lower posterior corner) of anepisternum brownish black.Abdomen varying from mainly black to largely orange-yellow in ground colour, generally with some traces of orange-yellow on basal tergites, or with all tergites partly orange-yellow; viewed from behind with a blackish median vitta (about as wide as hind tibia) with anterior third to half of tergites blackish (shining in some angles of vision), tergites posteriorly with silvery dust; pregenital sclerite contrastingly shining brown or black; sternites orange, 5th sternite brownish with orange tips to processes. Wing membrane slightly pale yellowish brown tinged; wing with orange-brown veins; squamae paler than wing base with whitish fringes; halteres pale yellow. Legs varying from entirely dark brown to blackish, to largely orange, often with the coxae and trochanters contrasting with the dark femora, the latter sometimes orange basally and dark distally.
Head: Parafrontalia very narrow posteriorly (touching for a distance equal to length of ocellar tubercle) either separated by linear frontal stripe or touching), widening anteriorly to slightly less than width of first flagellomere; eyes separated by about half width of anterior ocellus; genae below lowest point of eye margin 0.15–0.18 times eye-height. 2 pairs of parafrontal setae on anterior third of distance between antennal base and anterior ocellus; short interfrontal setulae present. First flagellomere slightly more than twice (2.3 times) as long as wide (apex not quite reaching lower facial margin); arista slightly swollen at base (for a distance equal to width of first flagellomere), long pubescent, total width of hairing about one-third width of first flagellomere, longest hairs about as long as diameter of anterior ocellus. Prementum about 0.4 times as long as head height.
Thorax: 3 pairs of fairly strong presutural acrostichals (the middle the longest) in rows separated by about distance from each to adjacent dorsocentral row, without additional setulae in between; acr / dc ratio 1:1:1; posthumerals1 + 1; prealar as long as or longer than posterior notopleural, the latter however often considerably shorter than anterior notopleural (prealar 0.8 times length of anterior notopleural seta); dorsal surface of scutellum bare centrally, only 1–2 setulae towards sides; katepisternals 2 + 2, lower posterior three-quarters length of upper posterior, lower anterior seta half length of upper anterior and finer.
Legs: f2 with row of 3 pv on about basal half; f3 with 3–6 av in distal half, 4-6 pv; t1 with 1 median pv; t2 without ad, 1–2 pd and 2 p/pv; t3 with 1 av, 4–5 ad, 2 pd and 2 pv.
Wing: costa with all marginal spinules short (not quite as long as diameter of costa); the pair before distal break differentiated, but only about twice this length; lower crossvein sinuate, joining M 1+2 obliquely; last section of M 1+2 1.6 times length of preceding section. Lower squama slightly smaller than upper.
Wing length up to 5.0 mm.
Abdomen: Slightly more than twice as long as wide (2.2), dorsoventrally flattened in basal two-thirds, more or less parallel-sided from 2nd to 4th tergite. 4th sternite about 1.5 times as long as wide, parallel-sided, with a straight posterior margin, with long and strong lateral setae (not denser on posterior margin) and a few setulae on disc. 5th sternite processes ( Figs 193, 194 View Figs 188–199 ) with a few short setae laterally at their bases, otherwise with short biserial rows of setulae on their concave inner margins (very short medially, becoming longer); membranous lobes ( Fig. 194 View Figs 188–199 ) small and rounded in lateral view. Central process of synsternite (6+7) ( Figs 197–199 View Figs 188–199 ) rather variable, generally flat in profile, wedge-shaped, or apical margin with produced corners (often extremely small and undeveloped, or absent in some specimens). Surstylus ( Fig. 192 View Figs 188–199 ) weakly downcurved, constricted medially in lateral view with the apical third more rounded than in subornata , bearing a ventral row of rather long setulae and 2 short spinules below the angle of its inner lobe; in profile upper dorsal margin with a well developed lobe. Cercal plate ( Fig. 191 View Figs 188–199 ) of about equal length and width, apex rather wider than in subornata , with generally 4 apical spinules and 1 pair of longer setulae on either side of them, otherwise setulose only on basal half, in profile apex strongly projecting in a more or less ventral direction well beyond surstylus. Pregonite ( Fig. 195 View Figs 188–199 ) distinctly longer than wide, with 2 normal setulae on oblique distal margin; postgonite ( Fig. 195 View Figs 188–199 ) with a short setula on lower margin, apical dorsal extension of postgonite strongly concave ventrally. Distal section of aedeagus ( Fig. 196 View Figs 188–199 ) rather short, without a dorsal process at base, dorsal margin of the short distal section slightly concave in lateral view.
Female: The female of A. subornata is unknown, but as the males of subabyssinica and subornata can be separated by details of the genitalia, it is probable that the following description applies to both species.
Colour: Head dark as in male. Thoracic pattern very similar to that of male, postsutural transverse band sometimes more indented with grey dusting on anterior and posterior margins; scutellum with apical grey spot often larger than the male.Abdomen generally more orange, with black and grey pattern on abdominal tergites similar to that of male (or in some specimens with central and lateral black marks separate, not connected along anterior margins of tergites). Legs varying from all dark brownish (or even blackish) to mainly orange (femora often dark distally in contrast to the orange bases).
Head: Eyes widely separated (by more than their transverse width, ratio 10:13:10); interfrontalia at level of middle ors about thrice as wide as each parafrontal; parafrontalia widening anteriorly to about width of first flagellomere; genae below lowest point of eye margin about 0.2 times eye-height. Parafrontal setae differentiated into 3 pairs of orbital setae (anterior setae normally proclinate, posterior two reclinate) and one pair of (inwardly directed) frontal setae; crossed interfrontal setae well developed, their tips reaching margins of frontal stripe. Aristal hair length on average about one-third width of first flagellomere, varying from 0.25 (Weenen) to 0.45 (Lake Ngami).
Thorax: Katepisternals 2 + 2, both lower setae half length of upper setae.
Legs: f2 with 1–2 av; f3 with 3–5 av, and 1 preapical pv; t1 with 1 ad, 1 pv; t2 with 1 ad, 2 pd and 2 p/pv; t3 with 1 av, 5 ad and 2 pd.
Wing: costal spine length from 0.95–1.13 times length of upper crossvein.
Wing length up to 5.3 mm.
Abdomen: Postabdomen slightly shorter than preabdomen and rather wide (1.6 mm long and 0.5 mm wide at 4th tergite). 6th and 7th tergites with sclerotised lateral margins wider than in other species; the sclerotised anterior arms of 8th tergite shorter and curved inwards to median line. Cerci rather short, about 1.3 times length of 10th tergite, with 2 longer setulae apically. (Ovipositor Fig 162 View Figs 161–163 ).
Discussion: Malloch (1924: 267, in key) included ‘ abyssinica Jaen. ’ in a group which had the costal spine small or minute. In the same paper he described spinigera , which possessed a strong costal spine. In this paper spinigera and abyssinica are synonymised, and the species misidentified as ‘ abyssinica Jaen. ’ is described as subabyssinica sp. n.
Emden followed Malloch’s use of the name abyssinica . There are specimens of subabyssinica in the BMNH which carry det. labels ‘ abyssinica Jaen. ’ by both Malloch and Emden. In addition, Emden identified a male from the Yemen, (Emden 1948: 163) and another male from Uganda as ‘ amoena Macq’. (see under amoena ).
Anthomyia subabyssinica is a common and widely spread species in Africa. It is superficially similar to other species of Anthomyia , which perhaps accounts for Emden identifying several specimens as ‘ amoena’. Amongst the large number of specimens collected from the type locality by A. E. Whittington on the same day, there were 3Ò which had smaller presutural spots; on dissection these were found to have identical genitalia to subornata sp. n. Because these two species can only be reliably separated by small details of the male genitalia, I have only included males in the type series which have been dissected. Although the small isolated presutural spots in the male of subornata may appear to be a useful character in separating the two species, I do not think this character can be relied upon.
A. subabyssinica is one of the two species of afrotropical Anthomyia which lack a basal dorsal projection on the distal section of the aedeagus (the other being acutula ). It can be separated from acutula by the shorter setae on the basal margins of the processes of the 5th sternite, the smaller membranous lobes, and the process on systernite (6+7) which is small, flat (in lateral view) and with its arms basally attached (it appears somewhat variable, sometimes completely absent in a few specimens, and often more wedge-shaped).
Distribution: [ Yemen (Arabian Peninsula)] to Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia, Botswana.
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