Anthomyia whitei, Ackland, 2001
treatment provided by
Holotype Ò: ETHIOPIA: ‘Holotype’ [circular white label with red perimeter]; ‘ ETHIOPIA: / Prov. Gojjam / G. B. White, / BMNH. 1973–298’ [rectangular white printed label]; ‘ex. gelada baboon / faeces, Mt. Choke / 3500 m, 20.xii.1972 ’ [rectangular white handwritten label]; ‘ HOLOTYPE Ò / Anthomyia / whitei / D. M. Ackland’ [rectangular red printed label]. Right mid leg missing, slightly teneral, otherwise in good condition; genitalia dissected and mounted in a plastic tube on staging pin. In BMNH.
Paratypes: ETHIOPIA: 6Ò14^, same data as holotype; 1Ò, Addis Ababa, Entotto , 17.x.1968, R. Kano & T. Ohse, 3000 m: 4^, Addis Ababa, I. C. L. R. I., 16.x.1968, R. Kano & T. Ohse, 2700 m . ERITREA: 1Ò, Senafe dist. , 5.v.1948, G. de Lotto (all in BMNH) .
Etymology: This species is named in honour of Dr G. B. White who discovered this species in the Ethiopian Highlands.
Colour: Interfrontalia, parafrontalia and genae varying from dark brown to reddish (with rather dense silvery dusting); parafrontals opposite lunule with a reddish brown shifting sheen stripe which extends from lunule to level of arista, and a reddish spot in vibrissal angle which does not extend above genal groove when viewed in profile; face and occiput blackish (with normal dusting), including upper part of occiput. Antennae entirely dark brown to blackish. Palpi dark brown to black; arista brownish at base; prementum dark brown, very thinly dusted hence semi-shining especially basally. Thorax ( Figs 102 a View Figs 95–102 , 103) densely dusted (over dark ground-colour) with contrasting black and silvery grey pattern on dorsal surface; transverse postsutural band across the scutum either divided into 5 spots ( Fig. 102 a View Figs 95–102 ), the median spot extended anteriorly beyond suture and reaching level of 3rd postsutural dorsocentral seta (and behind suture constricted medially), or complete between wing bases (Fig. 104) (lateral spots fused and reaching wing bases, median spot fused laterally to a greater or lesser degree anteriorly to adjacent spot); presutural spots either small, separated behind head, each spot filling the space between presutural dorsocentrals and posthumeral setae, or larger and obscurely darkened anteriorly to foremargin of thorax; scutellum black, with a grey dusted apical spot which reaches anteriorly to discal setulae. Pleura largely grey dusted, only lower part of the post pronotal lobes and anterior corner of anepisternum brownish black. Abdomen largely densely dusted over dark ground-colour, with contrasting black and grey pattern on tergites (black central vitta on 3rd and 4th tergite nearly as wide as depth of femur, joined on anterior margins of tergites to a black crossband which is about one third length of tergite, laterally not widened to more than half length of tergite; hypopygium and 5th sternite rather finely dusted.Wing membrane hyaline with light brown veins; squamae white with whitish fringes; halteres yellow. Legs entirely dark brown to blackish, grey dusted, trochanters orange.
Head: Parafrontalia very narrow posteriorly (touching for a short distance in upper frons half), widening anteriorly to width of first flagellomere; eyes separated by width of anterior ocellus; genae below lowest point of eye margin 0.15–0.16 times eye-height. 2 pairs of parafrontal setae on anterior third of distance between antennal base and anterior ocellus; interfrontal setulae present which are nearly as long as posterior frontal setae. First flagellomere more than twice (2.5 times) as long as wide (apex not quite reaching lower facial margin); arista tapering from base to apex (not abruptly narrowing in distal two-thirds), about twice length of first flagellomere, very short pubescent, longest hairs about as long as diameter of base. Prementum about 0.35 times as long as head height.
Thorax: 3 pairs of presutural acrostichals (the middle the longest) in rows separated by slightly more than distance from each to adjacent dorsocentral row, with 4–6 additional setulae in between; acr / dc ratio 9:10:9; posthumerals 1 + 1; prealar of same length as posterior notopleural; dorsal surface of scutellum with numerous setulae on disc, at most narrowly bare medially; katepisternals 2 + 2, lower posterior three-quarters length of upper posterior seta, lower anterior half length of upper anterior seta; anepisternum with a well developed upper anterior setula.
Legs: f2 with row of 5–6 pv on about basal half, 0 av; f3 with 9 av in distal three-quarters; t1 with median 1 pv; t2 with 1 strong ad (longer than diameter of tibia), 1–2 pd and 2p/pv; t3 with 1 av, about 5 ad, 2 pd and 2–3 pv.
Wing: costa with all marginal spinules short (not longer than diameter of costa); the pair before distal break not differentiated; lower cross-vein sinuate, joining M 1+2 obliquely; last section of M 1+2 equal in length to preceding section. Lower squama as long as upper.
Wing length up to 7.0 mm.
Abdomen: about 2.75 times as long as width at 3rd tergite, dorsoventrally compressed in basal two-thirds, more or less parallel-sided. 4th sternite nearly twice as long as wide, rectangular, with a more or less straight posterior margin, with long lateral setae but only short setulae posteriorly. 5th sternite processes (Figs 107, 109) with a few short setae laterally at their bases, otherwise with long irregularly multiserial rows of setulae on their concave inner margins; membranous lobes (Fig. 108) wide and large, projecting ventrally in lateral view, the apical setulae long and separated from the basal setulae (distinct gap in lateral view). Central process of synsternite (6+7) (Fig. 113) with long divergent arms. Surstylus (Figs 105, 106) downcurved, ventral margin regularly curved in lateral view, slender apically, bearing a ventral row of rather long setulae and 2 short spinules below the angle of its inner lobe; in profile (Fig. 106) upper dorsal margin with a moderately developed lobe. Cercal plate (Fig. 105) of about equal length and width, apex rather blunt, with a few short apical spinules and 1–2 pairs of longer setulae on either side of them, otherwise setulose only on basal half, in profile apex not projecting, concealed behind surstylus. Pregonite (Fig. 111) twice as long as wide, with 2 slightly expanded setulae on distal margin; postgonite (Fig. 111) with a slender setula (inserted on ventral margin). Distal section of aedeagus (Fig. 112) with a proclinate dorsal process only slightly separated from its base, dorsal margin of distal section straight in proximal half.
Colour: Head dark as in male. Thoracic pattern very similar to that of male, with scutal markings slightly less extensive; postsutural band either separated into 5 spots, or these weakly joined anteriorly, lateral spots either joined or separated from wing bases; scutellum with apical grey spot often larger than the male. Abdomen with black and grey pattern on abdominal tergites similar to that of male (or in some specimens with central and lateral black marks separate, not or only weakly connected along anterior margins of tergites). Legs dark as in male (tibiae sometimes obscurely orange).
Head: Eyes widely separated (by slightly more than their transverse width, ratio 10:11:10); interfrontalia at level of middle ors about 3.6 times as wide as each parafrontal; parafrontalia widening anteriorly to slightly more than width of first flagellomere; genae below lowest point of eye margin about 0.3 times eye height.Arista tapering as in male. The strong parafrontal setae differentiated into 3 pairs of orbital setae (anterior setae normally proclinate, posterior two reclinate) + 1 pair of (inwardly directed) frontal setae; crossed interfrontal setae well developed, their tips reaching margins of frontal stripe.
Thorax: Presutural acrostichal setulae as in male. Katepisternals 2 + 2, (both lower setae about half length of upper setae).
Legs: f2 with 1–2 av and 2–3 pv on basal half; f3 with 6 irregularly spaced av, and 1 preapical pv; t1 with 2 p; t2 with 1 strong ad, 2 pd and 2 p/pv; t3 with 1 av, 5–6 ad and 2 pd.
Wing length up to 8.0 mm.
Discussion: A. whitei was first discovered in 1972 by Dr G. B. White, breeding in faeces of gelada baboon, Theropithecus gelada (Rüppel) (Cercopithecidae) , in the Ethiopian highlands. Immature stages were found often in gelada stools on lookout rocks. A. whitei larvae and pupae in various stages diapaused together when the faeces dried up, resuming development when rain moistened the faeces and washed it into more suitable situations. Further adult specimens were found in a collection from Addis Ababa made in 1948, and a male from Eritrea was found in the BMNH. According to Graham White, adults apparently of this species were commonly seen alighting on rocks in gelada territory and other organic materials in several parts of the Ethiopian highlands.
A. whitei is related to A. stuckenbergi from South Africa (and the other species of the ornata superspecies).The form of the postgonite (with seta arising from the inner surface) long arms on synsternite (6+7) processes, a strong sub-basal dorsal process on the distal section of the aedeagus, long inner marginal setae and a large ventrally directed membranous lobe on the processes of the 5th sternite are constitutive characters of the ornata superspecies.
Distribution: Only known from Ethiopia and Eritrea.
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.