Anthomyia maculigena Stein, 1913
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|Anthomyia maculigena Stein, 1913|
1956: 529; Paterson, 1956: 164; Zumpt & Patterson, 1952: 98. Syn. n.
Syntypes of maculigena : SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 2Ò, Durban, in MNM, destroyed in 1956 (Prof. L. Papp, pers. comm.) .
Holotype ^ of Anthomyia griseobasis Malloch : SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: ‘Holotype’ [printed circular white label with red perimeter]; ‘ Anthomyia / griseobasis / det. / J. R. Malloch Type’ [rectangular printed and written white label with black line border]; ‘Natal / Estcourt / 10.xi.1913 / R. C. Wroughton’ [rectangular white handwritten label]; ‘Pres. by / Imp. Bur. Ent. / Brit. Mus. / 1924–242’ [rectangular white printed label]. In reasonable condition, right mid leg missing. In BMNH.
Paratypes of griseobasis : SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 1^, Ulundi, 5–6500 ft, ix.1896, G. A. K. Marshall; 1Ò, (labelled as allotype by Malloch). ERITREA (Somaliland): Bohotle, 1903, Vety-Major A. F. Appleton, 1907–89 [this paratype is a male of Anthomyia ornata (Bigot) ]. KENYA: 1Ò, between Nakuru & Baringo, xii.1911, Dr H. A. Bödeker (although not labelled as a paratype, this specimen must be the male paratype listed by Malloch from Kenya Colony, without other data; it carries a label ‘ Anthomyia griseobasis Mall. J. R. Malloch det.’ and I have added a paratype label). Types of griseobasis reviewed during present study.
Other material examined: ANGOLA: 1^, (A26), Salazar, I. I. A. A., 9–15.iii.1972, Southern African Exp. , 1972 ( BMNH) . CAMEROON: 1^, Bameda Hosp. , 7.xii.1937, 4800 ft, M. D. W. Jeffrys ( BMNH) . KENYA: 2Ò, Embu, 10.iii.1914, G. St. J. Orde Browne ( BMNH) . 1Ò, Karura For., Nairobi , 9–13.xii.1970, A. E. Stubbs, 5500 ft ( BMNH) ; 1Ò2^, Kiambu, vi.1930, R. H. Le Pelley, ex ripe coffee beans ( BMNH) ; 1Ò1^, Nairobi , v.1930, T. J. Anderson, from vegetable marrow ( BMNH) ; 10Ò2^, same locality, vii–viii.1930, van Someren ( BMNH) ; 1^, same locality, i.1954, van Someren ( BMNH) ; 2Ò, Ngong , ix.1925, van Someren ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Jombani Hills , v.1947, van Someren ( BMNH) . MALAWI: 1^, Viphia , Chikangawa, SE 1133DD, 27.ii– 1.iii.1987, J. & A. Londt, grassland & forest margin ( NMSA) . NIGERIA: 1Ò, Obudu Plat. , 9.iii.1974, R. G. T. St. Leger ( BMNH) . SOUTH AFRICA: Mpumalanga: 2^, Waterval Onder , 28.ii.1952, Paterson, ( BMNH) . North West: 2^, Potchefstroom , 7.ii.1953, Paterson ( BMNH) . Gauteng: 2Ò, no locality, 19.iii.1950, Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, 5.vi.1950, Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1^, 16.xii.1944, Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1^, 19.xii.1949, Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Johannesburg , 17.xii.1952, Paterson ( BMNH) ; 1Ò13^, 15.x.1951 – 25.i.1953, Paterson ( BMNH) . KwaZulu-Natal: 1^, National Park , iii.1932, Miss A. Mackie ( BMNH) ; 1^, Pietermaritzburg , 9.iii.1954, F. Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1^, Cathedral Peak area , 2829CC, J. G. H. Londt, 5–6.ii.1983, ex Malaise ( NMSA) ; 2Ò, Majuba , 25.xi.1959, Paterson ( BMNH) ; 1^, Midlands, Howick , 29 ° 29'S: 30 ° 13'E, 10.viii.1991, A. E. Whittington, streamside vegetation, 1060 m ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1^, same locality, 2.x.1991, pan trapped in grass ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, Pietermaritzburg, Prestbury , 23.vii.1986, A. E. Whittington ( NMSA) ; 1^, near Lilani, Ahrens dist. , iv.1962, B. & P. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) ; 8Ò, Zululand, Ubombo , 28.iv.1955, F. Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1^, Umzimkulu , 1.iv.1981, A. C. B. ( NMSA) . Eastern Cape: 1Ò, Dwesa Nature Reserve , 32 ° 16'S: 28 ° 51'E, 50m, 17–20.xi.1991, D. A. Barraclough, indigeneous forest & margin ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, Grahamstown , 4–7.i.1954 ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Port St. John’s dist. , 16–17.x.1959, B. & P. Stuckenberg, coastal forest ( NMSA) ; 2Ò, van Staaden’s Pass, Port Elizabeth dist. , 30.x.1964, B. & P. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) ; 1Ò, Tsitsikamma N. P., 34 ° 51'17''S: 23 ° 53'22''E, 8.iv.1998, sweeping understorey veg. in coastal rainforest,A. H. Kirk-Spriggs ( NMWN) GoogleMaps ; 1^, Willowmore , i.1926, Dr Brauns ( BMNH) . Western Cape: 1^, Algeria Forestry, Clanwilliam Distr. , 4–10.iii.1969, Potgieter & Strydom ( NMSA) ; 1^, 16.5 km NE Clanwilliam, Rheeboksvley picnic area, 3218BB, 4.x. 1977, 350 m, R. M. Miller ( NMSA) ; 1Ò, Knysna , 9.ii.1960 ( BMNH) ; 1^, Kloof Nek, Cape Town, 1–2.i.1972, Southern African Exp. , 1972 ( BMNH) . UGANDA: 1Ò, Ruwenzori Range, Mobuku valley , xii.1934 – i.1935, F. W. Edwards, 7300 ft ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Kigezi Dist. , 8170 ft., impenetr. forest, 2–4.xi.1964, R. W. Crosskey ( BMNH) . ZIMBABWE: 1^, nr Fort Victoria , ix.1931, J. Ogilvie ( BMNH) ; 1 Ò, N Vumba, 20.vii.1964, D. Cookson ( BMNH) ; 3Ò, 12.i.1965, D. Cookson ( NMSA) ; 1^, 30.vi.1964, D. Cookson ( NMSA) ; 1Ò, Vumba, Umtali dist. , iii.1938, A. Cuthbertson ( BMNH) ; 1^, Mt. Chirinda , 3800 ft, xi.1910, C. F. M. Swynnerton ( BMNH) .
Colour: Interfrontalia, parafrontalia and genae varying from dark brown to blackish (with rather dense silvery dusting); parafrontals at middle with a brownish suffusion (in some specimens rather obscure); parafacials opposite lunule with a dark shifting sheen stripe which extends from lunule to level of arista, and a brownish non-shifting spot in vibrissal angle which extends above genal groove and reaches eye margin when viewed in profile; face and occiput blackish (with normal dusting), except upper part of occiput rather blackish. Antennae entirely dark brown to blackish. Palpi dark brown to black; arista light brownish in basal half; prementum dark brown, thinly dusted. Thorax ( Figs 82, 83 View Figs 82–91 ) densely dusted (over dark ground-colour) with contrasting black and silvery grey pattern on dorsal surface, viewed from in front (at a low angle) the presutural whitish dusted areas becoming dark sooty grey (less contrasting); transverse postsutural band across the scutum wide (extending from suture to beyond 2nd postsutural dorsocentral setae; complete between wing bases (anterior and posterior margins weakly sinuate); presutural spots large and square, joined behind head, each spot expanded towards presutural acrostichal rows (inner margins diverging) and reaching or extending posteriorly beyond 2nd presutural dorsocentral seta; scutellum almost completely black, with only its extreme tip silvery grey. Pleura largely grey dusted, in parts rather shifting depending upon angle of vision, and turning to a rather greasy golden grey from certain angles (especially notopleural depression). Abdomen largely densely dusted over dark ground-colour, with extensive contrasting black and grey pattern on tergites; basal tergites sometimes obscurely orange-brown (a wide black central vitta on 3rd and 4th tergite as wide as or wider than depth of hind femur, joined anteriorly on each tergite with a wide black band which expands laterally to full length of tergites; pregenital sclerite contrastingly shining brownish black (undusted); hypopygium rather finely dusted, 5th sternite shining reddish brown laterally on processes, the flattened lobes on processes sclerotised and less shining. Wing membrane pale brownish orange tinged; wing bases with brown veins; squamae slightly paler than wing base with whitish fringes; halteres yellow. Legs dark brown or orange-brown, trochanters and coxae orange, latter rather dusted.
Head: Parafrontalia very narrow posteriorly (almost touching on nearly half length of frons), widening anteriorly to three-quarters width of first flagellomere; eyes almost touching, separated by less than half width of anterior ocellus; parafacial narrow (only about one-third width of first flagellomere); genae below lowest point of eye margin 0.15–0.2 times eye-height. 2 pairs of short and weak parafrontal setae on anterior third of distance between antennal base and anterior ocellus; short proclinate interfrontal setulae present, closer to lunule than to anterior ocellus. First flagellomere nearly three times as long as wide (apex not quite reaching lower facial margin); arista tapering from base to apex (not abruptly narrowing in distal two-thirds), about 1.6 times length of first flagellomere, short plumose, total width of hairing two-thirds width of first flagellomere, longest hairs (on dorsal surface) three times diameter of base. Prementum about 0.35 times as long as head height.
Thorax: 3 pairs of presutural acrostichals (the middle the longest, at about two-thirds length of 2nd presutural dorsocentral seta) in rows separated by about distance from each to adjacent dorsocentral row, without additional setulae in between; acr / dc ratio 1:1:1; posthumerals 1 + 1; prealar longer than (1.5 times) posterior notopleural; dorsal surface of scutellum bare centrally; katepisternals 2 + 2(3), lower posterior nearly as long as upper posterior seta, lower anterior short and fine; anepisternum with a developed upper anterior setula.
Legs: f2 with row of 3–5 pv on about basal third; f3 with 7–9 av in distal two-thirds; t1 with 1 pv; t2 with 1 very short ad, 2 pd and 3 pv; t3 with 1 av, 5 ad, 2 pd and 6–7 pv.
Wing: costa with all marginal spinules very short; the pair before distal break not differentiated; lower crossvein sinuate, joining M 1+2 obliquely; last section of M 1+2 1.4 times length of preceding section. Lower squama as long as upper.
Wing length up to 6.0 mm.
Abdomen: about twice as long as wide, semi-compressed in basal two-thirds. 4th sternite ( Fig. 86 View Figs 82–91 ) about 1.3 times as long as wide, with a rounded posterior margin, densely clothed with long setae posteriorly. 5th sternite processes ( Fig. 86 View Figs 82–91 ) with a few short setae laterally at their bases, otherwise with long bi-triserial rows of setulae on their concave inner margins; membranous lobes ( Fig. 87 View Figs 82–91 ) strongly sclerotised and darkened, their lower margins turned at a 45º angle to the processes, forming flat plates which are inwardly directed when viewed ventrally; in lateral view with strongly projecting and rounded lower margins; the apical setulae long and separated from the basal setulae (distinct gap in lateral view). Central process of synsternite (6+7) ( Fig. 90 View Figs 82–91 ) large, with divergent winged arms. Surstylus ( Fig. 85 View Figs 82–91 ) strongly downcurved, constricted medially in lateral view, bearing a ventral row of rather long setulae and 2 short spinules below the angle of its inner lobe. Cercal plate ( Fig. 84 View Figs 82–91 ) of about equal length and width, with a few short apical spinules and 1 pair of longer setulae on either side of them, otherwise setulose only on basal half, in profile apex slightly projecting, but concealed behind surstylus. Pregonite ( Fig. 88 View Figs 82–91 ) with 2 expanded setulae on apical margin, parallel-sided; postgonite ( Fig. 88 View Figs 82–91 ) with a slightly expanded setula (with outer lobe slightly projecting above its base). Distal section of aedeagus ( Fig. 89 View Figs 82–91 ) with a long proclinate dorsal process hardly separated from its base, dorsal margin of distal section straight in lateral view.
Colour: Head dark as in male; parafrontal with a brownish spot at the bases of the two anterior orbital setae, (sometimes only the anterior one) which continues as a suffused brownish shading across frontal stripe (at level of cruciate interfrontal setulae). Thoracic pattern very similar to that of male, scutal band and presutural spots almost as extensive, viewed from a low angle in front the grey dusted areas are not so shifting, remaining largely silvery grey and more contrasting with the dark spots; scutellum with apical grey spot equally small as male, base of scutellum often narrowly grey dusted. Pleura (including notopleural depression) generally dark in ground colour, rarely slightly reddish or orange. Abdomen with tergites either dark in ground-colour, or often extensively orange or yellow, with central and lateral black marks only narrowly connected along anterior margins of tergites. Legs dark to orange-brown.
Head: Eyes widely separated (by slightly more than their transverse width, ratio 5:6:5); interfrontalia at level of middle orbitals about 4 times as wide as each parafrontal; parafrontalia widening anteriorly to about width of first flagellomere (frontal stripe rather short, not longer than wide, lateral margins convex); genae below lowest point of eye margin about 0.25 times eye height. Antennae and arista tapering as in male. Parafrontal setae differentiated into 3 pairs of orbital setae (anterior setae normally proclinate, posterior two reclinate) + 1 pair of (inwardly directed) frontal setae at level of lunule; crossed interfrontal setulae well developed, their tips reaching margins of frontal stripe.
Thorax: Presutural acrostichal setulae similar to those in male. katepisternals 2 + 2 (dorsal anterior seta 2/3 length of posterior dorsal seta, ventral setae both short and fine, about half length of dorsal anterior).
Legs: f2 with 0 av; f3 with 4–5 short av, and 2 preapical pv; t1 with 1 ad, 1 av (both short); t2 with 1 ad, 2 pd and 2 p/pv; t3 with 0–1 av, 5 ad and 2 pd.
Wing length up to 7.0 mm.
Discussion: Stein described maculigena from two males (Durban) in 1913. His excellent description agrees exactly with the male of the species which was described from a female as griseobasis by Malloch in 1924.The following extracts from Stein’s description are significant: ‘…die Backen neben dem Mundrand mit einem fast viereckigen schwarzen Fleck…’ ‘Borste kurzhaarig’ ‘Thorax…2 grosse Vorderrandflecke, die vorn ziemlich breit zusammenhängen, seitlich sich bis zu den Schulterbeulen erstrecken und nach hinten bis nahe zur Naht gehen, eine sehr breite Querbinde hinter der Naht, die über 2/3 so breit ist als die Entfernung zwischen Naht und Schildchen…’ ‘Schildchen samtschwarz, letzteres kaum an der Spitze mit hellem Punkt; pra mässig lang…’ ‘Flügel…ohne Randdorn…’. [genae next to mouth margin with an almost rectangular black spot…arista short haired…thorax with two large foremarginal spots which are rather broadly joined in front, at the sides they reach as far as the post pronotal lobes and behind reach nearly to suture…a very wide postsutural band which is over 2/3 as wide as the distance between suture and scutellum…scutellum velvet black, the latter barely with a light spot at apex….prealar moderately long…wings without costal spine’ (my translation)].
When Malloch described griseobasis he designated a female (Estcourt, Natal) as the holotype, because the parafrontals had a conspicuous brown spot at the base of the proclinate seta, and a trace of a brown band across the frontal stripe; these characters being unique amongst Anthomyia females in Malloch’s experience. In fact the females of some specimens of ornata have a darkened spot around the seta, and in some specimens of maculigena this is absent. The ‘allotype’ of griseobasis (=Ò paratype) from Somaliland, Bohotle, is a male of Anthomyia ornata (Bigot) (genitalia dissected). The male paratype from ‘ Kenya Colony’ was found in the BMNH without a paratype label, which I have added.
Although Stein’s types are destroyed, there is no doubt that maculigena is the earliest valid name for this species.
In 1924 Malloch’s only reference to maculigena is a note at the end of the entry for ‘ abyssinica Jaen. ’ (misidentification), where he suspected that maculigena Stein might be a synonym of abyssinica . He obviously did not read Jaennicke’s or Stein’s descriptions carefully enough. In this paper ‘ abyssinica Jaen. ’ of Malloch is described as subabyssinica sp. n.
Emden (1951) listed material of griseobasis from numerous localities. The Ò^ from Uganda (Ruwenzori, Namwamba Valley, 6500 ft., F. W. E[dwards], and the ^ from Kenya (Katamayo) are misidentified, and described in this paper as concava sp. n. The Ò from the Belgian Congo (Tshibinda, T. D. A. Cockerell) is a specimen of abyssinica Jaen. (arista with long hairs, costa of wing with less obvious costal spine, but genitalia dissected and agree with abyssinica . Most of the other records appear to be correct. Paterson (1956) recorded a female of maculigena (as griseobasis ) from Msingi (? Tanzania); he was rather doubtful about its identity, and from the characters given it cannot be maculigena .
The larvae of maculigena have been recorded as feeding on ripe coffee beans (Emden 1951), from vegetable marrow (Emden 1951), on meat and stool ( Zumpt & Patterson 1952).
Distribution: From Uganda and Kenya in east Africa, to Nigeria and Cameroon in west Africa, southwards to Zimbabwe, South Africa and Angola.
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