Anthomyia benguellae Malloch, 1924

Ackland, D. M., 2001, Revision of afrotropical Anthomyia Meigen, 1803 (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), with descriptions of ten new species, African Invertebrates 42, pp. 1-94 : 22-29

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Anthomyia benguellae Malloch, 1924


Anthomyia benguellae Malloch, 1924 View in CoL

( Figs 29–40, 46–47 View Figs 46–49 )

Anthomyia benguellae Malloch, 1924: 268 View in CoL , 272; Cuthbertson, 1937: 21; Emden, 1941 b: 261; Emden, 1951:

353; Pont, 1979: 365; Michelsen, 1980: 287; Michelsen, 1997: 40.

Anthomyia indica Malloch, 1924: 267 , 269. Primary homonym of Anthomyia indica Walker, 1853: 252 .

Anthomyia sensua Curran, 1927: 531 View in CoL ; Cuthbertson, 1937: 21; Emden, 1951: 353; Michelsen, 1980: 287.

Synonymy after Emden, 1941 b: 261.

Anthomyia inda Ackland & Pont, 1977: 439 View in CoL ; Ackland, 1987: 43. Syn. n.

Holotype Ò of benguellae : NAMIBIA: ‘Holotype’ [circular white label with red perimeter]; ‘ Anthomyia / benguellae / Det. / J. R. Malloch, Type’ [rectangular white written and printed label with black line border]; ‘Benguella / (300 mls fr. coast.) / Dec. 1904 / Dr F. C. Wellman’ [white rectangular handwritten label]; ‘ Anthomyia Ò / quinquemaculata Macq. / V. Michelsen det 1979’ [rectangular white written and printed label]. In BMNH, reviewed by Michelsen (1980: 288), and during present study. Most of left wing missing; genitalia dissected and mounted in glycerol in a plastic tube on the staging pin.

Paratype of benguellae : NAMIBIA: 1^, (SW Africa), Benguella, same data as holotype [labelled as allotype by Malloch]. In BMNH .

Holotype Ò of sensua : SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: ‘New Hanover, Aug. 1914, C. B. H [ardenberg], H. K. Munro’; ‘Type, Anthomyia sensua Ò Curran’ Det. C. H. Curran’. In Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria. Reviewed by Michelsen (1980: 288) who stated that the head and both hind legs were missing. Paratypes of sensua : 9 paratypes were listed by Curran, there are 2 in the BMNH: 1Ò, South Africa, Gauteng, Pretoria, 10.i.1915, H. K. Munro; genitalia dissected and mounted in balsam, reviewed by Michelsen (1980: 288) and during present study; 1^, New Hanover, 1.xii.1914, C. B. Hardenberg.

Holotype Ò of inda : INDIA: NW India, Kasauli, F. Wyville-Thomson, in BMNH, reviewed Ackland, 1987.

Other material examined: ANGOLA: 1^, 15 mls N Sade de Bandeira, ca. 6500 ft, 3.ii.1972, Southern African Exp. , 1972 ( BMNH) . CENTRAL AFRICA: 1Ò, no data, pres by E. Brunetti ( BMNH) . ERITREA: 1Ò, Asmara , 20.x.1956, D. J. Greathead ( BMNH) ; 3Ò, same locality, 2350 m, 14.xi.1948, G. de Lotto ( BMNH) . KENYA: 10Ò1^, Nanyuki , 14.i.1959, em. 23.i, de Bruin ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Muguga , iv.1969, C. F. Dewhurst ( BMNH) ; 1^, Trans-Naoia Dist., nr Cherangan Hills , 40 mls E of Mt. Elgon, 6200 ft, ix–x.1924, C. R. S. Pitman ( BMNH) . MALAWI: 1^, Zomba, x.1910, Dr H. S. Stannus ( BMNH) ; 2^, Blantyre, 12.v.1910, Dr J. E. S. Old ( BMNH) . NAMIBIA: 1^, Regenstein, 15 mls SSW Windhoek, 7.ii.1972, Southern African Exp. , 1972 ( BMNH) ; 1Ò1^, Otjikoko Süd Farm, 33 mls ENE Omaruru, 10–13.ii.1972, Southern African Exp. , 1972 ( BMNH) ; 2^, Plateau Farm, 22 mls E Aus, 14–17.i.1972, Southern African Exp. , 1972 ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Windhoek, SE 2217 Ca , 28.xi–5.xii.1973, Malaise trap ( NMWN) ; 1Ò, same locality, 18.xii.1973 ( NMWN) ; 1Ò, Windhoek , 22 ° 34'S: 17 ° 05'E, 29.xi.1986, J. Irish, Malaise trap ( NMWN) GoogleMaps ; 2Ò1^, Brandberg, pools on Wasserfallflache , 21 ° 10'40''S: 14 ° 33'08''E, 2000 m, 21–23.x.1998, R. Butlin & J. Altringham, Malaise trap 8 ( NMWN) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, same locality, 21 ° 10'42''S: 14 ° 32'55''E, yellow pan traps 8 ( NMWN) GoogleMaps ; 2Ò8^, Brandberg, Wasserfallflache at: 21 ° 10'42''S: 14 ° 32'55''E, 2000 m, 19–21.x.1998, R. Butlin & J. Altringham, Malaise trap 5 ( NMWN) GoogleMaps ; 2^, same locality, yellow pan traps 8 ( NMWN) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò2^, Brandberg, Plateau valley at: 21 ° 10'46''S: 14 ° 32'52''E, 1950 m, 19–21.x.1998, R. Butlin & J. Altringham ( NMWN) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, same locality, yellow pan traps 9 ( NMWN) GoogleMaps ; 1^, Brandberg, NE side Hungorob ravine at: 21 ° 11'30''S: 14 ° 31'40''E, 1200 m, 26.x.1998, R. Butlin & J. Altringham, at light, 1900–0700 ( NMWN) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, Lüderitz, Obib waters, 28 ° 00'S: 16 ° 38'E, 19–21.ix.1997, E. Marais & A. H. Kirk-Spriggs, Malaise trap sample ( NMWN) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, Lüderitz, Rooiberg , 28 ° 38'S: 16 ° 28'E, 22–24.ix.1997, A. H. Kirk-Spriggs & E. Marais, Malaise trap samples ( NMWN) GoogleMaps . SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Province: 1Ò1^, Tzaneen , xii.1952 ( BMNH) . North West: 2^, Rustenburg , 6.ix.1965 ( BMNH) ; 18Ò9^, Potchefstroom , 7.ii.1953, Paterson ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Brits , 25.x.1953, Paterson ( BMNH) ; 2^, same locality, 10– 11.iv.1955, Paterson, on faeces under fig ( BMNH) ; 1^, same data, 9.iii.1953 ( BMNH) . Gauteng: 1^, Bapsfontein , x.1954 ( BMNH) ; 2^, Meyerton , 25.iii.1974, F. Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 3Ò1^, Johannesburg, Parktown North , i–ii.1930, B. de Meillon ( BMNH) ; 1^, Johannesburg , 18.i.1952, Paterson, caught in house ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, same locality, 7.xii.1952 Paterson ( BMNH) ; 1^, same locality, 21.xii.1952 ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, same locality, 7.x.1949, F. Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Pretoria , i.1923, M. Forbes ( NMSA) ; 1Ò, same locality, 18.vii.1905 ; 1^, same locality, xii. 1914, Breyer ( NMSA) . KwaZulu-Natal: 1^, Zululand, Mgwavuma , iii.1917, E. W. Baxter ( BMNH) ; 2Ò1^, Estcourt , ix–x.1896, G. A. K. Marshall ( BMNH) ; 1 ^, Pietermaritzburg , 18.i.1954, F. Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Weenen Nature Reserve , 28 ° 51'S: 29 ° 59'E, 1–4.x.1990, Whittington, thornveldt, Malaise trap, dam ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1^, same locality and date, sweep net ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1Ò, nr Lilani, Ahrens dist. , iv.1962, B. & P. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) ; 2^, #38, Royal Nat. Park , 28 ° 41'S: 28 ° 56'E, 1440 m, 23–28.iii.1991, J. G. H. Londt, Protea woodland trap ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 2^, Umtamvuna Nature Res. , 31 ° 00'06''S: 30 ° 10'38''E, 29.x.1990, Whittington, 450 m, forest margin ( NMSA) GoogleMaps . Eastern Cape: 1Ò6^, Sheldon, viii, F. Zumpt ( BMNH) ; 1^, Willowmore , viii.1920, Dr Brauns ( NMSA) . Western Cape: 1Ò, Cape Peninsula, Cape Town to Cape Point , 1–5.xi.1930, H. W. Simmonds ( BMNH) ; 1Ò, Table Mountain slopes, above cable house, Cape Town , 24.xi.1959, B. & P. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) ; 1Ò, Laaiplek , 3319DD, 9.x.1977, R. M. Miller ( NMSA) ; 2Ò1^, nr Inverdoorn Ceres, Karroo at junction of Calvinia Sutherland Rd , 2–3.x.1959, B. & P. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) ; 2Ò3^, Sevenweekspoort, Laingsburg dist. , 19–22.ix.1959, B. & P. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) ; 1^, Stellenbosch , ix.1926, Dr Brauns ( NMSA) ; 2^, 7 km N Prince Alfred’s Hamlet , 3319AD,, J. G. H. Londt, 850 m, Malaise trap, ( NMSA) ; 2Ò, Kloof Nek, Cape Town (5), 1–2.i.1972, ( BM South African Expedition ) ( BMNH) ; 1^, Cape Town , x.1937, A. E. Turner ( BMNH) . Northern Cape: 2Ò, Prieska , x.1951 ( BMNH) . UGANDA: 1Ò, Kigezi Dist., Mt. Muhavura , 29.xi.1934, 7000 ft, F. W. Edwards, B. M. E. Afr. Exp. ( BMNH) ; 1Ò3^, Kigezi Province, Mabungo , xi.1934, 6000 ft, J. Ford, B. M. E. Afr. Exp. ( BMNH) . ZIMBABWE: 1^, nr Fort Victoria , ix.1931, J. Ogilvie ( BMNH) ; 1^, Salisbury , [no date], J. Isgaer Roberts ( BMNH) .


Colour: Interfrontalia, parafrontalia and genae varying from dark brown to blackish (with rather dense silvery dusting); parafrontals opposite lunule with a dark shifting sheen stripe which extends from lunule to level of arista, and a blackish non-shifting spot in vibrissal angle which does not extend above genal groove when viewed in profile; face and occiput blackish (with normal dusting), except upper part of occiput rather shining blackish. Antennae entirely dark brown to blackish. Palpi dark brown to black; arista brownish at base; prementum dark brown, thinly dusted. Thorax ( Figs 29–31) densely dusted (over dark ground-colour) with contrasting black and silvery grey pattern on dorsal surface; transverse postsutural band across the scutum either complete between wing bases (but anterior and posterior margins strongly indented along dorsoventral rows), or in some examples ( Fig. 29) the band is narrowly separated by grey dusted strips; presutural spots separated behind head, each spot filling the space between presutural dorsocentrals and posthumeral setae (inner margins extending halfway towards the presutural acrostichal setulae; scutellum largely black, with only its tip silvery grey. Pleura largely grey dusted, only lower part of the post pronotal lobe and anterior corner of anepisternum brownish black. Abdomen largely densely dusted over dark ground-colour, with contrasting black and grey pattern on tergites (black central vitta on 3rd and 4th tergite as wide as depth of femur (wider anteriorly) and lateral marks more or less connected along anterior margins of tergites); pregenital sclerite contrastingly shining brownish black (undusted); hypopygium and 5th sternite rather finely dusted. Wing membrane slightly brownish orange tinged basally; wing bases with orange-brown veins; squamae paler than wing base with whitish fringes; halteres yellow. Legs entirely dark brown to blackish (except for the partly shining trochanters which are sometimes orange-brown).

Head: Parafrontalia very narrow posteriorly (either separated by linear frontal stripe or touching), widening anteriorly to slightly less than width of first flagellomere; eyes separated by less than half to slightly more than width of anterior ocellus; genae below lowest point of eye margin 0.26–0.28 times eye-height. 3–4 pairs of parafrontal setae on anterior half of distance between antennal base and anterior ocellus; short interfrontal setulae present. First flagellomere slightly more than twice as long as wide (apex not quite reaching lower facial margin); arista tapering from base to apex (not abruptly narrowing in distal two-thirds), about 1.5 times length of first flagellomere, short pubescent, longest hairs about as long as diameter of base. Prementum about 0.4 times as long as head height.

Thorax: 3 pairs of presutural acrostichals (the middle the longest) in rows separated by about distance from each to adjacent dorsocentral row, with or without additional setulae in between; acr / dc ratio 1:1:1; 1 + 1 posthumerals; prealar of same length or slightly shorter than posterior notopleural; dorsal surface of scutellum bare centrally, setulose towards sides; katepisternals 1 + 2, lower posterior nearly as long as upper anterior seta, anterior seta three-quarters length of upper posterior seta; anepisternum with a fine setulose hair on upper anterior corner.

Legs: f2 with row of 5–6 pv on about basal half, 9 shorter av; f3 with 9 av in distal half; t1 with median 1 pv; t2 with 1 very short ad, 1–2 pd and 2p/pv; t3 with 1 av, 8–10 ad, 2 pd and 4–6 pv.

Wing: costa with all marginal spinules short; the pair before distal break not differentiated; lower crossvein sinuate, joining M 1+2 obliquely; last section of M 1+2 1.3 times length of preceding section. Lower squama as long as upper.

Wing length up to 5.5 mm.

Abdomen: Long ovate, about 1.6–1.7 times as long as wide at 3rd tergite, tapering slightly from 3rd to 5th tergite. 3rd and 4th sternites long and narrow, at least thrice as long as wide (lateral setae of 3rd sternite rather long posteriorly); 4th sternite ( Fig. 36) about as long as wide, with a rounded posterior margin, densely clothed with long setae posteriorly. 5th sternite processes ( Fig. 36) with a few short setae laterally at their bases, otherwise with long bi-triserial rows of setulae on their concave inner margins; membranous lobes ( Fig. 37) strongly projecting ventrally in lateral view, apically rather truncate, the apical setulae long and separated from the basal setulae (distinct gap in lateral view). Central process of synsternite (6+7) ( Fig. 40) with divergent arms. Surstylus ( Fig. 35) strongly downcurved, appearing constricted medially in lateral view, with 2 short spinules below the angle of its inner lobe; in profile upper dorsal margin with a well developed lobe. Cercal plate ( Fig. 34) of about equal length and width, with a few short apical spinules and 1–2 pairs of longer setulae on either side of them, otherwise setulose only on basal half, in profile apex not projecting, concealed behind surstylus. Pregonite ( Fig. 38) with 2 expanded setulae on dorsal half of distal margin, constricted basally; postgonite ( Fig. 38) with an expanded setula (with outer lobe projecting above its base); distal section of aedeagus ( Fig. 39) with a reclinate dorsal process separated from its base by its length, dorsal margin of distal section concave in lateral view, with the forked tips of its dorsal sclerotisation projecting beyond the downcurved acrophallic sclerite.


Colour: Head dark as in male. Thoracic pattern ( Figs 32, 33) very similar to that of male, scutal spots generally separated along dorsocentral rows, scutellum with apical grey spot often larger than the male, and sometimes base of scutellum narrowly grey dusted. Abdomen with black and grey pattern on abdominal tergites similar to that of male (or in some specimens with central and lateral black marks separate, not connected along anterior margins of tergites). Legs dark as in male.

Head: Eyes widely separated (by about their transverse width, ratio 30:27:30); interfrontalia at level of middle ors about thrice as wide as each parafrontal; parafrontalia widening anteriorly to about width of first flagellomere; genae below lowest point of eye margin about 0.36 times eye height. Arista tapering as in male. Parafrontal setae differentiated into 3 pairs of orbital setae (anterior setae normally proclinate, posterior two reclinate) + 2 pairs of (inwardly directed) frontal setae; crossed interfrontal setae well developed, their tips reaching margins of frontal stripe.

Thorax: Presutural acrostichal setulae finer and shorter than in male. Katepisternals 1 + 1.

Legs: f2 with 1–2 av and 2–3 pv on basal half; f3 with 6 av, and 2 preapical pv; t1 with 1 p; t2 with 1 ad, 2 pd and 2 p/pv; t3 with 1 av, 5 ad and 2 pd.

Wing length up to 5.0 mm.

Abdomen: Postabdomen ( Figs 46, 47 View Figs 46–49 ) equal in length to preabdomen. Tergites 6–8 more or less continuously sclerotised across the dorsum posteriorly (where they bear rows of setulae), divided anteriorly into pairs of dorsolateral strips (those on 8th tergite long and narrow, and closer together anteriorly, with a trace of a central strip). 6th and 7th spiracles not enlarged, both posteriorly situated on 6th segment (6th on border between tergite and membrane, 7th within posteroventral corners of 6th tergite). 6th and 7th sternites long and narrow, each bearing a few setulae posteriorly (one pair rather long); 8th sternite divided into pair of elongate strips of sclerotisation (not quite as long as 8th tergite), each bearing 4–5 setulae posteriorly. 10th tergite almost as long as wide, bearing about 4 setulae posteriorly; 10th sternite longer than wide, covered with numerous short setulae (4 longer on posterior margin); cerci long and slender (especially basally) about 1.7 times length of 10th tergite, with 2 longer setulae apically. 3 spermathecae, ribbed, longer than wide (0.13 x 0.07 mm).

Discussion: Michelsen (1980) revised the status of Anthomyia quinquemaculata Macquart, 1839 (Type locality Canary Islands) to a distinct species (previously considered a synonym of pluvialis L.). At the same time he synonymised benguellae Malloch and sensua Curran as synonyms of quinquemaculata ( sensua was previously established as a synonym of benguellae by Emden 1941 b). A. quinquemaculata was therefore at that time considered as a widely distributed species ranging from southern Europe to Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa.

In 1997 Michelsen decided that there were small differences in the male genitalia to warrant making benguellae a valid species. In quinquemaculata the ventroapical corner of the postgonite is not expanded (or only very slightly) over the insertion of the widened setula, which arises on the inside surface; in benguellae the ventroapical setula is covered by a larger projecting lobe. For other small differences between benguellae and quinquemaculata see Ackland (1987: 45).

The male genitalia of benguellae are in fact the same as those of inda . In spite of the rather different appearance of the scutal black pattern (five smaller discrete spots postsuturally in inda from northern India; three discrete or narrowly joined spots in benguellae from southern Africa), material I have seen from intermediate localities suggests that benguellae is a widely distributed species ranging from the Indian subcontinent to South Africa.

Cuthbertson (1937) reported this species (as sensua and benguellae ) from Zimbabwe, where both sexes were seen on flower heads of grasses; females were observed ovipositing in damp rich soil at the roots of grasses.

The following material from Namibia ( Figs 41–45 View Figs 41–45 ) differs from benguellae in having the 4th sternite less setose ( Fig. 41 View Figs 41–45 ) apical margin of the membranous lobe of the male 5th sternite rounded ( Fig. 42 View Figs 41–45 ), and the basal setulae on the inner margins of the processes are continuous to apex of the processes (a distinct gap in typical benguellae ). One male and two females in this material were bred from rock hyrax dung, the other two males, from Brandberg were caught in a Malaise trap. All the males agree with the differences noted above, the females which are presumably associated with the male, show no differences from typical female benguellae . More material may indicate that these differences are constant.

Additional material of? benguellae : NAMIBIA: 1Ò2^, Karibib , Gross Spitzkoppe , 22 ° 49'S: 15 ° 43'E, 12.vii.1997, A. H. Kirk-Spriggs, reared from moistened rock hyrax dung, em. 4.ix.1997 (Ò), and 8.ix.1990 (^) ( NMWN); 2Ò, Brandberg, Wasserfallflache at: 21 ° 10'42''S: 14 ° 32'50''E, 2000 m, 19–21.x.1998, R. Butlin & J. Altringham, Malaise trap 5 ( NMWN) GoogleMaps .

Distribution: Northern India west to Oman, Eritrea, Kenya, south to Zimbabwe, South Africa and Namibia. (The range of quinquemaculata is from the Canary Islands, North Africa, Spain, southern Europe to Greece.)


KwaZulu-Natal Museum


Bristol Museum














Anthomyia benguellae Malloch, 1924

Ackland, D. M. 2001

Anthomyia inda

ACKLAND, D. M. & PONT, A. C. 1977: 439

Anthomyia benguellae

CUTHBERTSON, A. 1937: 21

Anthomyia sensua

MICHELSEN, V. 1980: 287
CUTHBERTSON, A. 1937: 21
CURRAN, C. H. 1927: 531
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