Hippasteria pedicellaris, DJAKONOV, 1950

Mah, Christopher, Nizinski, Martha & Lundsten, Lonny, 2010, Phylogenetic revision of the Hippasterinae (Goniasteridae; Asteroidea): systematics of deep sea corallivores, including one new genus and three new species, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160 (2), pp. 266-301: 287

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00638.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/C1391E19-FF85-374A-FF48-FEE8FE57B116

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Hippasteria pedicellaris
status

 

HIPPASTERIA PEDICELLARIS DJAKONOV, 1950  

Djakonov, 1950: 1950: 54 (1968: 45); 1952: 410.

Occurrence: Okhotsk Sea. At ‘inconsiderable depths and above-zero water temperatures’ according to Djakonov (1968: 46).

Comments: Characteristics used to distinguish this species include two to three adambulacral spines, one subambulacral spine with a flattened pedicellariae, and close-set granules on the abactinal plates. However, these characters are also observed in H. spinosa   suggesting that this species may also be a synonym or part of the H. spinosa   species complex.

Material examined: None.

HIPPASTERIA PHRYGIANA (PARELIUS, 1768)   HIPPASTERIA PHRYGIANA PHRYGIANA (PARELIUS, 1768)  

FIGURE 6A–D

Linck, 1733: 21 (as Pentaceros planus   )

Parelius, 1768: 425 [1770: 349] (as Asterias phrygiana   )

Lamarck, 1816: 555 [non A. equestris Retzius, 1805   ] (as Asterias equestris   )

Gray in Johnston, 1836: 146 (as Asterias johnstoni   )

Gray, 1840: 279, 1866: 9 (as Hippasteria europaea   , H. johnstoni   , H. cornuta   )

Gray, 1840: 279; 1866: 9; Perrier, 1875: 270 [1876: 65], Danielssen & Koren, 1881: 268; Sladen, 1883: 159; Perrier, 1888: 764; Sladen, 1889: 341; Koehler, 1909: 88, 1924: 179 (as Hippasteria plana   )

Forbes, 1841: 125 (as Goniaster equestris   )

Müller & Troschel, 1842: 52; Duben & Koren, 1846: 246 (as Astrogonium phrygianum   )

Forbes, 1843: 280 (as Goniaster abbensis   )

Barrett, 1857: 47 (as Astrogonium aculeatum   )

Norman, 1865: 128 (as Goniaster phrygiana   )

Dons, 1937: 17 (as Hippasteria   [Euhippasteria] phrygiana   and Hippasteria   [Nehippasteria] insignis   )

Perrier, 1891: K128; A.M. Koehler, 1926: 107; Clark, 1962: 22 (as Hippasteria hyadesi   )

Verrill, 1874: 413; 1885: 542, Ganong, 1893: 56; Grieg, 1895: 6; Verrill, 1895: 137, 1899: 148; Döderlein, 1900: 218; Hartlaub, 1900: 191; Ludwig, 1900: 457; Whiteaves, 1901: 50; Grieg, 1902: 21; Pearcey, 1902: 308; Simpson, 1903: 40; H.L. Clark, 1905: 1; Grieg, 1905: 4; Nordgaard, 1905: 160, 235; Grieg, 1907: 28, 32; Sussbach & Breckner, 1911: 215; Grieg, 1912: 6; 1913: 115; 1917: 8; 1921: 6; H.L. Clark, 1923: 270; Mortensen, 1927: 88, 1933: 245; Haubold, 1933: 200; A.H. Clark, 1949: 373; Djakonov, 1950 (tr. in 1968): 53; Blacker, 1957: 18, 45; Buchanan, 1966: 25; Wolff, 1968: 82, Walker, 1978: 361; Codoceo & Andrade 1978: 156; Franz, Worley & Merrill, 1981: 406, 415; O’Connor & Tyndall, 1986: 96; Moore et al., 2004: 246 (as Hippasteria phrygiana   )

Fell, 1958: 11, pl. 1, figs A, G; 1959: 136, fig. 21; 1960: 61, pls. 2, 3; 1962: 33; McKnight, 1967: 300; H.E.S. Clark, 1970: 3; A.M. Clark, 1993: 259; Rowe & Gates, 1995: 65; Koslow & Gowlett-Holmes, 1998: 44 (as Hippasteria trojana   )

Occurrence: Arctic, North Atlantic: South to Cape Cod in the west, including Bear Seamount. To the Kattegat, northern Scotland, and northernmost Ireland in the east. Norwegian coast south to the Kattegat, south-western part of the Barents Sea, Kola Bay. South Pacific: Chile to Magellan Strait to the Marion and Prince Edward Island region to Chatham Island, east of New Zealand, Campbell Plateau, seamounts off southern Tasmania. Southern Ocean: Lavoisier Island, Antarctic Peninsula.

Depth is highly variable: 20–1275 m   and varies by region. Most records for New Zealand are over 500 m.  

Comments: Southern hemisphere Hippasteria species   have been scrutinized since the early 20 th century (e.g. Koehler, 1926, Clark, 1962) because of their strong morphological similarities with the northern Atlantic Hippasteria phrygiana   . The New Zealand –South Pacific H. trojana   was synonymized with H. phrygiana   by H.E.S. Clark in Clark & McKnight (2001).

The sub-Antarctic Hippasteria hyadesi   was synonymized with H. plana   (= H. phyrgiana   ) by Koehler (1926) but was thought to have had an incorrectly identified type locality by Clark (1962). Stampanato & Jangoux (2004) and Branch et al. (1993) regarded H. hyadesi   as a valid species. However, examination of the specimens in the USNM collections from the South Pacific and Antarctic Peninsula (near the type locality) shows few to no morphological distinctions, suggesting that the original conclusion made by Koehler (1926) was correct. Magellanic-Antarctic forms of Hippasteria phrygiana   may eventually be supported as cryptic species distinct from those in the northern hemisphere but based on specimens available for study, external morphology has limited usefulness and other characters will need to be considered.

Material examined: North Atlantic : USNM E 46610 View Materials   , Browns Bank , Nova Scotia, 42°34′N, 65°44′W, 93 m, coll. R / V GoogleMaps   Albatross IV, 15.x.1965 (1 dry spec. R = 7.3, r = 3.5); USNM E46606 View Materials   , south-east of Cape Elizabeth , Gulf of Maine, Maine. 43°31′N, 69°49′W, 97 m. Coll. R / V GoogleMaps   Albatross IV, 14.vii.1965 (1 dry spec. R = 6.2, r = 3.7). USNM 5236 View Materials   off Eastern Point , Gloucester Harbor, Massachusetts. 42°30′N, 70°38′W, 78.6 m (43 fms). Coll. R / V GoogleMaps   Speedwell (1 spec. R = 9.2, r = 5.0). USNM E 46611 View Materials   Browns Bank , Nova Scotia, Canada. 42°45′N, 65°7′W. 97.0 m. Coll. R / V GoogleMaps   Albatross IV, 15.x.1965 (1 dry spec. R = 1.7, r = 1.0). USNM E46613 View Materials   western part of Georges Bank , Massachusetts. 41°24′N, 68°25′W, 68 m. Coll. R / V GoogleMaps   Albatross IV, 28.x.1965 (1 dry spec. R = 2.2, r = 1.7). South Pacific : USNM E13586 View Materials   , north-west of Amundsen Sea , Southeast Pacific Basin. 54°49′S, 129°48′W, 549 m. Coll. R / V GoogleMaps   Eltanin. (3 dry specs. R = 3.5, r = 2.0; R = 8.2, r = 4.6; R = 9.56, r = 5.1). USNM 1121154 View Materials   . Magallanes y Antartica, Chile. 53°39′S, 70°55′W, 82 m. Coll. R / V GoogleMaps   Hero. (1 dry spec. R = ~7.8, r = 4.6). Southern Ocean. USNM E43921 View Materials   , Lavoisier Island , Biscoe Islands, Antarctic Peninsula. 66°20’S, 67°47′W, 325 m. Coll. J. Tyler, 25.iii.1959. (1 dry spec. R = 6.7, r = 3.1). USNM 1082740 View Materials GoogleMaps   . 67°23’S to 67°24’S, 180°00′W to 179°58′W, 595– 516 m. Coll. R / V GoogleMaps   Eltanin. (2 dry specs. R = 9.2, r = 4.0; R = ~11.0, r = 5.5)   .

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium