Leucothoe epidemos, White & Thomas, 2009

White, Kristine N. & Thomas, James Darwin, 2009, Leucothoidae *, Zootaxa 2260 (1), pp. 494-555: 505-508

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2260.1.29

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5457974

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/C11B1913-3224-FFBB-5299-FEF6FC610596

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Leucothoe epidemos
status

sp. nov.

Leucothoe epidemos   sp. nov.

( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8 , Pl. 3H)

Type material. Holotype, male, 14.6 mm, AM P 70663 View Materials ; Watsons Bay , Lizard Island (14°39.41’S 145° 27.14°E), tunicate Styela sp.   , patch reef, 5 m, J. K. Lowry, 24 February 2005 ( QLD 1638) GoogleMaps   . Paratype, female, 12.7 mm, AM P 71221 View Materials   ; Casuarina Beach , Lizard Island (14°40.38’S 145°26.69’E), 11 tunicates from rock & rubble, sandy bottom with rubble, algae & sparse seagrass, 2 m, S GoogleMaps   . LeCroy, 2 March 2005 ( QLD 1770)   .

Additional material examined. 1 male, AM P 70631 View Materials ( QLD 1621)   ; 2 females, AM P 70589 View Materials ( QLD 1622)   ; 1 female AM P 70647 View Materials ( QLD 1634)   ; 1 female, AM P 70662 View Materials ( QLD 1638)   ; 4 females, AM P 70736 View Materials ( QLD 1643)   ; 1 male, AM P 70754 View Materials ( QLD 1645)   ; 1 female, AM P 70761 View Materials ( QLD 1652)   ; 1 male, AM P 70764 View Materials ( QLD 1659)   ; 4 females, AM P 70918 View Materials ( QLD 1681)   ; 3 females, 2 juveniles, AM P 70970 View Materials ( QLD 1687)   ; 1 female, AM P 70885 View Materials ( QLD 1692)   ; 1 female, AM P 17028 View Materials ( QLD 1713)   ; 1 juvenile, AM P 71175 View Materials ( QLD 1723)   ; 1 female, AM P 71184 View Materials ( QLD 1730)   ; 2 females, AM P 71100 View Materials ( QLD 1733)   ; 1 juvenile, AM P 71168 View Materials ( QLD 1751)   ; 1 female, AM P 71260 View Materials ( QLD 1757)   ; 1 female, AM P 71230 View Materials ( QLD 1760)   ; 3 females, 1 male, AM P 71281 View Materials ( QLD 1770)   ; 4 females, AM P 71377 View Materials ( QLD 1788)   ; 4 females, 1 male, AM P 71354 View Materials ( QLD 1789)   ; 1 male, AM P 71380 View Materials ( QLD 1791)   ; 1 juvenile, AM P 71372 View Materials ( QLD 1798)   ; 1 female, AM P 71358 View Materials ( QLD 1803)   ; 1 male, AM P 71427 View Materials ( QLD 1808)   ; 1 male, AM P 71416 View Materials ( QLD 1816)   ; 1 female, AM P 71492 View Materials ( QLD 1819)   ; 1 female, AM P 71441 View Materials ( QLD 1820)   ; 1 female, 2 juveniles, AM P 71562 View Materials ( QLD 1823)   ; 1 female, 3 juveniles, AM P 71532 View Materials ( QLD 1823)   ; 1 female, 1 male, AM P 71564 View Materials ( QLD 1823)   ; 2 females, AM P 71579 View Materials ( QLD 1829)   ; 1 female, 1 male, AM P 71522 View Materials ( QLD 1829)   ; 1 male, 4 females, GCRL2887 View Materials ( SEL /LZI-2-1)   ; 1 male, 1 female, GCRL2885 View Materials ( SEL /LZI-2-3)   ; 1 male, 1 juvenile, GCRL2884 View Materials ( SEL /LZI-3-2)   ; 2 females, GCRL2886 View Materials ( SEL /LZI-2-7)   ; 2 females, GCRL2888 View Materials ( SEL /LZI-4-1)   .

Type locality. Watsons Bay , Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia (14°39.41’S 145° 27.14°E) GoogleMaps   .

Etymology. After the Greek ‘ epidemos   ’, meaning ‘ prevalent, common to a large number ’ and referring to the high numbers of this species collected at Lizard Island, Australia.

Description. Based on holotype, male, 14.6 mm, AM P70663 View Materials .

Head. Head length less than pereonite 1+2, anterior margin rounded, anterodistal margin rounded without cusp, ventral cephalic keel rounded, rostrum small to medium; eyes with 10 or more ocelli, posteriorly concave. Antenna 1 0.3 x body length; flagellum 8-articulate, peduncle width less than 2 x article 2. Antenna 2 0.3 x body length, shorter than antenna 1; flagellum 3-articulate. Mandibles lacking molars; palp 3-articulate, ratio of articles 1-3, 1.0:4.2:2.5, article 2 with 17 – 18 distal setae, article 3 with 2 distal setae, incisors strongly dentate; left mandible lacinia mobilis large, strongly toothed, with 12 accessory setae, right mandible lacinia mobilis small, with 7 accessory setae. Upper lip asymmetrically lobate, anterior margin setose. Lower lip inner lobes fused, bare; outer lobes with moderate gape, anterior margins weakly setose. Maxilla 1 palp 2- articulate with 4 distal setae; outer plate with 7 distal spines and 4 proximal setae. Maxilla 2 inner plate with 5 distal and 3 proximal setae; outer plate with 3 robust and 20 thin distal setae. Maxilliped inner plates fused, apical margin with v-shaped indentation, with short spines, long setae and a dense coating of facial setae; outer plate smooth, reduced, reaching half of palp article 1, with 3 proximal and 3 distal setae and 1 distal spine; palp 4-articulate, article 4 slender, slightly recurved.

Pereon. Coxae 1–4 relative widths 1.0:1.1:0.8:1.4. Gnathopod 1 coxa smooth, bare, anterodistal corner produced, truncate, distal margin straight, posterodistal margin subquadrate, with 1 facial seta; basis slightly constricted proximally, anterior margin with 12 setae, posterior margin bare; ischium bare; carpus and propodus distally tapered; carpus length 8.9 x width, proximal margin with 3 serrate rows, distal margin setose; propodus straight, palm serrate with 6 proximal setae; dactylus smooth, reaching 0.4 x propodus length. Gnathopod 2 coxa length subequal to width, slightly wider than coxa 3, smooth, bare, anterodistally rounded, distal margin evenly rounded, posterior margin slightly concave, facial setae absent; basis widened anterodistally, with 3 distal tubercles, anterior margin with 12 – 14 setae, posterior margin bare; ischium with 3 anterodistal, 3 distal and 2 posterodistal setae; carpus 0.3 x propodus length, curved, distally truncate, spoonlike, anterior margin smooth; propodus posterior margin without spines/serrations, with 1 mediofacial setal row displaced to midline, reaching 0.8 x propodus length, 1 row of 14 submarginal setae, palm convex with 4 major projections; dactylus curved, proximal margin smooth, anterior margin distally subacute, reaching 0.7 x propodus length. Pereopod 3 coxa length 1.5 x width, smooth, bare, anterodistal corner over-riding distal face of coxa 2, not extending below it, anterior margin evenly rounded, distal margin oblique, posterior margin straight, facial setae absent. Pereopod 4 coxa smooth, bare, anterior and distal margins evenly rounded, posterior margin excavate, facial setae absent. Pereopods 5–7 coxa facial setae absent; basis width length ratio 1:1.2, 1:1.2, 1:1.2, posterior margins smooth, bare.

Pleon. Epimera 1+3 bare. Epimeron 2 with 4 ventral setae. Epimeron 3 posteroventral margin weakly produced. Uropods 1–3 relative lengths 1.0:0.8:1.0; inner and outer ramus with robust setae. Uropod 1 peduncle subequal in length with inner ramus. Uropod 2 peduncle 0.8 x inner ramus length; outer ramus 0.7 x inner ramus length. Uropod 3 peduncle 1.3 x inner ramus length. Uropod 1+3 outer ramus subequal to inner ramus length. Telson   2.6 x longer than wide, apex tridentate.

Female (sexually dimorphic characters). Based on paratype, female, 12.7 mm, AM P 71221 View Materials . Gnathopod 2 carpus not spoon-like, anterior margin serrate; propodus mediofacial setal row less setose; submarginal setal row with 8 setae. Pereopod 3 coxa with marginal setae   .

Habitat. Inside branchial chamber of ascidians Polycarpa aurata ( Quoy & Gaimard, 1834)   , Atriolum robustum Kott, 1983   and Styela Fleming, 1822 sp.   , in algae, coral rubble and the sponge Spirastrella vagabunda ( Ridley, 1884)   .

Remarks. Leucothoe epidemos   sp. nov. shares the spoon-like gnathopod 2 carpus with Leucothoe alata   J.L. Barnard, 1959, Leucothoe lihue   J.L. Barnard, 1970 a, Leucothoe spinulosa Chevreux, 1927   , Leucothoe tridens Stebbing 1888   and L. rudicula   sp. nov. The profusely displaced mediofacial setal row is found in Leucothoe commensalis Haswell 1879   , Leucothoe wuriti Thomas & Klebba, 2007   and Leucothoe thula   sp. nov. Leucothoe epidemos   sp. nov. differs from L. commensalis   in its single mediofacial setal row, rounded ventral cephalic keel and wider pereopods 5 – 7 basis. Leucothoe epidemos   , L. wuriti   , Leucothoe pollexa   sp. nov. and L. thula   share the facial seta on coxa 1. This species may be a sister taxon to L. commensalis   , which has been reported frequently from this region, with each description showing slight variations. It is likely that L. commensalis   is a cryptic species complex due to its isolated lifestyle in ascidian hosts.

Distribution. Australia. Queensland: Lizard Island (current study).

AM

Australian Museum

P

Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants

J

University of the Witwatersrand

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

SEL

Marie Selby Botanical Gardens