Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1910

Engelbrecht, Ian & Prendini, Lorenzo, 2012, Cryptic diversity of South African trapdoor spiders: Three new species of Stasimopus Simon, 1892 (Mygalomorphae, Ctenizidae), and redescription of Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1910, American Museum Novitates 2012 (3732), pp. 1-44: 9-40

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/3732.2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/C052F668-DA5B-886D-0AC6-51CCFD72C86A

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1910
status

 

Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1910  

Figs. 2B View FIGURE 2 , 4A, 5A, B, 6–9, tables 2, 3

Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1910: 75   , 76 (D ♂); 1915a: 79; 1916: 204 (part; D ♀; female identifications uncertain and probably include misidentifications); Dippenaar-Schoeman, 2002: 33, 37, table 2. Stasimopus dubius Hewitt, 1913: 410–412   (D ♀), synonymized by Hewitt, 1916: 204.

TYPE MATERIAL: SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng Prov.: Pretoria Distr.   : Holotype ♂ ( TMSA 2746 View Materials ), Mayville, near Mountain View Bridge [25.7033°S 28.1735°E], 11.vi.1910, Rev. N. Roberts [examined]. GoogleMaps  

DIAGNOSIS: Adult males of S. robertsi   may be separated from those of all other Stasimopus species   recorded in Gauteng and North West provinces by the following combination of characters: carapace with smooth postocular carinae (fig. 6A); pedipalps reaching distal ends of leg I when both extended forward; tibia of leg I distinctly convex in lateral profile (fig. 8C). They may be further separated from adult males of the three new species described below by the absence of spinules in the tarsal scopulae (fig. 8F). Females and immature stages of S. robertsi   are morphologically indistinguishable from those of S. hewitti   , n. sp., S. griswoldi   , n. sp., and several other species of Stasimopus   . Adult males, females, and immature individuals of S. robertsi   may be separated from those of S. filmeri   , n. sp., by the absence of a prominent, posteriorly inclined hornlike protuberance of the carapace fovea.

DESCRIPTION: Based on the holotype ♂ and other material examined.

General: ♂: Medium sized (carapace length, 6–7 mm, table 2), more gracile than females with smaller bodies and long, slender legs. Relative length of legs, IV>I>II>III. Pedipalps and legs, dorsal and lateral surfaces with scattered setae along entire length (fig. 8), dorsomedian rows of enlarged setae not present on femora. ♀: Medium to large (carapace length 9–11 mm), robust, with relatively short, stocky legs. Relative length of legs, IV>III>I>II. Legs, pedipalps, sternum, and labium moderately setose, more densely so on distal segments, especially tarsi, which are densely setose distally. Abdomen, including spinnerets, densely covered with short setae.

Color: ♂: Carapace and chelicerae black. Sternum, labium, and leg coxae dark brown. Legs I, II, and IV, metatarsus and tarsus, leg III tarsus, and pedipalp tibia orange; rest of legs and pedipalps black. Abdomen, dorsal surface black; pale band across first pair of book lungs, second pair of lung covers pale; spinnerets pale; rest of ventral surface black. ♀: Carapace, dorsal surfaces of pedipalps and legs medium to dark brown. Ocular tubercles infuscated. Sternum, labium, and leg coxae slightly paler than carapace. Pedipalp coxae and legs I and II, ventral surfaces similar in color to dorsal surfaces; legs III and IV, ventral surfaces paler. Abdomen, dorsal surface uniformly medium or dark gray without chevrons or blotches; ventral surface paler to yellowish brown anteriorly and around book lungs; spinnerets similar in color to ventral surface.

Carapace: ♂: Shape rounded (fig. 6A, C). Cephalic region markedly elevated, with few, small scattered setae posterior to ocelli; fovea procurved, occasionally with slight posterior extension medially. Median and lateral postocular carinae distinct, smooth; lateral postocular carinae extending approximately two-thirds toward fovea, becoming transverse posterior to posterior ocelli. Thoracic region, surfaces with papillate texture, asetose. Lateral margins of carapace and surfaces between ocelli and anterior margin transversely wrinkled. ♀ (fig. 7A, C): Shape ovoid. Cephalic region markedly elevated, fovea procurved, varying from gently procurved to almost V-shaped. Postocular carinae absent, surfaces glabrous except for patch of setae anterior to anteromedian ocelli and between posterolateral ocelli, with some setae extending in three rows (one medially and two median laterally, posterior to posterior ocelli) approximately one-third to half distance to fovea.

Chelicerae: ♂, ♀: Chelicerae large (smaller in ♂). Dorsal and retrolateral surfaces glabrous, prodorsal surfaces sparsely setose, setae more dense, and becoming spiniform distally toward rastellum and fang articulation. Rastellum distinct, comprising elevated process bearing short, thick spines (often worn down). Ventral surface, proventral and retroventral margins each bearing four or five large teeth, with several small denticles between, teeth in retroventral row slightly larger than those in proventral row. Ocelli: ♂, ♀: Ocular area wider than long

(fig. 5A, B). No ocular tubercle evident, each ocellus elevated from carapace surface on sepa-

rate tubercle. Anterior ocelli situated short distance from anterior carapace margin. Anterior row of ocelli slightly procurved, posterior row slightly recurved. Anteromedian ocelli small,

approximately half diameter of anterolateral ocelli in ♀, larger in ♂, subequal or slightly smaller than anterolateral ocelli, situated approximately two anteromedian ocular diameters apart.

Anterolateral ocelli located approximately one anteromedian ocular diameter apart from anteromedian ocelli. Posteromedian ocelli round, situated posterior or slightly posterolateral to anterolateral ocelli, slightly larger than anteromedian ocelli, but smaller than anterolateral ocelli.

Posterolateral ocelli situated lateral to posteromedian ocelli, approximately one anteromedian ocular diameter apart from, and approximately equal in size, to posteromedian ocelli. Posterior ocelli of ♂ smaller in size relative to anterior ocelli and varying in distance apart.

Sternum, labium, and maxillae: ♂, ♀ (figs.

6B, 7B): Sternum wide, posterior margin obtuse; single pair of longitudinally elongated sigilla, situated submedially, shallow, often indistinct. Labium longer than wide. Maxillae with distinct prolateral lobe distally. Labium and maxillae without cuspules (♂) or with few cuspules (♀), those on maxillae restricted to ventral surface, proximally adjacent to labium. Pedipalps: ♂ (fig. 8A, B): Pedipalps elon- FIGURE 4. Four species of Stasimopus Simon, 1892   ,

spermathecae. A. Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1910   , gated and slender, reaching distal end of leg I ♀ (TMSA 24024). B. Stasimopus hewitti   , n. sp., ♀ when both extended forward. Tibia slightly (TMSA 23989). C. Stasimopus griswoldi   , n. sp., ♀ swollen, shallowly concave in lateral profile. (TMSA 24001). D. Stasimopus filmeri   , n. sp., ♀ Cymbium without spines. Bulb simple, pyri- (TMSA 23998). Scale: 0.5 mm

form, subequal in width to cymbium, maximum width approximately equal to width of tibia, embolus long, slender, cylindrical, gently curved, and gradually tapering. ♀: Tibia shallowly concave in lateral profile; dorsal surface with few or no spines along distal margin. Tibia and tarsus, retrolateral surfaces densely covered with robust articulated sigmoid spines, more sparsely so on prolateral surfaces. Tarsus, dorsal surface with small patch of spinules proximally and row of trichobothria extending from it distally; single tarsal claw with single, large tooth proximally.

Legs: ♂: Legs I and II (fig. 8C–F), spines on ventral and lateral surfaces of tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus articulated, long, straight with a subtle hook distally; tibia convex proximally in lateral profile; tibia and metatarsus, ventral surfaces densely spinose along entire length of segment; tarsus slender, ventral surfaces with scopulae not extending entire length of segment, spinules absent among scopular setae, lateral surfaces with few spines adjacent to scopulae, additional spinules arranged in a V-shaped pattern below third tarsal claw; 7–10 scattered trichobothria dorsally. Leg III patella, prolateral surface produced distally in dorsal view, prodorsal surface with spinules along entire length; tibia, lateral and ventral surfaces with spines along distal margin; metatarsus (fig. 9A–C), pro- and retrodorsal surfaces with sparse rows of spines along entire length of segment, ventral surface with spines along entire length of segment, dorsal, lateral and ventral surfaces with slender spines on distal margin; tarsus (fig. 9A–C) longer than in legs I and II, ventral surface with dense scopula, pro- and retrolateral surfaces with spines adjacent to scopula, prodorsal surface with one or two spines distally; 9–11 scattered trichobothria dorsally. Leg IV more robust than preceding legs; patella, dorsal and prodorsal surfaces with patch of spinules extending to approximately half length of segment, tapering distally; tibia, prolateral surface with slender spines along distal margin; metatarsus (fig. 9D–F), ventral surface with spines extending along entire length of segment and along distal margin, proventral surface with preening comb, comprising slender spines, more elongated than in ♀; tarsus (fig. 9D–F), ventral surface with dense scopulae, pro- and retrolateral surfaces with spines adjacent to scopulae, more dense on prolateral surface; 4–7 scattered trichobothria dorsally. Legs I–IV metatarsi without scopulae; tarsi with distinct third claw. Legs I–III tarsi, paired claws each with sigmoid row of well-developed teeth extending approximately two-thirds length of claw. Leg IV tarsus, paired claws each with two or three long teeth proximally, and often with smaller teeth extending more than half length of claw. ♀: Legs I and II shorter and more slender than III and IV; tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus, pro- and retrolateral surfaces densely covered with short, thick, articulated, sigmoid spines (fig. 16A) along entire length of segment on retrolateral surface of tibia and both surfaces of tarsus and metatarsus, but restricted to distal half of segment on prolateral surface of tibia, those on retroventral surfaces of tibia and metatarsus not elongated; tibia, retrodorsal surface with small patch of spinules at distal margin; metatarsus shallowly concave in lateral profile; tarsus, dorsal surface with 10–14 scattered trichobothria. Leg I metatarsus, prodorsal surface with short, erect setae along entire length of segment (absent on metatarsus of leg II), retrodorsal surface with longer setae along entire length of segment, with patch of spinules extending from proximal margin past midpoint of segment, becoming more sparse distally, and row of trichobothria originating distal to termination of spinules and extending to distal margin of segment. Leg II metatarsus, retrodorsal surface with similar patch of spinules, but extending only midway along segment, row of trichobothria originating within patch of spinules and extending to distal margin of segment. Leg III femur, patella, and tibia very robust, metatarsus and tarsus distinctly more slender; patella, prolateral surface produced distally in dorsal view, prodorsal surface with row of spinules along entire length of segment; tibia, dorsal, pro-, and retrolateral surfaces strongly spinose along distal margin, spines on dorsal surface more slender than those on lateral surfaces; metatarsus, pro- and retrodorsal surfaces with rows of slightly curved spines for length of segment, dorsal surface with more slender spines situated between these rows on proximal third of segment, row of trichobothria extending from these to distal margin; tarsus, dorsal surface with 13–16 scattered trichobothria, prolateral surface with several spines, retrolateral surface with fewer. Leg IV robust like leg III; patella, dorsal and prodorsolateral surfaces with patch of red spinules not reaching distal margin of segment, tapering distally; tibia, prolateral surface with distinct, dense tuft of long, dorsally oriented setae, scattered spinules extending entire length of segment within tuft; metatarsus, dorsal surface with row of trichobothria, prolateral surface with spinules along length of segment, more densely so distally, retrolateral surface without spinules but with preening comb retroventrally, comprising row of four or five elongated slender spines on distal margin; tarsus, dorsal surface with 6–8 scattered trichobothria, prolateral surface with spines, retrolateral surface without spines. Legs I–IV tarsi with distinct third claw; I–III tarsi, paired claws each with two or three teeth proximally; IV tarsi, paired claws longer than on preceding legs and without teeth.

Abdomen: ♂: Spinnerets short, robust; distal segment of posterior spinnerets conical. ♀: Anterior spinnerets small. Posterior spinnerets large and robust, distal segment conical.

Spermathecae: Entire, with inflated terminus (fig. 4A).

REMARKS: Hewitt’s (1910) description of S. robertsi   was based on females collected from several localities around Pretoria   by A. Roberts and G.P.F. van Dam of the Transvaal Museum. The morphological similarity between females of S. robertsi   and S. hewitti   , n. sp., and the occurrence of both species in the vicinity of Pretoria   , casts uncertainty on Hewitt’s (1910, 1915a, 1916) identifications of female specimens from this area. Female specimens from Hatfield and Wonderboompoort listed in Additional Material were assumed to be conspecific with S. robertsi   when associated with adult males bearing the same collection data. However, the identity of female material from localities at which males were not collected is uncertain. The holotype female of S. dubius (TMSA 2745)   was also examined. Hewitt (1916) synonymized this species with S. robertsi   , but the validity of this synonymy cannot be confirmed until adult males are collected at the type locality of S. dubius   .

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng Prov.: Pretoria Distr.   : Faerie Glen Nature Reserve, Lynnwood [25.7743°S 28.2970°E], 12.vi.2011, C. Erasmus, 2 ♂ (photograph), 25°46′24.9″S 28°17′36.7″E, 3.viii.2011, I. Engelbrecht and GDARD GoogleMaps   field staff, IE11-008   , 1 ♀, 2 juv. ( TMSA 24024 View Materials ); Hatfield [25.7451°S 28.2371°E], 25.iv.1915, G. van Dam, 1 ♂ ( TMSA 22781 View Materials ), 3 ♀, 3 juv. ( TMSA 3121–3126 View Materials ); Magaliesberg, Wonderboompoort , Pretoria   [25.6918°S 28.1873°S], 14.iv.1915, A. Roberts, 1 ♂ ( TMSA 3084 View Materials ), 19.vi.1915, A. Roberts, 1 ♀ ( TMSA 3226 View Materials ), xii.1921, 1 ♀ ( TMSA 6146 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

UNVERIFIED RECORDS: The following material, identified as S. robertsi   mostly by Hewitt (1916), was examined, but the identifications cannot be verified until adult males are collected in the vicinity. SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng Prov.: Pretoria Distr.   : Garstfontein [25.8327°S 28.3416°E], 16.iv.1915, G. van Dam and A. Roberts, 3 ♀ ( TMSA 3095–3099); Lyttleton junction [25.8305°S 28.2080°E], 2.iv.1915, G. van Dam and A. Roberts, 3 ♀, 1 juv. ( TMSA 3109– 3112); Skinners Court, Pretoria   [25.7461°S 28.2289°E], 22.iv.1915, G. van Dam and A. Roberts, 2 ♀, 3 juv. ( TMSA 3113–3119); between Villieria and Derdepoort, Pretoria   [25.7061°S 28.2597°E], 12.iv.1915, A. Roberts and G. van Dam, 1 ♀ ( TMSA 3076). Wonderboom Distr.: Bon Accord Siding [25.6253°S 28.2031°E], 14.iv.1915, A. Roberts, 2 ♀, 1 abdomen ( TMSA 3085, 3086); Pretoria   North [25.6732°S 28.1693°E], 28.iv.1915, G. van Dam and A. Roberts, 2 ♀ ( TMSA 3130, 3131); Rosslyn [25.6263°S 28.0893°E], 16.v.1913, G. van Dam, 10 ♀, 1 juv. ( TMSA 3166–3176), 25.iv.1915, A. Roberts, 1 ♀ ( TMSA 3127), 1 juv. ( TMSA 3128), xii.1921, 1 ♀ ( TMSA 6147); Witfontein, near Pretoria   North [25.6596°S 28.1322°E], 28.iv.1915, G. van Dam and A. Roberts, 1 ♀ ( TMSA 3132), 1 juv. ( TMSA 3133).

DISTRIBUTION: Stasimopus robertsi   is known from only four localities in the Pretoria   District of Gauteng Province, South Africa, to which this species is presumed to be endemic (fig. 3).

HABITAT: The known locality records of S. robertsi   fall within the Moot Plains Bushveld and Marikana Thornveld vegetation types ( Mucina and Rutherford, 2006). The locality at Faerie Glen Nature Reserve comprises open woodland with red structured clay soils (Shortlands form), apparently derived from shale (fig. 1A).

CONSERVATION STATUS: Approximately 83% of the habitat in the known range of this species has been transformed by urban development, suggesting that this species may be threatened with extinction, but additional sampling is necessary to determine the full extent of its distribution and habitat requirements before a thorough conservation assessment is possible.

Stasimopus hewitti   , new species Figs. 2A View FIGURE 2 , 4B, 5C, D, 10–15, tables 2, 3

Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1915: 79   (part; female identifications uncertain and probably include misidentified conspecifics); 1916: 204 (part; ibid.).

TYPE MATERIAL: SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng Prov.: Wonderboom Distr.: Holotype ♂ ( TMSA 23988 View Materials ), 10 ♂, 1 ♀, 5 juv. paratypes ( TMSA 23989 View Materials ), 3 ♂, 1 ♀ paratypes ( AMNH), Roodeplaat Dam Nature Reserve , ca. 10 km ENE of Pretoria   , area W of Aqua and N of main road, 25°37′55.5″S 28°21′25.1″E, 1235 m, 17.iii.2008 – 13.ii.2009, I. Engelbrecht and GDACE field staff, pitfall trap arrays, flat, S slope, Acacia   – Cymbopogon / Setaria short open woodland, limited embedded dolerite and shale rocks (33–50%), IE09-018. GoogleMaps  

DIAGNOSIS: Adult males of S. hewitti   , n. sp., may be distinguished from those of all other species of Stasimopus   , except S. filmeri   , n. sp., and S. griswoldi   , n. sp., by the presence of spinules in the scopulae on the ventral surfaces of the tarsi of the first two pairs of legs (fig. 12F). They may be distinguished from adult males of S. filmeri   , n. sp., and S. griswoldi   , n. sp., by the following combination of characters: smaller size (table 2); pedipalps reaching the proximal third or half of the metatarsus of leg I when both are extended forward; lower spine counts on the tibiae and metatarsi of the first two pairs of legs (table 3); spines on the metatarsus of leg I predominantly situated retroventrally (some situated ventrally or proventrally in particular specimens, fig. 12C–E); tibia of leg I sublinear in lateral profile (fig. 12C); metatarsus and tarsus of leg IV, coloration paler than preceding segments; book lung covers yellow. Adult males, females and immature stages of S. hewitti   , n. sp., may be distinguished from those of S. filmeri   , n. sp., by the absence of a prominent, posteriorly inclined hornlike protuberance of the carapace fovea (figs. 10C, 11C). Adult females and immature stages of S. hewitti   , n. sp., are morphologically indistinguishable from those of several other Stasimopus species.  

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named in honor of the late John Hewitt, former director of the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, who collected the first male of the species (TMSA 6317) in 1909, in recognition of his contributions to southern African arachnology.

DESCRIPTION: Based on the type series.

General: ♀: Medium-sized spiders (carapace length, 8–12 mm).

Color: ♂: Carapace black. Legs I–IV, metatarsi and tarsi red, IV occasionally black proximally; rest of legs and pedipalps black. Abdomen, ventral and lateral surfaces black, dorsal surface pow- der blue with bases of epiandrous fussulae black; book lung covers yellow; genital plate, between first pair of book lungs, yellow or brown; spinnerets paler than abdomen, light gray in color.

Carapace: ♂: Cephalic region, lateral surfaces slightly papillate in texture (fig. 10A, C). Postocular carinae distinct, smooth. ♀ (fig. 11A, C): as in S. robertsi   .

Ocelli: ♂: Ocelli relatively widely separated (fig. 5C). Anteromedian and anterolateral ocelli subequal in size, anteromedian ocelli situated half their diameter to one diameter apart, anterolateral ocelli situated approximately one anteromedian ocular diameter from anteromedian ocelli. Posteromedian ocelli situated one anteromedian ocular diameter posterior to anterolateral ocelli. Posterolateral ocelli situated slightly less than one anteromedian ocular diameter from and slightly posterolateral to posteromedian ocelli. ♀: Anteromedian ocelli small, approximately half diameter of anterolateral ocelli, situated approximately two anteromedian ocular diameters apart (fig. 5D). Anterolateral ocelli located approximately one anteromedian ocular diameter from anteromedian ocelli. Posteromedian ocelli round, situated posterior or slightly posterolateral to anterolateral ocelli, slightly larger than anteromedian ocelli, but smaller than anterolateral ocelli. Posterolateral ocelli situated lateral to posteromedian ocelli, approximately one anteromedian ocular diameter from and approximately equal in size to posteromedian ocelli.

Sternum, labium, and maxillae: ♂, ♀ (figs. 10B, 11B): as in S. robertsi   .

Pedipalps: ♂ (fig. 12A, B): Pedipalps elongated, reaching proximal third or half of leg I metatarsus when both extended forward. Tibia slightly swollen, prolateral margin sublinear, retrolateral margin convex. Embolus long and slender, bulb width approximately equal to width of tibia.

Legs: ♂: Legs I and II (fig. 12C–F) tibia, lateral and ventral surfaces moderately spinose along entire length of segment; metatarsus, prolateral and ventral surfaces spinose along entire length of segment, more densely so retroventrally; tarsus short, slightly swollen, ventral surfaces with scopulae, not extending entire length of segment, spinules present among scopular setae, spines adjacent to scopulae prolaterally, absent retrolaterally. Legs I–III tarsi, paired claws each with sigmoid row of well-developed teeth extending approximately two-thirds length of claw (fig. 16B). Legs III and IV (fig. 13A–C) tarsus moderately swollen. Leg IV (fig. 13D–F) tarsi, paired claws each with two or three long teeth proximally, and smaller teeth extending more than half length of claw (fig. 16C). ♀: Legs I and II (fig. 14A–C) tibia and metatarsus, retroventral spines not elongated; metatarsus, prodorsal surface with short, erect setae along entire length, retrodorsal surface with patch of spinules extending from proximal margin to beyond midpoint of segment, becoming more sparse distally. Leg III (fig. 14A–C) as in S. robertsi   . Leg IV (fig. 15D, E) metatarsus with preening comb, comprising four or five elongated slender spines retroventrally on distal margin.

Abdomen: ♀ (fig. 14D): As in S. robertsi   .

Spermathecae: Entire, with inflated terminus (fig. 4B).

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng Prov.: Krugersdorp Distr.: Hartebeeshoek Satellite Station [25.8852°S 27.7094°E], 5.iv.1995, C. Potgieter, 1 ♂ (TMSA 18835). Pretoria Distr.   : Eldoraigne, Pretoria   [25.8452°S 28.1524°E], 20.i.1980, A. Bergman, in house, 1 ♂ (NCA 81/627); Gezina, Pretoria   [25.7212°S 28.2055°E], 15.iii.1913, G. van Dam, 1 ♂ (TMSA 6314); Pretoria   [25.7347°S 28.1932°E], 1909, J. Hewitt, 1 ♂ (TMSA 6317), 15.iii.2001, P. Wagemaker, 1 ♂ (NCA 2002/156); Pretoria, Plot   6, Olympus [25.8094°S 28.3471°E], 8.i.2002, L. Wilson, 1 ♂ (TMSA 21383); Swavelpoort, near the Willows, E of Pretoria   [25.8564°S 28.3881°E], 6.iii.1970, C.K. Brain, 1 ♂ (TMSA 9589). Randburg Distr.: Randtjiesfontein/Grand Central Airport, SW of airport complex, near R101, 25°59′50.1″S 28°08′16.1″E, 10.i.2007, P Roos, pitfalls, PR114005 View Materials , 2 ♂ (TMSA 23990), 25°59′43.8″S 28°08′24.8″E, 10.i.2007, P Roos, pitfalls, PR114004 View Materials , 2 ♂ (TMSA 23991). Wonderboom Distr.: Roodeplaat, 14 mi. NE of Pretoria   [25.6117°S 28.3613°E], 20.iv.1915, G. van Dam and A. Roberts, 2 ♀, 4 juv. (TMSA 3154–3159), 24.v.1915, G. van Dam, 1 ♀ (TMSA 3150), 1 juv. (TMSA 3151); Roodeplaat Research Station [25.6085°S 28.3542°E], 10.xi.2003, I. Jacobs, in house, 1 ♂ (NCA 2003/1676); Tswaing Crater [25.4114°S 28.0858°E], 24–28.xi.2003, K. Manamela, 1 ♂ (TMSA 22733); Zeekoegat, near Roodeplaat [25.6309°S 28.3510°E], 1.iv.1915, G. van Dam and A. Roberts, 4 ♀, 1 juv. (TMSA 3160–3163).

patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, prolateral aspect.

E. Leg IV metatarsus, tarsus, retrolateral aspect.

Scale: 1 mm.

DISTRIBUTION: Stasimopus hewitti   , n. sp., has been recorded from several localities in the Krugersdorp, Pretoria, Randburg and Wonderboom   districts of Gauteng Province, South Africa (fig. 3), but additional sampling may reveal that it is more widespread in the northern parts of Gauteng Province and may extend into adjacent areas of neighboring provinces. The predominance of records around Pretoria   reflects a peak of sampling by Transvaal Museum staff in the early 1900s.

HABITAT: The species occurs in a wide range of habitats and soil types, and appears to be absent only from very sandy soils (fig. 1B). Although most of the known records occur in the Marikana Thornveld vegetation type ( Mucina and Rutherford, 2006), it has also been recorded from Andesite Mountain Bushveld, Carletonville Dolomite Grassland, Central Sandy Bushveld, Egoli Granite Grassland, Gold Reef Mountain Bushveld, and Moot Plains Bushveld.

CONSERVATION STATUS: Approximately 50% of the habitat in the known range of this species has been transformed. It has been recorded in two protected areas, Roodeplaat Dam Nature Reserve and Tswaing Nature Reserve, and probably also occurs in the Rhenosterspruit and Hennops Valley Conservancies.

Stasimopus griswoldi   , new species Figs. 2C, D View FIGURE 2 4C, E, F, 18–20, tables 2, 3

TYPE MATERIAL: SOUTH AFRICA: North West Prov.: Brits Distr.: Holotype ♂ ( TMSA 23999 View Materials ), 8 ♂ paratypes ( TMSA 24000 View Materials ), 3 ♂ paratypes ( AMNH), Farm Hartebeestfontein 473, N side of Magalies River , ca. 8 km due NE of Hekpoort, patch of woodland around farm workers’ dwellings next to dust road, 25°50′06.5″S 27°39′14.9″E, 1255 m, 18–19.iii.2010, I. Engelbrecht and GDACE field staff, pitfall trapping (fenced arrays with 21 traps), open woodland with red, structured clay soil, IE10-013; 2 ♂, 3 ♀, immature paratypes ( TMSA 24001 View Materials ), paratype ♀ ( AMNH), Kommandonek [S slopes of Magaliesberg at Kommandonek, near Hartebeespoort Dam], 25.74775°S 27.81705°E, trapping 25.iv–23.v.2007, hand collecting 25.iv–31.v.2007, P. Hawkes, pitfall trapping and hand collecting, bushveld, 1 ♀ with immature in burrow. GoogleMaps  

DIAGNOSIS: Adult males of S. griswoldi   , n. sp., may be distinguished from those of all other species of Stasimopus   , except S. filmeri   , n. sp., and S. hewitti   , n. sp., by the presence of spinules in the scopulae on the ventral surfaces of the tarsi of the first two pairs of legs (fig. 19F). They may be distinguished from adult males of S. hewitti   , n. sp., by the following combination of characters: larger size (table 2); pedipalps reaching distal end of leg I when both extended forward; higher spine counts on tibia and metatarsus of first two pairs of legs (table 3); spines on metatarsus of leg I distributed over ventral and ventrolateral surfaces (fig. 19C–E); tibia of leg I distinctly convex proximally in lateral profile (fig. 19C); metatarsus of leg IV, coloration as dark as preceding segments (fig. 20D–F); book lung covers dark brown. Adult males, females, and immature individuals of S. griswoldi   , n. sp., may be distinguished from those of S. filmeri   , n. sp., by the absence of a prominent, posteriorly inclined hornlike protuberance of the carapace fovea (figs. 17A, C, 18A, C). In other respects, the two species appear to be morphologically identical. Adult females and immature individuals of S. griswoldi   , n. sp., are morphologically indistinguishable from several other Stasimopus species.  

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named in honor of Charles Griswold, Schlinger Curator of Arachnology at the California Academy of Sciences , San Francisco , for his contributions to the systematics of African mygalomorph spiders. DESCRIPTION: Based on the type series. Color : ♂: Chelicerae uniformly black. Leg III metatarsus black proximally; leg IV metatarsus mostly black, becoming paler distally. Book lung covers yellow or black; anterior pair always pale, posterior pair black in some specimens; genital plate, between anterior book lungs, paler than rest of abdomen or similar in color to pale book lung coverings, creating pale band across anteroventral part of abdomen. Carapace: ♂: Cephalic region , lateral surfaces slightly papillate in texture (fig. 17A, C). Postocular carinae distinct, smooth, sometimes with pleated appearance. Thoracic region , surfaces papillate. ♀: Carapace length, 9–11 mm. Cephalic region of some specimens sloping more steeply posteriorly to fovea (fig. 18A, C) than in S. hewitti   , n. sp., and S. robertsi   . Ocelli: ♂: Ocelli relatively smaller and more widely separated than in S. hewitti   , n. sp., with anteromedian ocelli three diameters apart, anterolateral ocelli one diameter from anteromedian ocelli, and posterolateral ocelli two diameters from posteromedian ocelli (fig. 5E). ♀: Ocelli relatively smaller and  

FIGURE 16. SEM images of Stasimopus Simon, 1892   ,

species. A. Stasimopus sp.   , ♀ (TMSA 23995), leg I more widely separated in large specimens tibia, metatarsus, retrolateral aspect, showing curved than in S. hewitti   , n. sp., but otherwise iden-

spines. B, C. Stasimopus hewitti   , n. sp., paratype ♂ tical in specimens of similar size (fig. 5F).

(TMSA 23989). B. Leg I tarsus, distal portion, ven- Anteromedian ocelli small, approximately

tral aspect, showing tarsal claws. C. Leg IV tarsus,

distal portion, ventral aspect, showing tarsal claws. half diameter of anterolateral ocelli, situated

Scale: A. 500 µm. B. 50 µm. C. 100 µm. approximately two anteromedian ocular diameters apart. Anterolateral ocelli located approximately one anteromedian ocular diameter from anteromedian ocelli. Posteromedian ocelli round, situated posterior or slightly posterolateral to anterolateral ocelli, slightly larger than anteromedian ocelli, but smaller than anterolateral ocelli. Posterolateral ocelli situated lateral to posteromedian ocelli, approximately one anteromedian ocular diameter from and approximately equal in size to posteromedian ocelli.

Sternum, labium and maxillae: ♂, ♀ (figs. 17B, 18B): as in S. robertsi   .

Pedipalps: ♂ (fig. 19A–B): Pedipalps elongated, reaching end of leg I when both extended forward. Tibia slightly swollen, shallowly concave in lateral profile. Cymbium without spines. Bulb simple, pyriform, subequal in width to cymbium, maximum width approximately equal to width of tibia, embolus long, slender, cylindrical, gently curved and gradually tapering.

Legs: ♂: Leg I patella, ventral and lateral surfaces without spines or with few spines distally; tibia convex proximally in lateral profile. Legs I and II (fig. 19C–F) tibia and metatarsus, prolateral and ventral surfaces densely and evenly spinose; tarsi, lateral surfaces densely spinose, spinules present within ventral scopulae, paired claws each with sigmoid row of welldeveloped teeth extending approximately two-thirds length of claw. Leg III patella, retrolateral margin occasionally with few short spines distally; tibia, retrodorsal and, in some specimens, ventral surfaces spinose; metatarsus (fig. 20A–C), ventral and lateral surfaces and distal margin with spines more robust than in S. hewitti   , n. sp. Leg IV patella, dorsal and prolateral surfaces with patch of spinules extending beyond midpoint of segment; tibia, proventral surface with slender spines; metatarsus (fig. 20D–F), ventral surface with spines more robust than in S. hewitti   , n. sp. Legs III and IV tarsi, paired claws each with two or three long teeth proximally, and smaller teeth extending more than half the length of claw. ♀: Legs I and II tibia and metatarsus, retroventral spines not elongated; metatarsus, prodorsal surface with short, erect setae along entire length, retrodorsal surface with patch of short, straight, slender spines, extending from proximal margin to beyond midpoint of segment, becoming more sparse distally. Leg IV metatarsus with preening comb comprising four or five elongated slender spines, on distal retroventral margin.

Spermathecae: Entire, with inflated terminus (fig. 4C).

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: SOUTH AFRICA: North West Prov.: Brits Distr.: Farm Hartebeestfontein 473, N side of Magalies River , ca. 8 km due NE of Hekpoort, patch of woodland around farm workers’ dwellings next to dust road, 25°50′06.5″S 27°39′14.9″E, 1255 m, 15.x.2009, I. Engelbrecht and GDACE GoogleMaps   field staff, soil scraping, closed woodland with red, structured clay soil, IE09-061, 5 juv. ( TMSA 24002 View Materials ), same data except “ 15.viii.2011, IE11-009,” 4 ♀, 7 juv. ( TMSA 24025 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION: Stasimopus griswoldi   , n. sp., appears to be restricted to the valley between the Magaliesberg and Skurweberg mountain ranges, north of the Magalies River and west of the Crocodile River (fig. 3). It has thus far only been recorded from the Brits District of North West Province, but probably also occurs in adjacent parts of Gauteng Province.

HABITAT: The known locality records of this species fall within the Moot Plains Bushveld vegetation type ( Mucina and Rutherford, 2006), characterized by mixed woodland with Acacia karroo Hayne   , Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus)   , and Rhus lancea Linnaeus   (fig. 1C). The soils in the area are mostly red structured clays (Shortlands form) and shallow rocky soils (Glenrosa and Mispah forms) with high clay content, but to date the species has only been recorded on the former.

CONSERVATION STATUS: Approximately 46% of the habitat in the valley inhabited by S. griswoldi   , n. sp., has been transformed, primarily by agriculture. The species appears to persist on relatively small patches of natural habitat, especially in rocky areas unsuitable for agriculture. Habitat destruction associated with urban and infrastructural developments spreading westward from the recreational areas around Hartebeespoort Dam represents an additional threat to the species.

Stasimopus filmeri   , new species Figs. 2E, F View FIGURE 2 , 4D, 5G, H, 21–24, tables 2, 3

TYPE MATERIAL: SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng Prov.: Krugersdorp Distr.: Holotype ♂ ( TMSA 23992 View Materials ), paratype ♂ ( TMSA 23993 View Materials ), Mokoya Lodge, Farm Hartebeestfrontein 427JQ, Hartebeesfontein Conservancy , ca. 5 km due NE of Hekpoort, wooded strip W of entrance road, 25°50′49.0″S 27°39′28.7″E, 1250 m, 29.iv.2009, I. Engelbrecht and GDACE field staff, pitfall trap arrays, flat slope, tall open Acacia   woodland, loose quartzite (5%–20%) and shale (75–95%) rocks, hard granular, grayish-brown sandy loam soil, with rock fragments (75%– 95%), IE09-043; 1 ♂ paratype ( TMSA 23994 View Materials ), 3 ♂ paratypes ( AMNH), same data except “ 4–19.iii.2010 … IE10-034,” 1 ♀, 1 juv. paratypes ( AMNH), same data except “ 2–4.ii.2010 … IE10-032 ”; 1 subad. ♀ paratype ( TMSA 23996 View Materials ), same data except “ 29.ix.2009, coincidental encounter while digging in pitfall traps, IE09-065 ”; 1 juv. paratype ( TMSA 23997 View Materials ), same data except “ 11.xii.2009 … IE09-107 ”; 2 ♀, 3 juv., 1 egg case ( TMSA 23998 View Materials ), Farm Hartebeestfontein 472, ca. 5 km due NE of Hekpoort, at junction of dust road crossing river and dust road heading to Mokoya Lodge / Hekpoort , 25°50′43.6″S 27°40′01.2″E, 1243 m, 15.x.2009, I. Engelbrecht and GDACE field staff, soil scraping, flat, open woodland with red, structured clay soil, both ♀♀ with egg cases in burrows, one consumed egg case before preservation, IE09-060. GoogleMaps  

DIAGNOSIS: Stasimopus filmeri   , n. sp., may be distinguished from all known species of Stasimopus   by the presence of a prominent, posteriorly inclined hornlike protuberance of the carapace fovea, present in both sexes and immatures of all sizes (figs. 21A, C, 22A, C). This structure extends at least to the posterior margin of the carapace and, in some females and juveniles, almost to the anterior surface of the abdomen. Adult males of S. filmeri   , n. sp., may be further distinguished from those of all other Stasimopus species   , except S. hewitti   , n. sp., and S. griswoldi   , n. sp., by the presence of spinules in the scopulae on the ventral surfaces of the tarsi of the first two pairs of legs (fig. 23F). They may be further distinguished from adult males of S. hewitti   , n. sp., by the following combination of characters: larger size (table 2); pedipalps reaching distal end of leg I when both extended forward; higher spine counts on tibia and metatarsus of first two pairs of legs (table 3); tibia of leg I distinctly convex in lateral profile (fig. 23C). Except for the foveal protuberance, S. filmeri   , n. sp., and S. griswoldi   , n. sp., appear to be morphologically identical.

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named in honor of the late Martin Filmer, former chairman of the Spider Club of Southern Africa, who first recognized this species as new to science, and published a photograph of it in his book on southern African spiders ( Filmer, 1997: 87), in recognition of his role in fostering arachnology in South Africa.

DESCRIPTION: As for S. hewitti   , n. sp., with the following differences.

Color: ♂: Chelicerae uniformly black. Leg III metatarsus black proximally; leg IV metatarsus mostly black, becoming paler distally. Book lung covers yellow or black; anterior pair pale, posterior pair black in some specimens; genital plate, between anterior book lungs, paler than rest of abdomen or similar in color to pale book lung coverings, creating pale band across anteroventral part of abdomen. ♀: Carapace cephalic region darker in very large specimens, rendering infuscation around ocelli indistinct.

Carapace: ♂, ♀: Fovea with prominent, posteriorly inclined hornlike protuberance extending at least to posterior margin of carapace and, occasionally, almost to anterior surface of abdomen (figs. 21A, C, 22A, C). ♂: Cephalic region, lateral surfaces with slight papillate texture (fig. 21A, C). Postocular carinae distinct, smooth, with pleated appearance. ♀: Carapace length, 11–12 mm.

Ocelli: ♂: Ocelli relatively smaller and more widely separated than in S. hewitti   , n. sp., with anteromedian ocelli three diameters apart, anterolateral ocelli one diameter from anteromedian ocelli, and posterolateral ocelli two diameters from posteromedian ocelli (fig. 5G). ♀: Anteromedian ocelli small, approximately half diameter of anterolateral ocelli, situated approximately two anteromedian ocular diameters apart (fig. 5H). Anterolateral ocelli located approximately one anteromedian ocular diameter from anteromedian ocelli. Posteromedian ocelli round, situated posterior or slightly posterolateral to anterolateral ocelli, slightly larger than anteromedian ocelli, but smaller than anterior lateral ocelli. Posterolateral ocelli situated lateral to posteromedian ocelli, approximately one anteromedian ocular diameter from and approximately equal in size to posteromedian ocelli.

Sternum, labium, and maxillae: ♂, ♀ (figs. 21B, 22B): As in S. robertsi   .

Pedipalps: ♂ (fig. 23A, B): Pedipalps elongated, reaching end of leg I when both extended forward. Tibia slightly swollen, shallowly concave in lateral profile. Cymbium without spines. Bulb simple, pyriform, subequal in width to cymbium, maximum width approximately equal to width of tibia, embolus long, slender, cylindrical, gently curved and gradually tapering.

Legs: ♂: Leg I patella, ventral and lateral surfaces without spines or with few spines distally; tibia convex proximally in lateral profile. Legs I and II (fig. 23C–F) tibia and metatarsus, prolateral and ventral surfaces densely and evenly spinose; tarsi spines on lateral surfaces, spinules present in ventral scopulae, paired claws each with sigmoid row of well-developed teeth extending approximately two-thirds length of claw. Leg III patella, retrolateral margin occasionally with few spines distally; tibia, retrodorsal and, in some specimens, ventral surfaces spinose; metatarsus (fig. 24A–C), ventral and lateral surfaces and distal margin with spines more robust than in S. hewitti   , n. sp. Leg IV patella, dorsal and prolateral surfaces with patch of spinules extending beyond midpoint of segment; tibia, proventral surface with slender spines; metatarsus (fig. 24D–F), ventral surface with spines more robust than in S. hewitti   , n. sp. Legs III and IV tarsi, paired claws each with two or three long teeth proximally, and smaller teeth extending more than half length of claw. ♀: Legs I and II tibia and metatarsus, retroventral spines not elongated; metatarsus, prodorsal surface with short, erect setae along entire length, retrodorsal surface with patch of spinules extending from proximal margin to beyond midpoint of segment, becoming more sparse distally. Leg IV metatarsus with preening comb, comprising four or five elongated slender spines on distal retroventral margin.

Spermathecae: Entire, with inflated terminus (fig. 4D).

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng Prov.: Krugersdorp Distr.: Broederstroom, Farm “Kareeoorde” [ca. 1 km SW of junction of R563 and R560 at Hekpoort, 25.8561°S 27.6378°E], 15.ii.2003, A. Leroy, on soil, 1 ♂ ( NCA 2005 /1355); Mohales Gate, 25.93857°S 27.63759°E, 1439 m, 25.ix.2007, P. Hawkes, 1 subad. ♀ (photograph) GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION: Stasimopus filmeri   , n. sp., appears to be restricted to the same valley as S. griswoldi   , n. sp., between the Magaliesberg and Skurweberg mountains, west of the Crocodile River (fig. 3). However, S. filmeri   , n. sp., occurs only on the southern side of the Magalies River. The known distribution of this species falls within the Krugersdorp District of Gauteng Province, South Africa, but the species probably occurs throughout the valley in the Gauteng and North West provinces.

HABITAT: The known locality records of this species fall within the Moot Plains Bushveld vegetation type ( Mucina and Rutherford, 2006), characterized by mixed woodland with A. karroo   , A. nilotica   , and R. lancea   (fig. 1D). The soils in the area are mostly red structured clays (Shortlands form) and shallow rocky soils (Glenrosa and Mispah forms) with high clay content. This species occurs on both soil types, but appears to be more abundant on the deeper soils.

CONSERVATION STATUS: The nature and extent of the threat to this species from habitat destruction is the same as for S. griswoldi   , n. sp.

TMSA

Transvaal Museum

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Ctenizidae

Genus

Stasimopus

Loc

Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1910

Engelbrecht, Ian & Prendini, Lorenzo 2012
2012
Loc

Stasimopus robertsi

Hewitt, J. 1916: 204
Hewitt, J. 1913: 412
Hewitt, J. 1910: 75
1910