Passiflora juliana J.M. MacDougal. Novon 2: 358-361. fig 1. 1992.
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|Passiflora juliana J.M. MacDougal. Novon 2: 358-361. fig 1. 1992.|
Mexico. Michoacan: Mpio. Coahuayana, high point on coastal road (Hwy. 200) between San Telmo and San Juan de Lima, 70 m, 2 Nov. 1979, J. M. MacDougal 492 (holotype: DUKE; isotypes: B! [B 10 0249190], CAS, [CAS0000382, photograph seen], CHAPA, DUKE, ENCB, F! [F0044453F], G! [G00441015], GH! [GH00063134], IBUG, MICH [MICH1115897, photograph seen], MO [MO-501793, photograph seen], MEXU! [MEXU00447466], NY [NY00335342, photograph seen], P [P00098890, photograph seen] TEX! [TEX00031092, photograph seen], US! [US00588766], XAL).
Slender, climbing, perennial vine 3 m long or more, minutely antrorsely appressed-puberulent throughout with unicellular, curved trichomes, 0.03-0.13 mm long, 0.02-0.03 mm wide. Flowering stems 1.0-2.7 mm in diameter, terete to somewhat compressed with rounded edges, greenish yellow or reddish purple (5RP 5/6), with the base somewhat woody and cork-covered. Stipules (6.0)8.3-18.9(-23.0) mm long, 2.8-11.3(-15.0) mm wide, asymmetrically ovate to obovate, acute, 5-10 veins departing from the base; petioles 1.1-4.3 cm long, inserted 2.3-15.8 mm from the basal margins of the peltate blades, commonly bearing on the proximal half (0.21-0.52 of the distance from the base toward the apex of the petiole), 2, round or elliptic, opposite to subopposite, sessile or shortly stipitate, saucer-shaped nectaries with flat rims, 0.9-2.7 mm wide, 0.3-2.1 mm high. Laminas 3.4-14.0 cm long, 6.0-20.0 cm wide, coriaceous, occasionally variegated as juveniles, conspicuously peltate, deeply 3-lobed (0.42-)0.50-0.86 the distance from the leaf outline to the leaf base, lateral lobes 2.9-11.1 cm long, 1.2-4.5 cm wide, elliptic to obovate, acute to obtuse, central lobes 3.1-13.2 cm long, 1.3-5.0 cm wide, obovate, acute to obtuse, narrowed at base, angle between the lateral lobes 95-160°, ratio of lateral to central lobe length 0.75-0.99, margins entire, thickened, sometimes purplish red, primary veins 3, diverging and branching above base, 4-11 laminar nectaries present, submarginal, associated with the minor veins of the abaxial surface, 0.3-1.0 mm in diameter, circular to widely elliptic, sessile; tendril 0.4-1.1 mm wide, present at flowering node, absent in inflorescence. Flowers paired in leaf axils or in terminal inflorescences; inflorescences 4.7-9.8 cm long, associated reduced laminas 7.0-14.4 mm long, 0.5-1.3 mm wide. Pedicels 2.9-19.0(-27.0) mm long, 0.5-1.1 mm wide; bract(s) absent; spur(s) absent. Flowers 24.5-31.3 mm in diameter with stipe 0.9-2.0 mm long, 0.6-1.3 mm wide; hypanthium 6.0-8.3 mm in diameter; sepals 9.3-11.5 mm long, 2.6-4.9 mm wide, ovate-triangular, acute to rounded, abaxially and adaxially greenish yellow; coronal filaments in 2 series, the outer 38-46, 4.9-7.2 mm long, 0.3-0.7 mm wide, linear, tapering to a point, spreading flat, greenish yellow becoming gradually lighter in color apically, unmarked or with purple (5P 3/6) spots and streaks near base, ratio of outer coronal row to sepal length 0.47-0.74, the inner 40-47, 3.0-3.8 mm long, 0.2-0.4 mm wide, linear, capitellate, erect to slightly spreading, greenish yellow, unmarked or with a flush of purple at very base, ratio of inner coronal row to outer coronal row length 0.43-0.73; operculum 2.0-2.5 mm long, plicate, greenish yellow, the margin with narrow minutely fimbrillate teeth; nectary 1.3-1.9 mm high, 0.7-1.3 mm wide; limen recurved, 0.8-1.1 mm high, 0.2-1.0 mm wide, greenish yellow, unmarked or with a violet to dark purple tip, limen floor 2.6-3.3 mm in diameter, dark purple (5P 2.5/6); androgynophore 3.9-5.5 mm long, 1.0-1.4 mm wide, whitish with a flush of purple at the base or with the purple coloration nearly reaching the apices of the staminal filaments; free portions of the staminal filaments 2.9-4.0 mm long, 0.5-0.7 mm wide, linear, commonly greenish yellow except as noted above; anthers 3.2-4.8 mm long, 1.0-2.2 mm wide; styles 4.0-6.5 mm long including stigmas, 0.2-0.5 mm wide, greenish yellow; stigmas 1.1-1.7 mm in diameter; ovary 2.6-3.1 mm long, 2.0-2.4 mm wide, globose to ovoid, greenish yellow. Berry (13.0-)17.3-18.1(-25.0) mm long, (13.0-)14.3-14.4(-20.0) mm in diameter, globose, very dark purple with glaucous bloom. Seeds 45-55, 3.7-4.1 mm long, 2.3-2.6 mm wide, 1.5-1.9 mm thick, obovate in outline, acute at both ends, reticulate-foveate with each side marked with ca. 11-18 foveae. Germination epigeal.
Flowering and fruiting August to November.
Mexico, in the Pacific lowlands and foothills of Jalisco, Colima, and northern Michoacán. Disturbed tropical deciduous or semideciduous low and medium forests (selva baja caducifolia and selva mediana subcaducifolia); growing on shrubs, trees, boulders, and rocks (sometimes limestone); sea-level to ca. 610 m.
Passiflora juliana is most closely related to Passiflora viridiflora and aside from floral adaptations in Passiflora viridiflora resulting from a shift in pollinators, these two species with greenish yellow flowers borne in conspicuous, indeterminate, terminal inflorescences are very similar. Both species possess large, peltate, trilobed leaves that have a central lobe that is distinctly narrowed at the base. They both may possess stems that have some red pigmentation, but those of Passiflora viridiflora are generally bright red, while those of Passiflora juliana are commonly reddish purple. Passiflora juliana can also be separated from Passiflora viridiflora vegetatively because that species has small, narrowly ovate stipules, as opposed to the larger, ovate, foliose stipules of Passiflora juliana . Passiflora juliana bears the shallow cup-shaped flowers typical of most of the members of the supersection and subgenus, whereas Passiflora viridiflora possesses long, tubular flowers with a greatly elongated androgynophore. Passiflora juliana is a very distinctive taxon possessing the shortest floral stipe in supersection Cieca , a limen floor that is distinctly purple and an androgynophore flushed with purple at the base or to just above the middle.
The light green flowers are likely adapted to a small or medium-sized insect pollinator, but J. M. MacDougal (1992) observed a hummingbird visiting the flowers of this plant. In an unpublished manuscript, MacDougal determined the total sugar concentration measured as sucrose equivalents in percent weight per total weight to be 35-38% in Passiflora juliana , which is within the range typical for utilization by bees. MacDougal also found that lacebugs and the butterfly Heliconius charitonia are important herbivores.
MEXICO. Colima: Mpio. Tecoman, N of Tecoman, 3.9 mi. NE on Hwy. 110 from junction of road to Tecoman (Hwy. 200), MacDougal & Miley 486 (US); Hwy. 200 between Manzanillo and Tecoman, sea level, 19°00.77N, 104°11.78W, Porter-Utley & Mondragón 359 (CICY, FLAS). Jalisco: Mpio. La Huerta, Rancho Cuixmala, road to Cumbres 1 from Station 45, E of the Puerto Vallarta, B. de Nav. (MEX 200) hwy., 19°31'N, 104°56'W, Ayala 1212 (CAS, MO, TEX); Chamela, sendero El Tejón, 19°30'N, 105°03'W, 100 m, Gentry & UNAM Tropical Ecology Class 74432 (MO); Estación de Biología, Chamela, IBUNAM, Chacahalaca Trail, 90 m, 19°29.92N, 105°02.63W, Porter-Utley & Mondragón 353 (CICY, FLAS); Estacion de Biologia, Chamela, IBUNAM, Chacahalaca Trail, Porter-Utley & Mondragón 355 (CICY, FLAS); at entrance to the Estación de Biología, Chamela, IBUNAM, 80 m, 19°29.64N, 105°02.81W, Porter-Utley & Mondragón 357 (CICY). Michoacán: Mpio. Apatzingán, Tancitaro Region, Mt. Apatzingán, 2000 ft, Leavenworth & Hoogstraal 1717 (F); high point on raod between San Telmo and San Juan de Lima (Hwy 200).
United States of America: Missouri, cultivated at the Missouri Botanical Garden, from material collected by J.M. MacDougal & J. Miley (MacDougal & Miley 492) in Michoacan, Mexico, MacDougal 492GR (MO).
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.