Heliophanus (Heliophanus) gramineus, Wesołowska & Haddad, 2013

Wesołowska, Wanda & Haddad, Charles R., 2013, New data on the jumping spiders of South Africa (Araneae: Salticidae), African Invertebrates 54 (1), pp. 177-177 : 204-205

publication ID




persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Heliophanus (Heliophanus) gramineus

sp. nov.

Heliophanus (Heliophanus) gramineus View in CoL sp. n.

Figs 11, 80, 81

Etymology: From Latin gramineus (of, or belonging to, grass), in reference to habitat of the species.

Diagnosis: The female is easily distinguished from congeners by the colouration of the abdomen: generally greyish beige with a darker pattern, whereas other species are dark, often black, sometimes with lighter patches. The form of the epigyne, with a very deep and broad excavation, is also characteristic. Male unknown.



Measurements. Cephalothorax: length 1.5–1.6, width 1.3–1.4, height 0.6. Abdomen: length 2.4–2.9, width 2.1–2.4. Eye field: length 0.7, anterior width 0.9–1.0, posterior width 1.0–1.1.

General appearance as in Fig. 11. Shape of carapace typical for members of the genus, slightly broader posteriorly, moderately high, with prominent flat area; carapace dark brown with black rings surrounding eyes, clothed in dense greyish hairs, with sparse long bristles scattered between them. Chelicerae unidentate. Mouthparts dark.Abdomen very swollen, almost globular, greyish beige with brown pattern consisting of median chain of triangular spots accompanied by submarginal spots ( Fig. 11). Venter brownish beige, with pale median band in anterior half and two marginal spots placed posteriorly. Spinnerets yellowish grey. Legs greyish beige, ornamented with black rings at bases and tips of patellae, and tips of tibiae; femora with blackish line along prolateral surfaces. Pedipalps yellow. Epigyne wide, with small pocket at posterior edge. Centre of epigyne occupied by very large, broad, deep excavation ( Fig. 80), plugged with waxy secretion. Internal structure as in Fig. 81.

Holotype: ♀ SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: Amatola Mtns, Hogsback , 39 Steps waterfall, 32°35.386'S 26°55.985'E, 1250 m, base of grass tussocks, 6.i.2011, C. Haddad (NCA, 2012/1102). GoogleMaps

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: 1♀ together with holotype (NCA, 2012/1102) ; 1♀ same locality, Amatola Forestry Company offices , 32°35.276'S 26°55.911'E, 1270 m, sweeps, fynbos in wetland, 2.iv.2011, C. Haddad, J. Neethling & A. van Rooyen ( NMSA, 26405) GoogleMaps ; 1♀ same data but 22.iv.2012, C. Haddad ( NMBA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀ Amatola Mtns, Katberg State Forest , 32°28.137'S 26°40.276'E, 1350 m, base of grass tussocks, 8.i.2011, C. Haddad (NCA, 2012/1100) GoogleMaps .

Distribution: Known only from two localities in the Amatola Mountains , Eastern Cape Province ( Fig. 86).

Habitat and biology: The known specimens were all collected at the base of grass tussocks in grassland and fynbos habitats surrounded by Afromontane forests.

Remarks: The subgeneric placement of this species, as well as the species group within the subgenus, should be clarified when the male is discovered, as the female epigyne lacks adequate distinctive characteristics for a certain placement.


KwaZulu-Natal Museum


Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel













Darwin Core Archive (for parent article) View in SIBiLS Plain XML RDF