Ancylometes rufus (Walckenaer)

Höfer, H. & Brescovit, A. D., 2000, A revision of the Neotropical spider genus Ancylometes Bertkau (Araneae: Pisauridae), Insect Systematics & Evolution 31, pp. 323-360: 337-357

publication ID

HOEFER2000A

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/BB0586E8-5E10-08E0-9267-41A08047BF98

treatment provided by

Thomas

scientific name

Ancylometes rufus (Walckenaer)
status

 

Ancylometes rufus (Walckenaer)  

(Pl-Fig. 1; Fig. 7-11, 31-35, 61)

Ctenus rufus Walckenaer   , 1837: 367 (immature female from French Guiana, lost); Roewer 1954: 654; Bonnet 1956: 1288.

Ctenus fuscus Walckenaer   , 1837: 368 (probably immature female from French Guiana, lost); Roewer 1954: 650; Bonnet 1956: 1281. Syn. n.

Ctenus giganteus Taczanowski   , 1873: 91 (immature syntypes, female from Cayenne and male from Laurent de Maroni, French Guiana, should be in PAN, not examined); Roewer 1954: 650; Bonnet 1956: 1281. Syn. n.

Ctenus bimaculatus Taczanowski   , 1873: 92 (female holotype from Uassa, NE of Brazil close to French Guiana, should be in PAN, not examined); Roewer 1954: 648; Bonnet 1956: 1276. Syn. n.

Leptoctenus tenkatei Hasselt   , 1889: 192 (immature female holotype from Suriname, Ten Kate col., in MNHL no. 5918, examined). Syn. n.

Lycoaenus brunneus Pickard-Cambridge   , 1897: 97 (male and female syntypes from Santarem, Pará, Brazil, in BMNH, male BMNH 1896.12.13.88.91, examined); Strand 1907: 430. Syn. n.

Lycoaenus gigas Pickard-Cambridge  , 1897: 98, pl. 4, fig. i, c, 1 (male holotype probably from upper Amazonas, Brazil, in BMNH, examined). Syn. n.

Lycoclenus demerarensis Pickard-Cambridge   , 1897: 99, pl. 4, fig. 1, c, 3 (male holotype from Dementia, Guiana, W. L. Selato col., in BMNH no. 1890.10.634: 69, examined). Syn. n.

Ancylometes gigas   : Simon 1898b: 299; Roewer 1954: 145; Bonnet 1955: 318; Bernarde et al. 1999: 199, fig. 1.

Lycoaenus saraensis Strand   , 1909: 332 (female holotype from Santa Cruz de La Sierra, Sara Provincia, Bolivia, Nov. 12, 1904, Steinbach col., in ZMB no. 21120, examined). Syn. n.

Ancylometes vulpes Bertkau   : Petrunkevitch 1910: 220 (misidentification).

Ancylometes brunneus   : Petrunkevitch 1911: 539.

Ctenus tenkatei   : Petrunkevitch 1911: 478; Roewer 1954: 656; Bonnet 1956: 1291.

Ancylometes demerarensis   : Petrunkevitch 1911: 540; Roewer 1954: 145; Bonnet 1955: 318.

Lycoaenus paraensis Strand   , 1915: 114 (immature male holotype from Pará, Brazil, not found in SMF or ZMB, probably lost). Syn. n.

Ancylometes pindareensis Mello-Leitao   , 1920: 180 (female holotype from Rio Pindaré, Maranhão, Brazil, should be in the MNRJ no. 87, not localized, probably lost); Roewer 1954: 145. Syn. n.

Ctenus juruensis Mello-Leitao   , 1922: 39 (female holotype from Alto Juruá, Amazonas, Brazil, not found in MNRJ, probably lost); Roewer 1954: 651; Bonnet 1956: 1283. Syn. n.

Ctenus striolatus Mello-Leitao   , 1922: 40-41 (male holotype from Alto Juruá, Amazonas, Brazil, not found in MNRJ, probably lost); Roewer 1954: 655; Bonnet 1956: 1290. Syn. n.

Ancylometes pindareannus Mello-Leitao   , 1924: 277 (female holotype with same data of A. pindareensis   ); Roewer 1954: 145 (objective synonym of A. pindareensis   ).

Ctenus xerophilus Mello-Leitao   , 1936: 14, pr. IV, fig. 30 (male holotype from Areia, Paraiba, Brazil, in MNRJ 41866, examined); Roewer 1954; 657; Bonnet 1956: 1292. Syn. n.

Lycoclenus titanus Caporiacco   , 1947: 22 (two male and one female syntypes from Baboon Camp, Demerara and one male and one immature female syntype from Tumatumari, all French Guiana, in MZS, examined); 1948: 635. Syn. n.

Ancylometes giganteus   : Caporiacco 1948: 635.

Ancylometes bimaculatus   : Caporiacco 1948: 635.

Ancylometes titanus   : Roewer 1954: 145.

Ancylometes saraensis   : Roewer 1954: 145; Bonnet 1955:318.

Ancylometes paraensis   : Bonnet 1955: 318.

Ancylometes pindareanus   : Bonnet 1955: 318.

Synonymies. - In cases where the type could not be examined a new synonymy is based on available figures ( Ctenus bimaculatus, C. giganteus   ) or descriptions (C juruensis, C. pindareensis, C. striolatus   ). The synonymy of Lycoctenus paraensis   and Ctenus fuscus   is founded on the location of the type locality within the distribution of A. rufus   .

Diagnosis. - Male. Median apophysis long and slightly curved, membranous lobe on base of embolus triangular, not covering base of the median apophysis (Fig. 31). Female. Epigynal median plate narrow triangular with rounded edges, sometimes invaginated near anterior lateral border, mostly flat, without protuberance; anterior border straight (Fig. 32, 34, 35).

Description. - Male (SMNK 306). Prosoma dark brown with broad marginal white bands. Legs and abdomen dark brown, venter lighter. Palpal tibia with curved ventral and black lateral apophysis (Fig. 9). Embolus broad at base flanked by triangular membranous lobe, than describing a semicircle, ending filiform beneath apex of Cymbium, median part embedded in broad winglike conductor (Fig. 7, 8, 31). Opposite to conductor a slightly curved, relatively long hammer-like median apophysis (Fig. 8). Chelicerae with 3 promarginal and 4 retromarginal teeth, third small.

Measurements. Total length 35.0. Prosoma 18.8 long, 16.0 wide. Clypeus 1.5. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.7, ALE 0.45, PME 0.7, PLE 0.7; AME-AME 0.4, AME-ALE 0.55, PME-PME0.25, PME-PLE 0.35, AME-PLE 1.2, AME-PME0.3, MOQ length 1.65, front width 1.8, back width 1.3.

Legs. I-femur 21.0/ patella 9.0/ tibia 21.0/ metatarsus 24.0/ tarsus 10.0/ total 87.0; II- 21.0/ 9.0/ 19.5/ 22.0/ 9.5/ 82.0; III- 18.0/ 8.0/ 17.0/ 21.0/ 9.0/ 72.0; IV- 23.0/ 9.0/ 21.0/ 24.0/ 10.5/ 90.0. Cymbium 7.0 long, 4.0 wide, median apophysis 2.5 long.

Leg spination. Femora I-II v0, p1-1-1-1, r1-1-1, d1-1-1; III v0, p1-1-1-1-(1), r1-1-1-1, d1-1-1; IV v0, p1-1-1-(1), r1-1-1-1, d1-1-1; patellae I-IV v0, p1, r1; tibiae I-II v2 -2-2-2, p1-1, r1-1-1, d1-1-1; III-IV v2 -2-2, p1-1, r1-1, d(1)-1-1-1; metatarsi I-II v2 -2-1, p1-1, r1-1, d0; III v1 -1-1-1-2, p1-1-1-1, r1-1-1, d1-1; IV v1 -1-1-1-1-1-1-2, p1-1-1-1, r1-1- 1, d1-1; tarsi III-IV vl4-16. Palpal femora p1, r1, d1-1-2; patellae p1; tibiae p1, d2.

Female (SMNK 306). Whole body dark brown, legs spotted grey. Chelicerae with 3 promarginal and 4 retromarginal teeth (third small). Epigynal median plate flat, triangular with rounded edges, without any projection (Fig. 10, 32, 34). Epigynal openings anterior-laterally, copulatory ducts sigmoid, entering circular spermathecae from ventral. Spermathecae nearly touching each other (Fig. 33).

Measurements. Total length 35.0. Prosoma 18.3 long, 15.2 wide. Clypeus 1.1. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.6, ALE 0.35, PME 0.6, PLE 0.75; AME-AME 0.7, AME-ALE 0.6, PME-PME0.5, PME-PLE 1.0, AME-PLE 1.5, AME-PME0.5, MOQ length 1.8, front width 1.9, back width 1.7. Epigynal median plate 2.4 long, 1.3 wide.

Legs. I-femur 16.0/ patella 8.0/ tibia 22.0/ metatarsus 12.0/ tarsus 6.5/ total 56.0; II- 15.0/ 8.0/ 13.0/ 11.0/ 6.0/ 52.0; III- 13.0/ 6.0/ 11.0/ 12.0/ 6.0/ 49.0; IV- 16.0/ 6.5/ 16.0/ 18.0/ 6.5/ 63.0.

Leg spination. Femora I-II v0, p1-1-1, r1-1-1, d1-1-1; III-IV v0, p1-1-1-1, r1-1-1-1, d1-1-1; tibiae I-II v2 -2-2-2, p0, r0, d0; III-IV v2 -2-2, p1-1, r1- 1, d1-1-1; metatarsi I-II v0, p0, r0, d0; III v2 -2-2; IV v1 -1-1-1-1-1-1-2; III-IV p1-1-1, r1-1-1, d1-1- 1-2; tarsi III-IV vl2-16. Palpal femora p1, r1, d1- 1-2; patellae p1; tibiae p2, rd1-1; tarsi p2-1, r1-1.

Variation. See Table 3 for males and Table 4 for females.

Coloration of living specimens (from Reserva Ducke, Manaus). Prosoma of adult males dark brown, with broad creamy white to white lateral bands. Small white lines above PME and cheliceral base white. Abdomen dark brown dorsally, lighter ventrally. Legs all dark, with white lines laterally on femora and sometimes white spots dorsally on femora and patellae. Females much lighter than males, prosoma and abdomen uniform brown, legs and chelicerae appearing washed out by dark or yellow irregular spots. Larger juveniles often bright reddish dorsally.

Natural History. - One female from a blackwater inundation forest (SMNK 310) was weighted alive (7 g), dry weight was 2.2 g. Egg sacs contained more than 1300 eggs (SMNK 1461) or 1000 prelarvae and 200 sterile? eggs (SMNK 1462). The species seems to be bound to large or small water bodies in the forest, where they can frequently be encountered at night. Specimens were observed to prey and feed on frogs, tadpoles and fish (personal observations; see photographs in Bernarde 1999, Hödl 1993, Höfer & Beck 1996). The spiders can easily float on the water surface. The ecology of the species in central Amazonia (Reserva Ducke, Manaus) has recently been studied by Azevedo, Gasnier & Höfer (in prep.).

Material examined. - VENEZUELA: Amazonas: SW base cerro Yapacana, 110 m, 1 [[female]], Feb. 23 1918, C.V. Myers (AMNH). BRITISH GUYANA: 1 [[female]], Aug. 10 1911 (AMNH a 3907); Curupin, 1 [[male]], Dec. 1922, H. Lang (AMNH). SURINAM: Marowigne: Langamankondre, 1 [[male]], Aug. 15 -30 1965, B. Malkin (MZSP 11998); Sipaliwini: Essequibo, Zuid Rivier, 3 [[females]], H. Beatty (FMNH); Oberland, 1 [[female]], Nov. 1908, C. Heller (ZMB 275/09); Brokopondo: Berg en Dal, 1 [[female]], Oct. 1908, C. Heller (ZMB 1632/8); Paramaribo, 1 [[male]], Feb. 1908, S.T. Heller (ZMB 684/08); 2 [[females]] (ZMB). FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne: 1 [[male]] 2 [[females]], Oct.- Dec. 1992, C. Marty (IBSP 734); (Montagnes Kau, near camp Calman), 27 km SW Roura (4°33'N 52°09'W), 100-300 m, 1 imm., Aug. 5 1988, S. Marshall (NMNH). ECUADOR: Rio Pastaza, Olalla, 1 [[male]], 1930-1935 (AMNH); Napo: Alinahui, 20 km E of Puerto Napo, 450 m (01°0'S 77°25'W), 1 [[male]], Jan. 1994, V. Roth (CAS); same data, 1 [[male]], April 1994 (CAS); same data, 1 [[male]], Feb. 1994, E.S. Ross (CAS); Sucumbios, Lago Imuya, near Rio Aguarico (200 m), 1 [[female]], Sept. 10 1991, E.S. Ross (CAS). PERU: Huanuco: Panguana, Rio Yuyapichis (9°37'S 74°56'W), 1 [[female]], Dec. 24 1983 - Jan. 21 1984, M. Verhaagh(SMNK 1437). Bosque Huacamayo, 1 [[female]], Dec. 4 1968, Meneses (IBSP 2603); Madre de Dios, zona reservada de Manú near station Pakitzh, quebrada El Baño, 2 [[males]] 2 [[females]] 1 imm., Oct. 6 1987, Silva & Coddington col.; same data, 2 [[female]] (NMNH); same data, l [[female]], Oct. 1 1987 (NMNH); Madre de Dios, Rio Tambopata Reserve (12°50'S 69°20'W), 1 [[male]], Sept. 9-14 1984, H. Kavanaugh (CAS); Cuzco: Puerto Atalaya, 1 [[female]], Aug. 1976, N. Zacharoff (CAS). BOLIVIA: La Paz: Guanay, 1 [[female]], Aug. 19 -25 1989, L. Peña (AMNH); Beni: Espiritu, 1 [[male]], Sept. 15 1986, W. Hanagarth & J. Sarmiento (CBF); El Trapiche, 1 [[female]], July 26 1993, H. Höfer (SMNK 1438); 1 [[male]], July 21 -26 1993; H. Höfer (SMNK 1439); Santa Cruz: Velasco, San Ignacio, Cuoche, 1 [[male]], Dec. 20 1989, E. Peñaranda (CBF); Prov. Sarah, 1 [[female]], Steinbach (ZMB). BRAZIL: Roraima: Apiau, 2 [[females]], Dec. 1994, G. Skuk (IBSP 5750); Tepequen, 1 [[male]], Nov. 1994, G. Skuk (IBSP 5754); Rio Tracajatuba, 2 [[males]] 1 [[female]], June-July 1965, A. Hoge et al. (IBSP 1952); Igarapé Simãozinho, 1 [[female]] 2 imm., March 1965, A. Hoge (IBSP 1908); Serra do Navio, 1 [[female]], May 7-15 1992, G. Skuk (INPA). Amazonas: Humaitá, 1 [[female]], Feb. 12 1986, C. D'Aglio & S. Moreti (IBSP 4284); Balbina, 1 [[male]], Dec. 23 1987 (IBSP 6060); 12 [[males]] 9 [[females]] 1 imm., April 14 1988, Excursão Inst. Butantan (IBSP 56399); Manaus (Ramal Agua Preta, AM010, km 31), 1 [[female]], Feb. 21 1991, M.E. Oliveira (IMTM 063); (Reserva Ducke), H. Höfer col., 1 [[female]], Oct. 4 1990 (SMNK 305); 1 [[male]] 1 [[female]], Sept. 10 1991 (SMNK 306); 1 [[female]], July 31 1991 (SMNK 435); 1 [[female]], Nov. 20 1991 (SMNK 436); 1 [[female]], March 1992 (SMNK 1428); 1 [[male]], Jan. 17 1994 (SMNK 1453); 1 [[male]], 1994 (SMNK 1454); 1 [[female]], Aug. 7 1992 (SMNK 1455); 1 [[male]], June 1994 (SMNK 1456); 1 [[female]], Nov. 1 1995 (SMNK 1457); 1 [[male]], Nov. 1 1995 (SMNK 1458); 1 [[female]], Feb. 7 1994 (SMNK 1459); 1 [[female]], Sept. 9 1991 (SMNK 1460); 1 [[female]], March 1994, H. Höfer (SMNK 1461); 1 [[female]] with eggsac, Aug. 5 1991 (SMNK 1462); 1 [[female]], Aug. 21 1991, A.D. Brescovit (MCN 21362); 1 [[male]], March 28 1987, A.D. Brescovit (MCN 18397); 1 [[female]], Aug. 21 1991, A.D. Brescovit (MCN 21363); 1 [[male]], Feb. 18 -28 1992, A.D. Brescovit (MCN 22010); 1 [[female]], Aug. 21 1993 (MCN 21362); 1 [[female]] (MCN 21363); (Reserva Ducke: Igarapé Acará), 1 [[male]], March 28 1987, J.M. Hero (MCN 18397); (Rio Negro), 1 [[male]], June 1967, W. Junk (IBSP 2126); (Ilha do Careiro, Rio Solimões), 1 [[male]], Feb. 27 1988, H. Höfer (SMNK 308); (Lago Janauari), 3 [[males]] 2 [[females]], April 14 - June 30 1988, J. Adis (INPA); 1 [[female]] 2 imm., Aug. 1995 - March 1996, J. Adis et al. (INPA); (Ilha da Marchantaria), 1 [[male]], Nov. 4 1981, J. Adis (INPA); 1 [[female]], July 18 1982, J. Adis (INPA); 1 [[male]], March 16 1988, H. Höfer (INPA); (Rio Tarumã Mirím, Igapó), 1 [[male]] 1 [[female]], March 30 - May 31 1977, J. Adis (IBSP 2901-2902); 1 [[female]], March 11 1988, H. Höfer (SMNK 310); 1 [[female]], April 27 1977, J. Adis co. (INPA); 1 [[female]], April 22 1988, H. Höfer co. (INPA); 1 [[female]], May 11 1977, J. Adis (INPA). Coari, Rio Urucú (4°49'S 64°55'W), 2 [[male]] 1 imm., Feb. 6 -9 1992, M.E. Oliveira (UA); 1 [[female]], May 14 1991, M. E. Oliveira (UA); 1 [[female]], April 2 -8 1991, N.O. Aguiar (UA); 1 [[male]], March 5-18 1994, P. Buhrnheim & N.O. Aguiar (UA); Parque Nacional do Jau (Parenini), 1 [[male]] 1 [[female]] 1 imm., June 1995, M.E. do E.S. Oliveira (IBSP 6531); 2 [[males]], June 1995, M.E. do E.S. Oliveira (IBSP 6529). Pará: 1 [[male]], Jan. 23 1975, A. Gorgônio (IBSP 6006); 1 [[female]], Aug. 11 1975, A. Gorgônio (IBSP 5026); Tucuruí, 12 [[males]] 26 [[females]] 5 j, Eq. LB. (IBSP 5612-5621; 5630-5632); (Ilha Tocantins), 1 [[male]], July 23 1984, Eq. I.B. (IBSP 5303); Icoaraci, 3 [[males]] 2 [[females]] 1 imm., Aug. 10 1975 - April 27 1976, R.F. da Silva (IBSP 4266; 4270-4272; 4273); Ananindeua, 2 [[males]] 2 [[females]], Jan. 7 1975 - March 12 1976, R.F. da Silva (IBSP 4265; 4268-4269; 4274); Belém, 1 [[female]], March 18 1975, P. Waldir (IBSP 4267); 3 [[males]], Feb.,1951 - April 1952, P. Ledoux (IBSP 589; 602); 1 [[male]], Dec. 1994, D. Pinz (IBSP 5749); 2 [[males]] 4 [[females]], July 1966, Eq. Mus. Göldi (IBSP 1998; 2001); Reserva Biológica do Rio Trombetas, 2 [[females]], Aug. 17 1979, Grazia, Pires & Fabian (MCTP; MCTP 756); Praia do Mosqueiro, Belém, 1 [[male]] 1 [[female]], P. Cervera (IBSP 6587); Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Rio Tocantins, Tucuruí, 10 [[males]] 5 [[females]], Eq. Butantan (IBSP 6906-6920); same locality, 1 [[female]], Sept. 16 1985, Eq. Butantan (IBSP 6945). Acre: Iquiri, 1 [[male]], Sept. 7, 1951, Exp. Dpto Zool. (MZSP 11958). Rondônia: Porto Velho, 2 [[males]] 2 [[females]], Nov. - Dec. 1982, I. Stranieri (IBSP 3604; 3616; 3630; 4671); Rio Jamari, Usina Hidrelétrica de Samuel, 1 [[male]], Eq. Butantan (IBSP 6944); same locality, 14 [[males]], 17 [[females]] 7 imm., Nov. 18 - Dec. 27 1988, Eq. Operação Jamari (MCN 18552, 18558-18561, 18573- 18583, 18587, 18759-18776); Rolim de Moura, 1 [[male]], Jan. 1995, R. Moterani (IBSP 6922). Ceará: Jaguaribe, 1 [[male]], Nov. 1952, A. Hoge & João (IBSP 852); Areia Branca, 1 [[male]], Aug. 15 -30 1965, B. Malkin (MZSP 11995). Goiás: Ilha do Bananal, 2 [[females]], Sept. 17 1948, Eq. I.B. (IBSP 139; 140); Área da Usina Hidrelétrica, Serra da Mesa, Rio Bagagem, 14°01'S 48°18'W, Niquelândia, 1 [[female]], Sept. 24-30 1995, G. Skuk (IBSP 6275); same locality, in cerrado, 1 [[male]], Sept. 24 - Oct. 6 1995, Silvestre, Dietz & Brandão (MZSP). Pernambuco: Recife (Horto Dois Irmãos), 1 [[male]], Sept. 15 1969, P.F.L. Duarte (IBSP 2894); Recife, 1 [[female]], no data (SMF 13865). Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, 1 [[female]], Aug. 3 1973, R. Scherer (MCN 1815). São Paulo: Registro, 1 [[male]], Jan. 6 1977, P. Lesse (IBSP 2825); Juquiá, 1 [[male]], June 1980, A. Pacheco (IBSP 3436); Iguapé 1 [[female]], Aug. 1979, M. Yokota (IBSP 6024); Mongaguá, 1 [[male]], Dec. 1979, K. P. Fonrobert (IBSP 3437); 1 [[female]], April 10 1970, A. Maia (IBSP 3301); Itanhaém, 1 [[male]], Jan. 1980, R. Silveira (IBSP 2152); 1 [[female]], July 1976, M. Arrudão (IBSP 2801); 1 [[male]], Nov. 1984, S. Chammas (IBSP 4545); Praia Grande, 1 [[male]], Nov. 1983, N. Grandesolli (IBSP 3766); Peruíbe, 1 [[male]], Jan. 1988, M.G. dos Santos (IBSP 5876); 1 [[male]], Sept. 1994, J. N.R. de Paula (IBSP 5851); 1 [[male]], July 1977, B.C.M. Silva (IBSP 2862); Cananéia, Ilha do Cardoso, Praia de Camburiú, 1 [[male]], Jan. 6-19 1952, L.R. Guimarães (MZSP 11990); Sitio Pinheiral, Sorocaba, 1 [[male]] 1 [[female]], May 1979, I. Stener (IBSP 6513); near Miracatú, 1 [[male]], Oct. 1982, R.L.M. Lemos (IBSP 6522); Base Sul, Cananéia, 1 [[male]], May 1979 (IBSP 6518); Juquiá, 1 [[female]], May 1978, J. Haramura (IBSP 6512). Paraná: Curitiba, 1 [[female]], Dec. 1991, Centro Epid. PR (IBSP 5812). Rio Grande do Sul: Porto Alegre, 2 [[females]], Oct. 1962, F. S. Iberbauer (IBSP 5157).

Distribution. - Rain forests of the Amazon basin and the Atlantic coast of Brazil (Fig. 61).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Ctenidae

Genus

Ancylometes