Pseudoplatystoma Bleeker, 1862

Uriel Angel Buitrago-Suárez & Brooks M. Burr, 2007, Taxonomy of the catfish genus Pseudoplatystoma Bleeker (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) with recognition of eight species., Zootaxa 1512, pp. 1-38 : 3-8

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Pseudoplatystoma Bleeker, 1862

n. sp.

Pseudoplatystoma Bleeker, 1862 View in CoL View at ENA   ZBK

Pseudoplatystoma Bleeker, 1862   ZBK :10. Type species: Silurus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1766   ZBK . Type by original designation. Gender: neuter. Lundberg and Littmann (2003) stated that Pseudoplatystoma   ZBK is a valid name by first reviser action of Eigenmann and Eigenmann (1888).

Hemiplatystoma Bleeker, 1862   ZBK :10. Type species: Platystoma tigrinum Valenciennes, 1840   ZBK . Type by original designation. Gender: neuter.

The etymology of Pseudoplatystoma   ZBK is as follows: pseudes, (Greek) for false, platys (Greek), flat and stoma (Greek), mouth.

Bleeker used a combination of characters to diagnose his new genus as follows (words in parentheses are ours)

"Snout strongly depressed. Superior maxilla non -prominent. Intermaxillary (premaxillary) teeth minute, vomero -palatine teeth in four patches. Eyes in dorsal position. Nares anterior and tubulated. Long barbels. Spine (pectoral?) serrated, dorsal (spine?) slender. Anal fin short”.

Other features noted in the literature (e.g., Ringuelet et al., 1967; Dahl, 1971; Mees, 1974) include: flat head with occipital region covered by thin skin; posterior occipital process contacting predorsal plate; fontanel of skull extends from middle of snout to posterior line of eyes, at this point it becomes a groove that reaches the occipital; pectoral fins have one spine and 8 rays; anal fin has one spine and 9 rays; caudal fin is forked with branched rays; branchiostegal rays 14-15. We reevaluated these features.

We found six unique characters to support the monophyly of Pseudoplatystoma   ZBK : foramen formed by the epioccipital process and pterotic (Fig. 2); the articular has a flange or platform on its proximal lateral side (Fig. 3C); the articular presents a large fossa where a novel muscle originates (see Buitrago - Suárez, 2006 and Fig. 3A); the entopterygoid forms a straight angle (Figs. 4A and B); presence of a foramen between the parhypural and hypural at the joint with the compound centrum (Fig. 5); swim bladder expanded anteriorly with one appendicle departing from the anterolateral region on each side (Fig. 6A -C); spotted caudal fin (Figs. 13 and 14).

As recognized here, the genus contains at least 8 species: P. fasciatum restricted to the Guyana region; P. punctifer (formerly recognized as P. fasciatum from the Amazon River); P. orinocoense , n. sp., (formerly P. fasciatum from the Orinoco basin); P. magdaleniatum , n. sp., (formerly P. fasciatum from the Magdalena River); P. reticulatum   ZBK (formerly P. fasciatum from the Amazon and Paraná rivers); P. corruscans   ZBK (from the Paraná and São Francisco rivers), P. tigrinum   ZBK , restricted to the Amazon basin, and P. metaense , n. sp. (formerly P. tigrinum   ZBK from the Orinoco River).

Additionally, we recognize two clades of Pseudoplatystoma   ZBK (see Buitrago-Suárez, 2005), both supported by anatomical characters. In the P. fasciatum clade ( P. fasciatum , P. punctifer , P. orinocoense , P. magdaleniatum , P. reticulatum   ZBK , and P. corruscans   ZBK ) the anterior fontanel is almost entirely surrounded by the mesethmoid and frontals. The fontanel is surrounded by the mesethmoid, frontal, and supraoccipital in the P. tigrinum   ZBK clade ( P. metaense and P. tigrinum   ZBK only) (Figs. 7 and 8). A tooth patch covers the dorsal surface of ceratobranchial5 and extends beyond 1/3 of the ventral region in the P. fasciatum clade. The tooth patch on ceratobranchial5 covers only the dorsal surface in the P. tigrinum   ZBK clade (Fig. 9). In the P. tigrinum   ZBK clade, the lateral ethmoid bears a small process anteriorly (Fig. 8). The process develops from a ventral elevation that serves as the site for a connection of a bundle of ligaments coming from the entopterygoid. The P. fasciatum clade lacks this process.

The presence of a median crest in the posterior process of the supraoccipital is uncommon in pimelodines. This feature does not distinguish unambiguously between the two clades, but is present in P. tigrinum   ZBK , P. metaense and P. magdaleniatum (Fig. 7).

GBIF Dataset (for parent article) Darwin Core Archive (for parent article) View in SIBiLS Plain XML RDF