Clepsis eatoniana (Ragonot, 1881),

Zlatkov, Boyan & Huemer, Peter, 2019, Remarkable confusion in some Western Palearctic Clepsis leads to a revised taxonomic concept (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), ZooKeys 885, pp. 51-87: 51

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Clepsis eatoniana (Ragonot, 1881)

stat. rev.

Clepsis eatoniana (Ragonot, 1881)  stat. rev.

Tortrix eatoniana  Ragonot, 1881: 231 (Portugal).

Tortrix xylotoma  Meyrick, 1891: 13 (Algeria) syn. nov.

Clepsis razowskii  Gastón, Vives & Revilla, 2017: 691 (Spain) syn. nov.

non Clepsis consimilana  ( Hübner, 1817)

Material examined.

Lectotype ♂ by designation of Razowski (1979), pinned, with 7 labels: "Eatoniana / Rag. n. sp. / Portugal" [handwritten; the same label on backside:] "port Olivaes / Port. [ugal] / 24.4.80" " Tortrix / eatoniana Rag. / Ent. month. Mag., / 1881, 17, p. 231" [handwritten] "Mus. Paris / coll. Ragonot / 15997" [printed and handwritten] “Type” [red printed] “communiqué / á M. J. Kennel" [handwritten] "Genitalia ♂ / P. Viette / prép. No. 3699" [printed] "1901 / coll. E. L. Ragonot / Muséum Paris" [printed]; male genitalia on a slide with two labels: "♂ / Tortrix / eatoniana / Rag. / Type" “Prép. P. Viette / # 3699 / Muséum / Paris / Type" [both handwritten, with red border].

PORTUGAL • 1 ♂; Lisbon, Olivais; 24 Apr. 1880; Ragonot leg.; GS 3699; MNHN.

Lectotype ♂ of Tortrix xylotoma  by designation of Razowski (1979), pinned, with 7 labels: "Bougie / Algeria / 25/4/90" [handwritten] "Tortrix / xylotoma / Meyr[ick] / Type ♂" [handwritten and printed] "Lecto- / type" [circular with violet border] “Type” [circular with red border] "♂ genitalia on / slide 6.IV.1949 / J.F.G.C. 9364" [printed and handwritten] "Meyrick coll. / B. M. 1938 –290” "NHMUK010219594 [QR code]".

ALGERIA • 1 ♂; Béjaïa; 25 Apr. 1890; Meyrick leg.; BMNH NHMUK010219594.

Other material: SPAIN • 8 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Valencia, El Saler, Albufera ; 39.3278°N, -0.3078°W; alt. 5 m; 18 May 2004; P. Huemer leg.; GS 1/18.10.2017, 2/18.10.2017, 3/18.10.2017; TLMF • 5 ♂♂, same collection data; 8 Sep. 2005; P. Huemer leg.; TLMF • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Valencia, 5 km NE Albufera, Sierra de Crevillente; alt. 450 m; 26 May 2004; P. Huemer leg.; TLMF • 1 ♀; Valencia, Santa Pola, Playa del Pinet; 38.1585°N, -0.6256°W; alt. 5 m; 5Sep. 2005; P. Huemer leg.; GS 4/18.10.2017; TLMF.


The wing pattern in males resembles those of C. trivia  , C. acclivana  , and C. consimilana  . Clepsis eatoniana  differs from C. consimilana  , by the more yellowish instead of fulvous forewing ground colour. The most characteristic feature in the external morphology of C. eatoniana  is the absence of a forewing costal fold, in contrast to C. consimilana  . The male genitalia are similar to those in C. consimilana  but the valva is more slender, elongate distally, and the modified large setae are more numerous and more slender. The phallus is adorned with spines, with the keel and terminal process overpassing its tip; in C. consimilana  the phallus lack lateral spines and a keel, and the phallic process is shorter. The caulis in C. eatoniana  is larger, the vesica is bent at nearly a right angle to the phallus, its diverticulum has different location, and the cornuti are more slender and smoother. Females of C. eatoniana  are not distinguishable externally from the females of C. consimilana  but differ from C. striolana  by the presence of two brown dots on the forewing. The female genitalia of C. eatoniana  are similar to those in both the C. neglectana  and C. consimilana  species groups, but the protrusion on the right side of the colliculum is much larger and elongated, and the sterigma has larger lateral pockets.


Adult. Sexual dimorphism prominent. Male ( Fig. 11 I–KView Figure 11). Head. Vertex fulvous, frons and labial palps brown. Antennae with brown scales on scapus and fulvous scales on pedicellus and flagellum, and with numerous sensilla trichodea as long as width of flagellomeres. Thorax. Fulvous dorsally and creamy ventrally, legs brownish. Tegula fulvous with brown costal margin. Forewing with length 6.8-7.4 mm (mean 7.1, N = 3), elongated, costa convex at basal half, slightly sinuate apically. Costal fold lacking ( Fig. 3FView Figure 3). Upperside background dark yellow with fulvous reticulate pattern more prominent in the paler subterminal area, cilia concolourous or paler. Basal blotch atrophied, with remnants of darker scales at costa and dorsum. Median fascia brown with lead refractive tint, almost interrupted at middle of median cell by yellowish scales, often ceasing at vein CuA. Subapical blotch brown, triangular, more or less well defined. Underside pale grey-brown with creamy longitudinal blotch in distal half of costal area. Specimens with paler and darker forewings and incomplete median fascia observed. Hindwing upperside monochrome pale grey with paler cilia, underside whitish with scattered pale grey-brown scales. Abdomen. Grey. Male genitalia ( Fig. 12FView Figure 12, 15View Figure 15). Uncus variably shaped, more or less trapezoidal, slightly widened distally, rounded, with slightly convex distal edge which may look incised if excessive pressure is applied on coverslip. Gnathos plough-shaped. Socius small, membranous. Valvae pointed dorsolaterally when mounted on slide. Costal sclerite wide, protruded medially into large triangular labis with elongated spinulate tip ( Fig. 5HView Figure 5). Basal and apical part of sacculus of nearly equal length, both forming angle of 150-160°, saccular process large, flat, triangular. Distal part of valva membranous, comparatively small, narrow, with parallel costal and saccular margins, apically triangular, without distinct brachiola, with longitudinal fold on the median surface bearing row of 8-12 large modified setae. Apical part may look as brachiola due to deformation during preparation. Phallus robust, coecum medially concave, basal part curved ventrad at ca. 140°, distal part smoothly curved dorsad, with wide keel on left side grading into large sharp tipped lateral process as long as 0.23 × distance between anterior opening and tip of phallus, slightly curved laterally and dorsally, overpassing phallic tip. Several more or less prominent spines pointed caudad located at basal part of keel. Caulis large, widely separated from coecum. Vesica cylindrical, curved at 80-90° to phallus, with small expansion basally and fingerlike dorsal diverticulum ( Fig. 13CView Figure 13). Three deciduous, slender, straight cornuti attached ventroapically ( Fig. 7EView Figure 7). Gonopore located in straight line with cornuti sockets and diverticulum. Female darker than male ( Fig. 11LView Figure 11). Head. Vertex rusty, frons and labial palps brown. Whole antennae with brown scales, sensilla trichodea sparse, shorter than width of flagellomeres. Thorax. Rusty dorsally and creamy ventrally, legs brownish. Tegula rusty with brown costal margin. Forewing length 6.7 mm (n = 1), with shape as in males, upperside uniformly rusty with ill-defined reticulate pattern more distinct in distal half and two brown dots at dorsum, underside mainly creamy with scattered pale brown scales, denser in middle of wing. Hindwing upperside grey brown, underside creamy with darker dorsal part. Abdomen grey.

Female genitalia ( Fig. 14BView Figure 14). Papillae anales not modified. Apophyses anteriores 1.1 × longer than apophyses posteriores. Sterigma relatively wide, widened cephalad, with large lateral sclerotised pockets, large excavation on dorsal wall and wide v-shaped median part of lamella antevaginalis. Colliculum large, with length 0.25 × length of ductus bursae, asymmetrical, funnel-shaped, with well-developed sclerotisation and two evaginations: very large one at right and small one at left, both consisting of colourless thick cuticle. Ductus bursae long and narrow, emerging at left between out-pocketings, with cestum extending along cranial 0.7 × of its length. Ductus seminalis inserted dorsally at caudal end of ductus bursae. Corpus bursae ovoid, with large falcate signum with capitulum and flat signum consisting of sclerotised papillae located near end of cestum ( Fig. 9EView Figure 9).

Preimaginal stages unknown.

Molecular data

( Fig. 16View Figure 16). BIN: BOLD:AAJ1025. The intraspecific average of the barcode region is 0.09%, the maximum distance 0.15% (p-dist) (N = 2). The minimum distance to the nearest neighbour Clepsis consimilana  is 2.25%.


( Fig. 17View Figure 17). Europe. Portugal: Lisbon, Olivais; Ponte de Mucela (Ponte de Morcellos) ( Ragonot 1881); Lusitania; Spain: Cadiz, Granada, Malaga, Sevilla, Zaragoza; possibly France ( Gastón et al. 2017), Valencia. Africa: Algeria.


The moths were collected in macchie habitat ( Gastón et al. 2017) from April to the first half of September. The larval host plant is unknown.


The species was described by Ragonot (1881) after two males from Portugal. He emphasised its resemblance with C. consimilana  . Razowski (1979) considered it conspecific with C. consimilana  , probably relying on the superficial similarity of the modified setae of the valvae of these two taxa. The female remained unstudied until Gastón et al. (2017) described it again under the name C. razowskii  . Tortrix xylotoma  was sunk into C. neglectana  by Razowski (1979). This synonym is not justified as the genitalia of the male lectotype (illustrated also by Clarke 1958: pl. 109) rather resemble C. eatoniana  regarding the shape of labis, presence of modified setae on the valva, and morphology of the phallus. The preparation of the genitalia is poor, therefore the shape of uncus and valvae looks unusual. The wing pattern fits with C. eatoniana  . After comparison of material from Spain, the lectotype of T. eatoniana  , the lectotype of T. xylotoma  , the original description of C. razowskii  , and numerous photographs of specimens identified as C. razowskii  by the authors of the latter taxon, we concluded that all these specimens are conspecific and the present valid name of the species should be C. eatoniana  .