Yoyetta australicta, Popple & Emery, 2022
treatment provided by
Yoyetta australicta n. sp.
Types. Holotype ♂, “Kurlge”, Blackwood, S [outh] A[ustralia], 850 ft, M[ercury] V [apour] L[amp], 21.xi.57, N. B. Tindale, SAMA Database No. 20-014573 ( SAM).
Paratypes. SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 1♀, Blackwood , 35°01’20’’S 138°36’38’’E, 3.x.1966. P. Taverna, EME0719-001 GoogleMaps ; 1♀, same data as previous, 30.xi.1966, EME0719-002 GoogleMaps ; 5♂, 1♀, Glenalta , 35°01’S 138°38’E, 29.xi–07.xii.2012, J. D. Trice, EME0719-003 GoogleMaps to EME0719-008 (1♂, genitalia prep.) ; 1♂, 1♀, Bellevue Heights , 35°01’24’’S 138°41’45’’E, 3.xi.2013, J. Vincent, EME0719-009 & EME0719-010 GoogleMaps ; 1♂, same data as previous, 4.xii.2016, EME0719-011 GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Horsnell Gully , 23.xii.2020, J. Wong, EME0719-012 ; 2♂, Hazelwood Park , 35°10’25’’S 138°34’48’’E, 20.xi.2018, B. Parslow, EME0719-013 & EME0719-014 GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Skye , 18.xii.2018, A. Chappel, EME0719-015 ; 1♂, Hawthorndene , 35°01’07’’S 138°38’05’’E, 4.xii.2020, M. Burrell, EME0719-016 GoogleMaps ; 6♂, 1♀, same data as previous, 11-14.xii.2020, EME0719-017 GoogleMaps to EME0719-023 ; 1♂, 1♀, same data as previous, 26.xii.2020, EME0719-024 & EME0719-025 ( DE) . 1♂, Glenalta , 35°01’S 138°38’E, 29.xi–7.xii.2012, J. D. Trice, 719-0001 ( LWP) GoogleMaps . 6♂, 4♀, Mitcham , Adelaide, 26.xi.1977, R . H. Fisher; 1♀, Lynton , 8.xii.68, R . Fisher ; 12♂, 1♀, Wilpena Pound, Flinders Ranges , 20.i.1976, M. S. & B. J. Moulds ; 1♂, Belair , 29.x.66, white gum, 10’, P. Taverna ; 1♂, Blackwood , 7.xi.66, white gum, 12’, just hatching, P. Taverna ( MSM) . 1♀, Morphett Vale , xii.1889, J. W. Mellor, Mellor Coll. Via Capt. S. A. White Coll., SAMA database no. 20-018201; 1♂, same data as holotype, 30.xi.62, SAMA database no. 20-014587; 1♂, same data as holotype, 14.xi.57, SAMA database no. 20-014572; 1♂, same data as holotype, 8.xii.60, SAMA database no. 20-014588; 1♂, same data as holotype, 14.xii.62, SAMA database no. 20-014589; 1♂, same data as holotype, 20.xi.60, SAMA database no. 20-014590; 1♂, same data as holotype, 8.xii.1960, SAMA database no. 20-014574; 1♀, same data as holotype, 9.xii.60 ; 1♂, Bugle Ranges, 8 km S. M[oun]t Barker , 35°09’S 138°53’E, 18.xii.03, R GoogleMaps . Lavigne ; 1♀, In city street, Adelaide, xi.1951 ; 1 ♂, S. Aust. [no other data], SAMA database no. 20-014575; 1♂, Blackwood , 22.xi.66, UV light, N. McFarland, SAMA Database No. 20-014591 ; 1♂, same data as previous, 19.xi.66, SAMA Database No. 20-014592; 1♂, same data as previous, 11.xii.68, SAMA Database No. 20-014593 ; 17♂, same data as previous, 29.xi.66, SAMA Database Nos 20-014594 to 20-014610 ; 10♂, 1♀, Belair , 7.xii.1977, A. Kowanko, SAMA Database Nos 20-014577 to 20-014586 & 20-014613 ; 1♂, Vale Park , 28.xi.1977, R . J. Thurmer, SAMA Database No. 20-014611 ; 1♂, Mitcham , 24.xi.78, A2294, R. V . Southcott , SAMA Database No. 20-0014612 ; 1♂, Mt Lofty Range , 4.xii. 64, N. McFarland, on Acacia, SAMA Database no. 20-0014614 ; 1♂, Noarlunga , xi.90, A. White, SAMA Database No. 20-0014617 ; 1♂, 1♀, Melrose (in Caravan Park), 26–27.xii.1973, M. Anderson, SAMA Database Nos 20-014615 & 20-014616 ( SAM) .
Other specimen material. NEW SOUTH WALES. 4♂, Breadknife Track, Warrumbungle NPk, 31°13’45’’S 149°00’00’’E, 14.xi.2020, N., C. & D. Emery & C. Foster, EME0484-001 GoogleMaps to EME0484-003 , EME0484-005 (genitalia prep.) , EME0484-006 ; 1♂, Lowden State Forest , 35°30’57’’S 149°36’26’’E, 1.i.2014, A. Kwok, EME0484- 007 GoogleMaps ; 2♂, 3♀, Lucknow , 33°20’44’’S 149°08’06’’E, 3–7.i.2022, H. & J. Brannigan EME0484-008 GoogleMaps to EME0484-012 ( DE) . 2♂, same data as previous ( HB) . 1♂, Warrumbungle Nat. Park , 31°13.45’S 149°00.00’E, 14.xi.2020, N., C. & D. Emery, C. Foster, EME 000-004, lpop484-0024 ( LWP). GoogleMaps AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY. 1♂, Black Mt , Light Trap, 4.xii.1961, I. F. B. Common ; 1♀, same data as previous, 20.xii.1968 ; 1♂, Canberra , 10.xii.1958, E. F. Riek ( ANIC) . 1♂, Mt. Taylor , 35°22’08’’S 149°03’52’’E, 10.xii.2010, L. W. Popple, 484-0013 GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Frith St., Acton , 25.xii.2015, C. & D. Emery ; 1♂, Canberra Botanic Gdns, Acton , 28.xii.2018, J. Deland ( DE) . 2♂, CSIRO , Acton , 35°16’13’’S 149°06’39’’E, 20.xi.2009, L. W. Popple, at light, 484-0001 & 484-0002 GoogleMaps ; 1♂, same data as previous, 25.xi.2009, 484-0003 GoogleMaps ; 2♂, same data as previous, 3.xii.2009, 484-0004 & 484-0005 GoogleMaps ; 1♂, same data as previous, 484-0006, genitalia prep GoogleMaps .; 1♀, A[ustralian] N[ational] B[otanic] G[ardens] fence, Acton , 35°16’26’’S 149°06’39’’E, 25.xi.2009, L. W. Popple, emerging, 484-0007 GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Alexandrina Dr., Yarralumla , 35°17’49’’S 149°06’28’’E, 27.xi.2010, L. W. Popple, 484-0008 GoogleMaps ; 3♂, Aust. Nat. Uni., Acton , 35°16’14’’S 149°06’48’’E, 16.xi.2010, L. W. Popple, 484-0009 to 484-0011 GoogleMaps ; 1♂, 1♀, Mount Taylor , 35°22’08’’S 149°03’52’’E, 10.xii.2010, L. W. Popple, 484-0012 & 484-0014 GoogleMaps ; 1♂, 1♀, Mt Majura Nature Res. , 35°13’47’’S 149°10’16’’E, 11.xii.2010, L. W. Popple, 484-0015 & 484-0016 GoogleMaps ; 3♂, Mt Majura , western slopes, 35°13’49’’S 149°10’29’’E, 30.xi.2016, netted, L. W. Popple, 484-0017 to 484-0019 GoogleMaps ; 4♂, CSIRO , Black Mountain , 35°16’15’’S 149°06’42’’E, 1.xii.2016, hand collected, L. W. Popple, 484-0020 to 484-0023 ( LWP) GoogleMaps . 5♂, Aranda , 24–26.xii.2003, S. Robertson (1♂ genitalia preparation Y040) ; 2♂, 17 Araba St, Aranda, Canberra , 2.i.2008, S. Robertson ; 1♂, same data as previous, 3.xii.2012 ; 2♂, same data as previous, 8.i.2012, S. Robertson ; 1♂, Acton , 18.i.1984, K. L. Dunn ; 2♂, Acton, Canberra , 23.xii.16, S. Robertson ( MSM) .
Audio records ( LWP). SOUTHAUSTRALIA.University ofAdelaide Waite Campus, 34°58’01’’S 138°38’05’’E, 30.xii.2014. NEW SOUTH WALES: Clandulla State Forest , 32°52’51’’S 149°56’27’’E, 8.i.2010 GoogleMaps . AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY. Mt Majura Nature Reserve near Mt Ainslie , 35°15’48’’S 149°10’10’’E, 2.xii.2016 GoogleMaps ; Mount Taylor , 35°22’08’’S 149°03’52’’E, 10.xii.2010 GoogleMaps ;Alexandrina Dr.,Yarralumla, 35°17’49’’S 149°06’28’’E, 27.xi.2010; Acton, 35°16’26’’S 149°06’39’’E, 25.xi.2009.
Aural records (LWP). NEW SOUTH WALES. 7.1km N. of Grenfell , 33°51’03’’S 148°06’21’’E, 31.x.2009 GoogleMaps ; Napoleon Reef , 33°26’20’’S 149°45’23’’E, 8.i.2010 GoogleMaps . AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY. Crown land near Jaeger Cct, Bruce , 35°15’09’’S 149°05’00’’E, 1.xi.2009 – 1.xii.2009 and 28.xii.2009 – 2.i.2010 GoogleMaps ; Junction of Cotter and Brindabella Rds , 35°19’31’’S 148°56’39’’E, 28.xii.2009 GoogleMaps .
Distribution, habitat and seasonality ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). This species occurs in two broad populations. One population occurs in south-eastern South Australia from Wilpena Pound and Melrose in the Flinders Ranges and from Para Wirra south to Noarlunga, the foothills of the Mt Lofty Ranges and near Mount Barker. The second population has a patchy distribution mostly west of the Great Dividing Range from Warrumbungle National Park and from Clandulla, Lucknow and near Grenfell south to Yass and the Queanbeyan-Palerang region in New South Wales, extending into the Australian Capital Territory where it appears to be restricted to altitudes below ca 900 m. It is locally common in the leafy suburbs south of Adelaide, especially between Urrbrae and Blackwood (type locality) and also in parks and reserves around Canberra. Populations are typically found in pockets of eucalypt woodland. Adults occur from late October to mid January.
Etymology. A combination of the Latin words australis and ictus, meaning ‘southern pulse’ (noun in apposition; feminine). This refers to the southern distribution of the species and its notable characteristic of producing a calling song that comprises a repeated single pulse.
Head almost as wide as lateral margins of pronotum; mostly black with a yellow triangular marking between lateral ocelli, with flat edge on posterior margin; two similar, smaller markings between lateral ocelli and adjacent compound eyes, these sometimes reaching posterior margin; supra-antennal plates black, occasionally edged dull orange; ocelli pale brown; postclypeus black, inner dorsal surface with a dull yellow longitudinal marking, ventral surface with orange lateral margins; anteclypeus shiny black; rostrum reaching bases of hind coxae, mostly brown basally becoming black apically; antennae black.
Thorax mostly black (rarely dark brown). Pronotum with a narrow yellow fascia along midline surrounded extensively by black; interior of pronotum brown to dark brown, with irregular black areas, especially along paramedian and lateral fissures; pronotal collar black on anterior margin, dark brown over remainder. Mesonotum black sometimes with subtle areas of dark brown coloration along parapsidal sutures; cruciform elevation pale brown to pale orange-brown apart from a broad black midline and black anterior arms; scutal depressions black, surrounded posteriorly by orange colouration in some specimens; wing grooves mainly dark orange-brown suffused with black. Metanotum dull orange suffused with black. Thorax below mainly black with leg cavities bordered dull orangebrown.
Legs mainly black with dull orange markings. Fore and mid coxae black, edges dull orange; hind coxae black with orange apex; fore femora with inner surface shiny black, outer surface dull orange with a black longitudinal marking, femoral spines and surrounds black; mid and hind femora black with dull orange along outer edges; fore tibiae black; mid tibiae dark orange brown to black; hind tibiae orange-brown with weak dark-brown to black markings; tarsi orange-brown to dark orange-brown; meracantha black on basal half, pale brown apically, overlapping anterior margin of opercula.
Wings with fore wing costal margin a mixture of orange-brown and dark orange-brown to black; CuP+1A pale brown adjacent to basal cell; all other venation dark brown to black; basal membrane light orange-brown to pink. Hindwing venation dark brown; plagas and adjacent area surrounding vein 3a light brown to orange-brown.
Opercula ( Figs 2A, 2B View FIGURE 2 ) broadly rounded, with each plate narrowing slightly towards apex, sometimes with flat posterior edge; black basally, plates grey; each 2.0– 2.8 mm wide.
Timbals ( Figs 3A, 3B View FIGURE 3 ) with five long ribs all attached to basal spur, separated from the anterior cuticle and separated ventrally; long ribs 1–4 spanning the timbal membrane, long rib 5 shorter, occupying dorsal half of timbal only, about equal in width (thickness) to adjacent long rib 4; timbal plate with well developed, elongate dome bearing a distinct point of apodeme attachment near centre.
Abdomen with tergite 1 black; tergite 2 predominantly black, sometimes with diffuse dark orange areas sublaterally on posterior margin, curved to follow outer margin of exposed timbals, tergites 3–7 predominantly orange each with a black mark on dorsal midline, this mark being broadest on tergite 3 and narrowing on each subsequent tergite towards the posterior, sometimes also with diffuse black mixed with orange-brown along posterior margins; tergite 8 black except for orange on anterior lateral margins. Sternite I mainly dull orange; sternite II orange suffused with black medially and laterally; sternites III–VI orange, sometimes each with a faded, black spot on the midline; sternite VII orange with a small, diffuse black spot at centre of posterior margin; sternite VIII dark brown becoming brown or orange-brown apically.
Genitalia ( Figs 4A, 4B View FIGURE 4 , 5 View FIGURE 5 , 6 View FIGURE 6 ) with pygofer upper lobe of moderate size, gradually tapering to a broadly rounded apex; basal pygofer lobe small and weakly developed, broadly rounded; median lobe of uncus short, not as long as the distance between the apices of the upper pygofer lobe and dorsal beak, ‘duck-bill’ shaped; claspers robust, clawlike, partially meeting, in ventral view their inner margins diverging and their outer margins gently turned outwards; aedeagus with theca recurved distally through 180 degrees, the vesica widening with serrated ventrolateral flanges subapically, these narrow and become folded with teeth directed dorsally towards apex, apex terminating in a sharp spine, weakly upturned, lacking a pair of upright basal lobes; pseudoparameres long, almost reaching most distal part of theca, slender, hair-like and slightly bulbous apically.
Description of adult female ( Plates 1C, 1D, 1J View PLATE 1 ). Similar to male but differing as follows.
Abdomen appears orange suffused with black. Tergite 1 mainly black with dark orange areas sublaterally; tergite 2 black suffused with orange laterally, black medially with two orange markings either side of submedially; tergites 3–8 orange suffused with black, with a continuous, broad, and black dorsal midline, the black protruding laterally along posterior margins, each tergite with a sublateral black spot. Sternite II predominantly black; sternites III–VIII orange; sternite VIII with black wedge-shaped markings adjacent to midline. Abdominal segment 9 pale orangebrown on midline, orange-brown on anterior half of lateral sides, black over remainder. Ovipositor sheath black, extending less than 0.5 mm beyond apex of abdominal segment 9.
Measurements (in mm; range with mean in parentheses for 30 males and 16 females, including smallest and largest specimens). Length of body including head: male 18.0–22.2 (20.49); female 17.9–22.3 (20.40). Length of fore wing: male 19.7–25.8 (23.86); female 22.5–29.6 (26.04). Width of fore wing: male 7.1–9.0 (8.29); female 7.4– 9.5 (8.61). Width of head (including eyes): male 5.0–6.0 (5.41); female 5.4–6.5 (5.86). Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): male 4.9–6.6 (5.63); female 5.3–7.3 (6.41). Width of abdomen: male 5.3–6.7 (5.77); female 5.0–7.1 (56.03). Length of ovipositor: female 4.5–7.2 (5.90).
Morphological variation within and between populations. This species occurs in two geographically disjunct populations (one in South Australia and one in New South Wales / Australian Capital Territory). Separate sets of morphological diagrams were prepared for each of the populations during this study. Both sets have been included to provide an indication of consistency between the populations (e.g. in structure of aedeagus). Some differences can be seen in the size and shape of the opercula ( Fig. 2A View FIGURE 2 , cf. 2B). The differences were found to be within the bounds of normal variation in opercula size and shape among individuals within and between populations and no consistent differences were found between the disjunct populations. Some differences are also evident in the ventral pygofer ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 , cf. Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ). However, in this case, the differences are an artefact of differences in the position of the pygofer when it was drawn (the pygofer in Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 directed was positioned slightly more ventrally than the same structure in Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 , which appears more upright).
Morphological distinguishing features. Males of Y. australicta n. sp. can be distinguished from other species in the Y. tristrigata species group by the following combination of characters: (1) median lobe of uncus short, not as long as the distance between the apices of the upper pygofer lobe and dorsal beak; (2) head width ≥ 5 mm; (3) timbal with five long ribs, all separate from anterior cuticle and surrounded by pale timbal membrane; (4) timbal long rib 5 about equal in width (thickness) to adjacent long rib 4 (though shorter in length); (5) thorax mainly black; (6) tergite 2 mainly black; (7) opercula each ≥2.0mm wide; (8) apex of theca produced as a long spine with ornamentation and without a pair of upright basal lobes; (9) theca recurved distally through 180 degrees; and (10) apex of theca weakly upturned. Females can be distinguished from most other species in the Y. tristrigata species group by having the following combination of characters: (1) thorax mainly black; (2) tergites predominantly orange; (3) fore wing length> 22 mm; (3) head width> 5.2 mm. They may be impossible to distinguish from specimens of Y. delicata n. sp. and Y. repetens , although none of these species have been found co-occurring. Larger female specimens of Y. australicta n. sp. from South Australia (with fore wing length> 27 mm) may also be indistinguishable from larger examples of Y. ignita n. sp.; however, Y. ignita n. sp. does not occur in South Australia.
Calling song ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8 ). The male calling song of Y. australicta n. sp. is produced mainly in flight. However, like many other flying and calling species in the genus Yoyetta , males may also call whilst sitting on a branch or trunk (usually on a Eucalyptus sp. tree). Irrespective of whether an individual is flying or stationary, the calling song is composed of simple, repetitive ticking. Detailed examination of the song structure reveals that each ‘tick’ has a single, dominant pulse, with weaker subsequent peaks possibly an artefact of reflections of the dominant pulse on surrounding structures in the environment ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8 ). Gaps between pulses range from 0.27– 0.67 s. The ticking rate ranges from slow in cool conditions to moderate in warm to hot conditions (1.5–3.8 pulses/s). It may vary between individual insects under the same conditions depending on the extent to which they have ‘warmed up’ (LWP, pers. obs.). When stationary, within a single tree, groups of males tend to call in unison or almost in unison. Simulated attraction of males by finger snapping indicates that females respond to the male call using carefully timed wingflicks immediately following each pulse.
Most observations of calling behaviour in this species have been made in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and in South Australia. In the ACT, the stationary males have been observed producing a quiet macrosyllable at the end of a short bout of ticking; however, this has never been recorded. This attribute has not been observed in the South Australian population.
As with most single pulse calls with high energy, the frequency band is broad, extending from approximately 8–12 kHz ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8 ). A pronounced highest amplitude dominant frequency is apparent between 10 and 11 kHz ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8 ). This is the first species in the genus Yoyetta to be described with a repeated, single pulse call. Notably, Y. landsboroughi and Y. nigrimontana produce calls with a similar, clearly defined pulse structure, though in these two species, the pulses are grouped.
Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium
South Australia Museum
South African Museum
Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile
Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.
Departamento de Biologia de la Universidad del Valle
Australian National Insect Collection
Australian National Fish Collection
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